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(bv pekhission) 






Ten years ago the work which has resulted in the publication of 
this book was somewhat more than merely entered upon. But I 
am not able to say how long it is ago since the first thoughts of 
publication in the present, or in any, form definitely presented them- 
selves : it was not, however, until some time after the labour bestowed 
had begotten greater interest, and the interest had stimulated not only 
increased painstaking but more diligent and systematic study. In 
the hope the book may prove that neither the labour nor the study has 
been quite without effect towards the illustration of an interesting 
subject and in the cause of philology, it is now submitted to the 
judgment of the public. 

No one can be more sensible than the author of its many imper- 
fections and deficiencies. Many errors, many failures, many short- 
comings will inevitably be pointed out. Working alone and unassisted, 
as he has done, in a singularly remote district, far from any accessible 
collection of books which might have been of aid, or from habitual 
intercourse with cultivated minds, with the duties of a very wide Moor- 
land parish to attend to, with his children to teach himself, it could 
hardly fail to be so, however honest and hearty the labour bestowed in 
his not too abundant spare time might be. 

This is not written to deprecate criticism. He would, indeed, rather 
invite it. For fair and candid criticism might be an assistance to 
him if he should ever be in a position to carry out a plan, much more 
than half formed, of compiling a systematic Glossary of the great 


Northumbrian Dialect as a whole, or both as written in the past and 
as yet spoken in the present. It would be an assistance also to others 
whose object it might be to illustrate the dialects of their several 
districts as the author has sought to do for that of Cleveland. 

One of the chief difficulties in the task of compiling this Glossary has 
been in deciding what words were, and what were not, to be admitted. 
The principle which was finally adopted was not to admit any word, 
unless, either in its form, its application, its meaning or one of its mean- 
ings, it deviated sensibly from recognised or classical usage. This prin- 
ciple in some cases has seemed to require, radier than only to justify, 
the giving of the standard or classical definition of an admitted or clas- 
sical word, in order to trace the connection of that meaning which 
warranted or called for the insertion of the word itself as a provincial 
word. No doubt words have crept in which ought to have been ex- 
cluded: more than two or three such words have been noted while cor- 
recting the press. But it is hoped their number is not considerable. 

Not a very few words also, which were standard words at a given 
date past, which, in a sense, are standard words still, as resting on 
some such aiuhority as that of the English Bible, words of which bid, 
bidden are fair types, have been unhesitatingly admitted, because they 
have quite dropped out of use over possibly the greater part of the 
kingdom, although still in utterly familiar use in Cleveland. 

With reference to the definitions, they have been constructed with 
great care ; and it may be stated, as not quite wide of the purpose, 
that 80 far from having been drawn up to suit the derivadon (real or 
assumed) in each several case, a very large proportion of the whole 
had been composed, and fac-simile copies of them sent to the Secre- 
tary of the Philological Society for use in the preparation of the 
Society's Dictionar)', before systematic enquiries as to derivation or 
connection had been, in the majority of instances, so much as 

* Some few modifications of the original definitions have, it ii true, been made ; tmt 
the pcfcentage of cuci in which this b to ts rery unalL In probably forty-nine oot of 
fifty imtancet the MS. printed from hat been the MS. from which the copies for the Phi* 
lological Society were actually ukcn. 


Besides the care taken in framing the definitions, the author has, in 
every case which seemed to require it, endeavoured to give effective 
illustration by the aid of copious — at least, of sufficient — examples of 
usage, a large proportion of which he had noted down as heard by 
himself at the mouth of some one or other of his Dales friends and 

As to the other illustration appended to a considerable proportion 
of the words constituting the Glossary, it must speak for itself; and it 
is perhaps not stricdy necessary for the author, in conclusion, to dis- 
claim any intention to assume the mantle of the etymologist. He has 
simply sought to record, to derive or connect, and as far as his reading 
would allow, to illustrate. 



UORN and brought up in one of the Eastern Counties, and translated. 
a few years after taking my degree, into the North, first into Berwick- 
shire, then permanently into Yorkshire, the difficulties and whimsicalities 
attendant on the efforts after mutual comprehension between myself and 
the countrj'sidc northerners, with whom my clerical and other duties 
brought me into continual contact, were great enough, and often amply 
quaint enough, of themselves to induce, even had there been no natural 
liking and inclination, some notice of the circumstances in which our 
mutual comj)lications originated. I did not comprehend their spoken 
dialect, and they did not understand my Southern English and pronun- 
ciation : and the reason was, not only that a very large proportion of 
their stock of current words, and especially in the case of elderly and 
untaught people, were not to be found in the English Dictionary, but 
that also the vowel and many of the consonantal sounds, as their words 
were spoken, were entirely different from those of the accredited 
English standard.* 

This statement, which is true of the North generally, is I believe, as 
strictly and emphatically irue of Cleveland as of any other part of ancient 
Northumbria : perhaps I should be almost justified, from circumstances 
and facts to be mentioned t>elow, if I said more true. 

* As illustiative of thii statement I maiy mention a drcumitance which ocomed to 
mytclf within a short period after my commenced residence in the North. I had occaiion 
to engage a servanl, and as there were reasoni which rendered it difEcult lo fix a date for 
her coming, it was necestary to know her name and address. Her lume was Charlotte 
Lanib, but the patronymic on her ton^e sounded so utterly unlike Lamb lo my untutored 
ear, that it wzt vomc minutei, and not WTthuul some lioubic and evident annoyance on the 
poor girl's part at not being understood, that I came at last to the perception that, as she 
spelt It letter by letter. I, o, m. 6, might in a northeni mouth repteseut a sound very dif- 
ferent from that of English lamb. The sound to my ear wai Icrm or laitm, m which erery 
vocal elemeDt was altered except the initiat /. 

ft * b 


On coming into permanent residence in Cleveland ti^'enty-one years 
ago, it was natural that my thoughts should return from time to time to 
thus subject, and equally natural that the recurrence of such thoughts 
should lead to speculation and eventually to study; and it is now 
more than twelve years since I began to collect and compare, and, in 
a measure, to investigate. I had already made a fair beginning of the 
Cleveland vocabulary when the Whitby Glossary was brought under my 
notice; a book of which I may say here, that the fidelity with which the 
words, and even^ in many cases, their spoken sounds,* are indicated, the 
general accuracy of the interpretations annexed, and above all, the inte- 
resting and instructive examples in many cases added — independently 
of the philological value of no small part of its contents — make it worthy 
of a noticeable place in the class of local Glossaries. Taking that book 
in a certain sense as my text-book, I have, during the period just now 
indicated, pursued the subject systematically, alike in the study and 
among the people, and some of the processes and results— and of both 
the study and the collection — will be foimd in the following pages and 
in the Glossary which succeeds them. 

Every language and dialect of a language, when dtily interrogated, 
must always — and without dwelling on what it taiU reveal, if the enquiry 
be fully prosecuted, of the essential physical and psychical history of 
those who speak, or have spoken, itt — be able to give in reply much of 
its own history in connection with its origin, connection, and changes; 
and it is impossible for any one fairly familiar with the dialect spoken 
in Cleveland, and only moderately acquainted with the Scandinavian 
languages and dialects, or even wth any one of them, not to be struck 
with the curious family likeness obtruded on his notice between no 
scanty portion of the Cleveland words and those in current use among 
the Danes, Norwegians and Swedes of our own day. And not only in 
the case of words: — idioms, modes of expression, habitual phrases, 

* I refer to lodi initanccs as harzom, laahtlt, iharw; grttav<, h*taf, &c (the true 
orthography of which is Blsen, litis, Shive t gT*Te» Hofe, Sec.) : the ralue of iuch 
phonetic fomu being often exceedingly great in the investigation of dialectical origin or 
peculiahtiei. See below, pp. xxix. xxx, et ceq.. p. 318. Slc. 

t * The itudy of words may be tedions to the tchooltmy. » breaking of ttone* is to the 
waviide laboorcr ; bnt to the thooghtful eye of the geologift these stones are full of inte- 
rest ; — he sees miracles on the highroad, and rcadi cnroniclea in every ditch. Language, 
too, has marrels of her own, which she unveils to the enquiring rlaocc of the patient 
student. There art chronicles below her surface, there are lenuoof in ercry word.* i>r- 
/vm OM tb« Scitnct of Langvagg, by Max Mullcr. 1st Ser. p. 7. 

* If a general destruction of books, nich as took place 10 China tmder the Emperor Thfin- 
chi-hoang (JI3 a.c) should sweep away all historical documenu, language, even in its 
most depraved state, would prcHrve the mctcIs of the past, and would tell fature geocra- 
tioos of tb« home and migrations of their loccston.* lb. p. 314. 

proverbs or proverbial sayings are found to occur, which, in many cases, 
are so nearly identical that what is ordinarily called translation is scarcely 
requisite in order to enable the Clevelander to appreciate the Danish 
saying, or the Dane the Cleveland formula. Thus, Professor Worsaae's 
expression^ at pladske paa seen, is oiu* t* blash upo' V seea ; jtg har 
inkt i'mod dei^ our Ah hes nowght agen that; han lever inie ved 
daw fiodd^ our ho doeau't luik as if he lived upo* deeaf nuta ; 
ig tr bod^n toh d^Ur, our Ah was bodden (or boden) tolf pund ; 
t hth by er biid^n h'l arvtl, our t' 'heeal toon 's bodden (or boden) 
to t' burial, which last word half a century since would probably have 
been replaced by Arval. All these phrases and numberless others 
must and do strike upon the observation of the Yorkshireman who is 
brought into contact with modern Scandinavian cither by means of 
the written tongues or by oral communication: and when one begins 
to study the matter out, the coincidences, in a percentage of cases which 
is very large indeed, resolve themselves into identity. 

It is now several years since, having become myself thoroughly inte- 
rested in the processes of collection and investigation of the constituents 
of the Cleveland dialect, and wishing to interest some of my Dales 
neighbours and parishioners in the subject also, with the hope of, by 
th.1t means, paving the way for the reception of some assistance in my 
researches from among them, I threw together notes for a lecture on 
' The Traces left by the Ancient Danes in Cleveland.' In the introduc- 
tory portion of this lecture I drew an outline, necessarily imperfect, but 
still as faithful and accurate as I could make it within the narrow limits 
allowed me, and drawing upon both Danish and English historical 
sources, of the incursions and invasions of the Danes, ending, as they 
did, in permanent dominion in Northumbria — a dominion, moreover, 
which in many districts of the province in question most certainly rested 
upon systematic and effectual colonization of wide tracts.* Inasmuch, 
however, as Cleveland is not specially named in this page of history, 


* * AAer the dcrtnictioD of Rcptoa, the Daoa diTided them»clveff into two annics, one 
of which, under the command of Hilfdene, marched to complete the conquest of North- 
ombiia, which thej accomplished duiiog the eiuuing wiuter, and extended their depreda- 
tions as for north as the country of the Picti and Stralhclyde Britons. The lands were then 
parcelled out among the soldiers, who, growing weary of a marauding life, longed to possess 
settled habitations and fixed property of their own, and, exchanging the sword and battle- 
&xe for the plough, applied themselves to cultivate and beautify the realm whi^ they had 
lo long delighted to devastate.' St John's Faur ConqtMiU of England, i. 265. This was 
in 876. lo 8S0 a still larger body of military colonists received allotmeots in the same 
district and settled Dpon them. The same thing would, of course, occur again and again 
vithooA qwctal historical notice where smaller numbers of settlers were concerned, and I have 
Hl]f BTM lbs above extract as a sort ol embodiment of statements that appear not tufre* 
If CD the pages of both ancient aoualisls and modem historians. 

b a* 



I scarcely think it necessary to give even an outline of it here : it has 
been done by various hands, both English and foreign, and, with what- 
ever variation or discrepancy as to minor particulars, yet witliout any 
matenal difference as to the great facts of Danish occupancy, sove- 
reignty, and lasting local, and even national Influence.* 

Of course what was true of Northumbria generally, of very consider- 
able tracts in Yorkshire particularly, was as likely, a pnon\ to be true of 
Cleveland individually as of any other part of the district ; and consider- 
ing the geographical position of the tract in question, with Tees-mouth 
at one extremity and the Esk- mouth at the other, even more likely stili. 
Nay, the very name itself — Cleveland — the moment enquiry began to 
turn in the direction indicated, was capable of becoming a witness to 
the fact that our Dales country, with its fair and fertile valleys and nobly 
wooded hills, had not been overlooked by the Danish invaders and in- 
tending setders. Camden held that Cleveland was ' so called, as it 
should seem, from precipices, which we call cliffs ;' and although others 
are found to contend that ' the primary and leading idea of the name 
is undoubtedly not c/iff', but c/ay, as descriptive of its soil' (Graves' 
C/eve/and, p. 33), yet the existing Old Norse name. Klifflond^ not only 
sets that question at rest by proving the correctness of Camden's sug- 
gestion, but places in a prominent position the facts that it is of Danish 
origin ; that the Danes took or obuiined sufficient interest in the district 
to rename it ; and that their influence was sufficiently lasting and power- 
ful to give the new name currency and permanence. The merest glance 
beyond the name of the district itself, and directed at what the district 
contains or includes of the same nature, is sufficient to hx the attention 
upon the Saxon name Streoneshalh in the South-East, replaced by the 
Danish name \\1iitby, and Whitby itself one of a group of equally 
marked Scandinavian names, Prattbt, S/ach/sAi] Overbt\ Ntfhrehi, 
7%irigiva/a,t Htlredale^ Gnip or Hauchesgard, Normambt\ Btrtwait, 

* * *' Sweyn, king of Dramsrlc and OUve. king of Norway, a fhort Tim« t>cforc inraded 
Yorkshire, and reduced it to nibjection. For there if, and long hat be«n, a great admix- 
ture of peofrie of Danish race in that province, aod a great limilaniy of language." Wal- 
Kngford'a Chronicle, Gale, p. 570. " Gtrmldus Cambreniii and John of Wallingford atMrrt 
m direct lemu that there was a strong hifuiioti of Danish in the populalioD and language 
of our Northern proTincc*," ' Qanictt's Phil. Euayt, p. 187. 

-f The name Thingwala akxic, which occurs in the Memorial of Btntfaetion* to Whitby 
Abbcjr, quoted entire by Young, PP-9o8-9i5: — ' VilUm et portum (Maris) de Witebi; 
Oveibi; et Nethreb«, id c»t Steinsecher: Thingufola; L^irpel; Hdredale; Sic.''. — this 
lume alone is 10 marked that it it difficult to conceire it should never have attracted atten- 
tion frnni any local histnrian or antiquarian before. ' Tingwall, hror, torn navnet (W^^*- 
jfHir) antydcr. Oemes Hovedthing gjennem Aarhundreder blev holdt,* as Worsaae says of 
the fiamous Thingwal of Shetland, are words fully as cxpreisire. beyond doubt, and as 
capftUe of ■ppbctlioo in the cam of ibe Whitby Thingwala, as in Cheater. Orkney, Rom- 



Sfhvaiij Thordisa, and others, all included within the limits of what is 
now the parish of Whitby ; and, on the North- West, upon Midleburg^ 
now Middlesborough, wth its neighbour Arusum, Aresum or harhusum 
(Aarhuus),* now Airsome, together with the closely adjoining Lachtnehi, 
Lcisingebi, Ormesln', EngUbt\ Tormozbi, Linthorpe^ Arnodesiorp, and liie 
like, all of them equally suggestive with the Whitby group of local 

In fact, the more closely investigation of this kind is pushed the more 
striking is the result ; and an analysis of the Cleveland names as given 
in the Domesday Survey, with occasional illustration or addition from 
other ancient documents, will I think prove not uninstructive. Taking 
Cleveland proper, together with Whitby and so much of the adjoining 
district as is grouped with it in the Domesday Summary of * Langeberge 
Wapentac,' we have the following names of places, ending — 

L in bi, 

Witebi (Whitby) 

Preslebi (lost) 

Nonnanebi (Normanby, near Whitby) 

Ulgeberdesbi (Ugglebamby) 

Baldcbi (Baldby Fields, near Whitby) 

Staxebi (Stakcsby) 

Bamebi (Bamby) 

Alcwardcbi, or Elwordcbi (Ellerby) 

^lichelbi (Mickleby) 


Bergelbi, Bcrgebi (Borrowby) 

Rozebi, Roscebi (Roxby) 

Asuluebi, Asvluesbi (i. e. Asolf *s-by, Aislaby) 

ihirc or SheUar.d itself. It wai, at vxttXy ai in these other cases, the bovtdtbing or principal 
politicaJ and judicial meeting-place for the district ; and it speaks very intelligibly of the 
extent to which the district was not only under the influence of, but inhabited by, men of 
Northern or Daniih origin, that such a place of meeting should have existed in Cleveland. 

• On the South Jutland coast there are two towns nearly adjacent, one of which is Midle- 
burg, the other Aarhuus. It is scarcely posiible that the coincidence of nan:e in the case 
of the two Cleveland Danish settlements and in their S. Jutland neighbours should be merely 
accidental. Again, the name Upsat occurs once in Cleveland, and. besides, just on the borders. 
I believe one Essex village has forty-eight rrpreMintitivcs and namesakes in New J^ngtand 
(Goai. Mag. vol. ii. 1863, p. 698)* to say nothing of the literally innumerable examples of 
which Boston or Chelmsford is a type. Even our own Danby is bora again in Caruda 
Wett, in the name given by an emigrant from hence to the settlement he has formed near 
Niagara. Beyond any reasonable doubt the same feeling and practice in the days of the 
Old Nurtbnien originated such Cleveland names as those now under notice : in other words, 
that emigrants from Upsala, Aaihuus. Midleburg, named their new residences after their 
ancient or original onci. 



Bollebi. Bolebi (Boulby) 
Danebi (Danby) 

Lesingebi, Leisingebi, Lesighebi (Lazcnby) 
Lachenebi, Lachebi (Lackenby) 
Normanebi (Normanby, near Eston) 
Ortnesbi (Onnsby) 
Bernociebi (Barnaby) 
Esebi (Easby) 
Badresbi (Battersby) 
Tollesbi (Tolesby) 
Colebi (Coulby Manor) 
Maltebi (Maltby) 
Englebi (Ingleby Hill) 
Tunnozbi, Tormozbi (Thornaby) 
' Steinesbi (Stainsby) 

Bergnluesbi, Bergolbi 
Turoldesbi, Toroldesbi (Tboraldby) 
Rodebi (Hutton Rudby) 
Englebi (Ingleby Grcenhow) 
Cherchebi (Kirby. near Stokesley) 
Dragmalebi (Dromonby) 
Buschebi (Buzby) 
Feizbi, Fezbi (Faceby) 
Englebi (Ingleby Amcliff) 
Bordalcbi, Bordlebi (Mount Grace Priory) 

To these naay be added, from other sources : 


Newby (in Seamer) 
Yearby (in Kirkleatham) 
Neiherbi, Overbi (in Whitby) 

n. in thorpe, 

Ugctorp, Ughetorp (Ugthorpe) 

Roscheiorp, Roscheltorp (possibly Hailthorpe, near Sca- 

Amodestorp (probably Arnold's Toft near Linthorpc, in 

Torp (Kihon Thorpe) 

Torp (Nunthorpe) 

Torp (Finchingthorpe) 




Ainthorpe (in Danby) * 
linthorpc or Lcventhorpc 

ni. in $pK. 

Jarum (Yarm) 

Morehusum, Morhusum (Moorsholm) 

Loclhusum, Loctusum (Lofthouse) 

Westlidum, WcstHdt (Kirklcatham) 

Upelider (Upleatham) 

Lid (Ly^he) 

Florum, Flore (Flowergate, Whitby) 

Achelum, Aclun (Acklam) 

Laclum^ Lelun (Lealholm) 

Toscotum, Tocslune (Toccotes) 

Cotum (Coatham) 


• The hiitory of thi« name is rather a carious one. In a Register of Borial, 1623, the 
nunc ii written Armttthwaite ; in the map in Graves' Clevfland it it Armantliwaitc ; in a 
pbn of the Manor, dated a.d, 1751. and hanging in the entry of Danby Lodge, it is Arm- 
thwaite. But the thwaite has completely given place to the tborpe, and in the customary 
proauDciatioo in the mouth of a true Clevelandei it becomes Ain-t'rup, the b being almost 
cntilVly nipprcssed. This provokes compariion with the like lumes so frequently occurring 
in K>Mbnaik, and in which the old ^orp has given place to the modem Imp. 

t I look upon Wcstlid and Lid as unquestionably abbreviations for Westlidum. Lidum. 
It is worthy of notice that, independently of Domesday Westlidum, we have also another 
ancient form of the same name in Lithum, besides the forms UpHom and Lyum for 
Upleatham. It is a matter of tolerable certainty that all these names in -vm are simply 
datives plural. Thcie is no doubt in such cases as Morehusum, Locthu&um, Arusum or 
Arhusum, ToKotum, Cotum. and Lidum. About Jarum, Achelum. Laclum or Lelun, and 
Ergum, it is necessary to speak with more reserve, from uncertainty as to their etymology. 
The locality of the last-named is uncertain. ' Dimidium piscaric de Hergnm' is mentioned 
ID the Whitby * Memorial of Benefactions' given by Dr. Young (p. 908), and, according to 
that author, the Brgura or Hergum in qoettion ii 'near Bridlington* (p. ga). As far as 
one can derive a sofgestion from the geographical conise taken by the Domesday scribe, 
the Cleveland Ergun taiy have been in the neighbourhood of Ayton. In the Sunmiary, the 
order ii Omiesbi. Upeshale, Bcrnodebi, Torp (^Pinchingthorpc), Ergun, Atun, Ncuuctun, 
Mortun, Torp (Nuuthorpc), &;c In the notice of the King's Lauds, it is Upesale, Torp. 
Ergun, Atun, Ncuueton, Mortun, Torp, The only existing name, however, anywhere in 
the vicinity, which preseuti any rcsembUnce or analogy lo Ergum is Arcan, given in Ord's 
Map : — Arcan Hill, a little my north of Seamer. The Ordnance map makes this Harker 
HiU ; but unfortunately local names have been put in io recklessly iu these otherwise ad- 
mirable maps that that authorfty is less than nothing in such questions. It may be men- 
tioned, however, that the ' Ergum or Uergum near Bridlington' Is no doubt coincident with 
what is written Argam in the Oidoance maps. 



Anisum, Aresum, Harhusum (Airsome) 

IV. in ch/. 

Cnimbeclif, Cnimbeclive (Cninkley) 

Roudeclif, Roudclive (Rockcliff) 

Jemeclif, Gemeclif, Emeclive (AmclifTc Ingleby) 

V. in borg. 

Golborg, Goldeburg (Goldsborough) 

Ghigesborg, Gighesborc, Ghigesburg (Guisborough) 


Mydelburghe, Midlesburg (Middlesborough) 

VI. in daU, 

Childale (Kildale) 
Camisedale (Commondale) 


Basdale, Basedale 
Glasdale, Glasedale 
Handale or Grendale 

VII. in grif, 

Grif (Mulgrave) 

Skynnergrefe, Skinergreive, Skengrave (Skinningrove) 

VIII. in al, 

Upeshale, Upesale (Upsal) 

Wercheshala, Wercesel, Wyreshel (Worsall) 

Tonestale, Tonnestale (Tunstal) 

IX. not admitting of classification. 

Ghinipe (' Gnip, i. e. Hauchesgard ;' Gnipe Howe near 

Hawsker, Vtmng, p. 909). 
Figelinge, Figlinge, Nort Figelinge (Fyling Dales) 
Breche, Brecca (Brackenridge, near Whitby) 
Semer, Semers (Seamer) 


Mersch, Mersc (Marske) 

Dunesla, Dunesle QDunsley) 

Udreuuelle, Hildreuuelle (Hinderwell) 

Berewic (Berwick) 

Cratom, Cratome (Crathorae) 

Stocheslag, Stocheslage (Stokesley) 

Codreschelf, Codeschelf (SkutterskdO 

X. in ham. 

Neuham, Neuueham, Niweham (Newham in Acklam) 
Neuhanij Neueham (Newholm, near Whitby) 

XI. in ion or hm. 

Snetune, Sneton (Sneaton) 

Hotane, Hotone (Hutton Mulgrave) 

Neutone ([Newton Mulgrave) 

Egetnne (Egton) 

Scetnne, Sceton (Seaton Hall) 

Esingetun, Esingeton (Easington) 

liureton (Liverton) 

Steintun, Esteintona (Stanghow) 

Chiltune, Chilton (Kilton) 

Brotone, Broctune (Brotton) 

Sceltun, Scheltnn (Skelton) 

Midletun, Middeitone (Middleton, near Guisborough) 

Hotun (Hutton Lowcross) 

Tometun (Thornton Fields) 

Wiltune, Widtune (Wilton) 

Aston, Astune (Eston) 

Atun (Great Ayton) 

Aton alia (Litde Ajton) 

Neuueton, Nietona (Newton) 

Mortun (Morton) 

Martun, Martune (Marton) 

Himelinton, Himeligetun (Hemlington) 

Steintun (Stainton) 

Torentun rThomton) 

Tametun ^ameton, or Tanton) 

Hiltun, Hiltune (Hilton) 

Mideltun, Middeltun (Middleton) 

Fostun, Foxtun (Foxton, High and Low) 

Broctun, Broctun magna (Great Broughton) 



Broctun alia (Li(tle Broughton) 

lloiun (Ilutton Rudby) 

Carklun (Carlton) 


(Jotun, Goutun, Golton (Goulton) 

Wirucllun (Whorlton) 

Ronlun, Ramunc (Rounton) 

Lcntune, T.cuetona {Kirk Islington) 

Leuetone aha (Castle Levington) 

Apeltune (Appleton on Wiske) 

On the whole, there are in the above list 119 names of places as given 
in Domesday, of wliich thirty-eight end in -by, six in -iorp^ twelve in -urn, 
three in -ch/, t^a'0 in -borg^ two in -daU^ one in -gr^, three in -«/, all of 
which arc indisputably of Danish origin. There are besides eleven not 
admitting of classification, of which, however, several must be Danish ; 
as, for instance, Ghinipe, Figlinge, Semer, Mersc, Cratome« Codrcschelf ; 
and also, two in -ham,, thirty-nine in -ion. Of the latter it is only neces- 
sary here to say, that, while it is a mistake to assume -ion to be an 
exclusively Anglo-Saxon termination in names of places {iim being also 
an Old Norse word and still used in Iceland in connection with a 
farmer's residence), in not a few cases among these Cleveland names in 
-tun or -ion we find the same prefixes as are met with in other names 
of undoubted Danish origin and et)'mology. For instance, Childale, 
Chiltune; SccUun, Scalethwaite, Skelderskeugh ; Mideltun, Midelburg. 
Others again — for instance, Carlctun, Astun, Tometun — as in the case 
of such names as Baldersbi, Leisingebi, Danebi, Cratom, leave but little 
doubt that the former clement in them is Danish; and thus, on the 
•whole, we come to something like the conclusion that at least seventy- 
five per cent, of the Domesday names of Cleveland localities is certainly 
Old Danii^h, and very possibly a larger proportion still. 

But independently of the names recorded in Domesday ihcre are mul- 
titudes of others, an enumeration and examination of which advance the 
conclusion just slated more convincingly yet. The names of the several 
townships of the divers parishes not separately specified in the Domes- 
day record are. in many cases, more decidedly Old Danish than even 
the names of the parishes themselves. Thus in Whorlton parish are the 
townships of Swainby, Huthwaite, Scarth or Scarth-wood, Potto (Pot- 
howe), Trenholm, Scugdale; — all. without an exception, of distinct or 
eiclusive Northern origin. In short, of some twenty-four or twenty-five 
sudi Cleveland names, we have three in -hy^ one in -fhtvaitf, two in 
'thorpe^ three in -howf, one in -hoim^ five in -^ii/r, one in -gri/^ six 
in -xvick^ one in -burny one in -cjr, three not classed, of which one — 


Staithcs — is surely Norse Siod (see Staitli), leaving Ficton as almost, 
if not quite, the only name of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

But, supposing the investigation to be pushed further yet, and espe- 
cially with the aid which ancient documents give in addition to the in- 
formation derivable from still existing or identifiable designations, the 
result is even still more conclusive. Thus in the case of Whitby as 
above noticed— Overbi, Nethrebi, Thingwala, Helredale, Gnip, Bertwait, 
Setwait, Sourebi, Thordisa, all appear in deeds connected with the 
Abbey, as the names of Whitby localities. In th* parish of Danby, 
again, besides Ainthorpe, already named, is the township of Glaisdale, 
as also Danby Botton, Dale Head, Clitherbecks, Butterwick, Fryop, 
Houlsyke : and this without mentioning similar names — that is to say, 
all of direct Danish origin — distinguishing local divisions of lesser im- 

But the evidence derivable from the local terminology of the district, 
striking and conclusive as it is as to the facts of the effectual and per- 
snanent occupation of Cleveland by the Northmen, is not only supple- 
mented, but rendered vastly more striking and unquestionable, by a mass 
of testimony of a different kind, and supplied by the Domesday volume. 
At the time of the survey therein recorded, or, rather, shordy pre- 
ceding it, the owners of landed property in Cleveland were almost exclu- 
sively distinguished by Danish names. 

Hauuard (Havard) had possessions in Yarm, Kirk Levington, 
Easby and Battersby. 

Siuuard (Siward or Siguier) in Ugthorpe, Liverton, Lofthouse, 
Upleatbam, Acklam. 

Ulf in Crathome. 

Ligulf in Kildale, Ugthorpe, Normanby. 

Archil (Amkell) in Faceby, Thoraldby, Marton. 

Ulchd ^Ulfkell] in Ayton, Nunthorpe, Guisborough, Marton, &c. 

Aschd (Askell) in Ayton. 

Torcbil (Thorkell) in Kilton. 

Orme or Orm in Ormsby, Appleton, Kildale, Danby, Commondale. 

Leising or Lesing (Leistngr^ a freed man) in Faceby, Tunstal, 
Tameton, Guisborough, Normanby, Busby, Acklam, &c. 

Gamel in Skutterskelf. 

Game (?Gamel) in Ugthorpe. 

Tor (Thor) in East Rounton. 

Altor (Althor) in Wilton. 

Carl (Karl or Karle) in East Rounton. 

Aluer (Alfr) in Hilton. 

C 2 



Turorne fThorarinn) in Ayton. 

Norman (Nor^nufSr, a Norwepan) in Ayton, Broughlon, Hinder- 
well, Marske, Kirkleatham, Wikon, Upsal. 

Suuen (Sweyn) in Egton, Lythc, Goldsborough, Mickleby, Bor- 
rowby, Roxby, &c, 

Walteof (Valtheofr) in Eston. 

Malgrim in Ingleby Amcliffe. 

Gospatric in Whorlton, Carlton, Seamer, &c. 

Aldred in Ayt#n. 

Uclred in Stokesley, Seaton, Skelton, Brotton, Moorsholm, Guis- 
borough, Siainsby, &c. 

Edmund in Ayton, Pinchingthorpe, Marton^ Toleby, Stainton, &c. 

Magbancc in Newton, 

Lieuenot in Lazenby. 

In all, we have here twenty-seven names (without allowing for possible 
duplicates, the existence of which may be suspected in one place, if not 
in more) : of these twenty-seven, Magbanec would almost seem to be 
Celtic ; Lieuenot, unless it be Norman-French, is hard to class; Edmund 
and Aldred are Anglo-Saxon; all the rest are Danish: and, what is 
remarkable, with one exception — that of Orm — different from those of 
the original nomenclalors of the settlements or properties or manors 
possessed by them — a fact thai shews most conclusively not only the 
extent or prevalence of the Danish colonization, but aJso its secured 
permanency, * 

* This may be the best fdace to advert to > ihigulsr and extremelT interesting coofir- 
rtution of the riewi advanced in the text, which hii« b«cn afforded dunng the latter half of 
the year 1867 by the discloiures made in the courie of the worki connected with the 
rebuilding of Kildate Church. In digging for the foundatioQs of the nirw north wall, and 
also in excavating along the middle uf the nave for the reception of the warming-apparatus, 
a number of ikcletom, in perfect preservation, were dug upon, in company with several of 
which were objects of broaze. and weapons of iron (swords, daggers, and a battle-axe) of such 
a distinctly marked duracier that there could be as little doubt of their origin as of their 
antiquity. They were anmiitakcably Danith, and there could be no room left for uncer- 
tainly as to the fact that the medizval church, the last remains of which had been so lately 
removed, had been built upon the site of a cemetery which had been such from the ninth 
ceatuiy. downwards. It may be also n>entioned that among the skulls obtained, bnt no! 
from the skdetont lu connection with the anm-^K>iiJy in company with them as co-tenants 
of the same bunal-groand— were some of inch singularly marktd dolicho-cephalic character 
as to raise the question whether they could be accounted for otherwiie than by luppoitng 
them to have been the heads of captives or * thralb* brought from the remote North by the 
immigrant Danish appropriators of the place in question. All these weaponi and other 
objects pasted under the hands of the writer, and the skulls were measured by him. and his 
accounts and measurements submitted to tome of the most eminent archj^oeists of th« 
day. as well at to the London Society of Antitjuanesi his conclusions being admitted, ott 
all hands, t'^ be entirely satisfactory and well established. 



Bui not only were ihc lords of the soil thus unmistakeably Danish at 
the time of the Conquest, the inferior orders or sons of the soil must 
have been so as well. For in a charter of Henry I, confirming certain 
gifts to Guisborough Prior>-, made by members of the LasceUes family, 
we find specified, among such gifts, certain persons and families^ who, as 
villanes, were transferred like so much stock of any other description, 
and whose names were as follows : — Robert, the son of Ketell ; God>^io ; 
Ervice, the son of Aslac ; Wigan, the son of Camel ; Robert, the son of 
Ralph; Ralph, the son of Godwin; Ingeberg, the son of Aslac; Alice, 
the wife of Serlo, with their followers (children); Ralph, the son of 
William, the son of Turgis, with all his followers; Gunilda, mother 
of the same. 

Ketell, Aslac (two of the name), Ingeberg, Giuiilda, Gamely Ralph, 
Turgis, Godwin — but Httle in the way of comment is required when 
such names preponderate. They sp)eak very intelligibly as lo the ori- 
ginal nationality of no small proportion of the lower orders of the popu- 
lation in certain districts of Yorkshire some two generations later than 
the Conquest. 

After the production of such a mass of evidence as that which has 
thus been closed we can have no hesitation about admitting such state- 
ments as John of Wallingford's touching the ' great admixture of people 
of Danish race* in Yorkshire, and appljnng them especially to Cleveland; 
and the further allegation as to the ' great similarity of language,' follow- 
ing necessarily as a corollary, must be admitted with equal frankness. 
But still the question remains as to die measure or degree of ' similarity' 
between the Scandinavian tongues and the Old Northumbrian, even on 
the admission that it vv'as really 'great;' and the question is one which 
has been differently dealt with by different raters, and consequendy fur- 
nished with different solutions. Some would make Northumbrian a 
Scandinavian dialect, and others ignore no small proportion of what in 
it is certainly Scandinavian or nothing. And even in the case of others 
more moderate and impartial, and perhaps also better qualified, by their 
genera] learning as well as by their piiilological attainments, to pro- 
nounce with some decision upon the subject mooted, there is no little 
difference as to the relative amounts of tlie elements which go to make 
up the mingled mass they agree in calling a Dano-Saxon dialect. Thus 
Mr. Gamett decides that because *in the Scandinavian dialects the de- 
finite article is uniformly postpositive and coalesces with its substantive,' 
and in the Northumbrian dialects the same article is a distinct prepo- 
sitive term, therefore the said article is not the Scandinavian article.* 
Mr. Peacock, on the other hand, contends — and the fact that his con- 

* Gamclt's ColUcud Euayt, p. 49. 




elusions are published in the Transactions of the Philological Society 
lends them a positive weight, which otherwise they might not carry — not 
only that the grammar of the dialects in question is in many particulars 
Scandinavian, but that * the first ant! most remarkable characteristic of 
Northumbrian is the definite article — or more properly the demonstrative 
pronoun, 7 — which is an abbreviation of the Old Norse neuter demon- 
strative pronoun hit^ Sw. and Dan. ^/.'* * There have been retained,' 
he continues {TL pp. 6, 7), ' amongst the Northumbrian dialects certain 
expressions which are identical with Scandinavian ones at the present 
day, and these leave it beyond doubt that the word so abridged is no 
other than the Scandinavian neuter art. hii or ei. . . . In Tauchnilz's 
Swcd. and Eng. Dictionary (pocket ed. Leipzig 1861) under the word 
brosi = Eng. hrtasi, among other phrases connected with that word, we 
find "AU gt/va harntt brosUt — To give the child suck" (lit. to give the 
child the breast). 

* In N. Lonsdale and in Westmoreland the same phrase would be 

" At give 't bam 'i brbst." 

where we find the two expressions identical, word for word, except for 
the postpositive situation of the Swedish article ^/, which twice occurs as 
a suffix to the nouns barn and brost. Now suppose, by way of illus- 
tration, we make the Sw. art. /rt^sitivc instead of /ir/posidve, the 
sentence would then stand thus: — Sw. AH gifva tt barn ei brost, 
Nonhumb. At give 'i bam 't brbst, and the identity of ever)' word is at 
once apparent ; the only difference being that the initial letter e in the 
article suffers aphasresis in the proWncial of Northumbria.'t 

Mr. Peacock further considers the apparent ' outrage on the Scandi- 
namn idiom' herein involved, the result of an ' amalgamation of their 
languages' among the two races — 'the established Saxon settlers,' and 

* Som» hading Cbarattfhttin of fhf DiaUcu $pohm im Amcitm Northumbrian p. 5. 

t Mr. Peacock*! want of full acquaintance with the Scaiidtiiaviaii toiigun ditqualifird 
him for perceiving the fallacy of bis argument, not to say its intrinsic worthlessness, ongi- 
iiating in the cifcumslance that he argues on the suppotttion that all nouns arc lim^y 
neuter. It to happens in the sentence quoted that both the nouns, barn and 6r^, arc 
neuter, and therefore both take the postpositive (/. But what is 10 t>e laid of iliittm/tg9H» 
Northumb. ' t' slope." btstorien = * t' history,' both feminine and both occurring in the first 
sentence of the first Swedish book lying near enough to me to be opened ? Of kropftrt «= 
• t' body,' bainMm-=* t' spirit' (or uncorporeal part), brodrrti = ' t' brother,* Ac, all nuscu- 
line, and to say nothing of the inflections, in the plural, of these masculine and feminine 
nouns — nay of the neuter ones also? The fact ii, Mr. Peacock's theory scarcely applies to 
one case in twenty that would occur in evcry-day. honiely talk in a Swedish company, and 
becomes leu available sttU ai applied to the Old Norse definite iionns, as the merest glance 
at Rask*s Grammar by Dascnt, pp. 74, 75. abundantly shews. Out of thr sialy-four c«e- 
endjnji of definite noons given ihere. preoKly four are found with ihe final I or il. 



the invading Northmen — consequent on their eventual intermixture. 
He assumes ' a fusion of language, the grammar as well as the voca- 
bulary, continuing to gravitate until it came to something common to 
both,' The definite article would have of course to be dealt with among 
other things, and would present one of the greatest difficulties, but the 
difficulty would ' end in a compromise in which the Saxon adopted 
the Scandina\'ian article, and the Northman became reconciled to the 
Saxon mode of placing it.' {lb. p. 8.) 

But not to dwell upon the unnecessar)' ingcnuit)' displayed in thus 
accounting for the form of the Northumbrian definite article, it may be 
observed tliat the writer, equally with Mr. Garnelt, overlooks die fact 
that the prepositive definite article is not unknown in the Scandinavian 
dialects ; in other words, is not ' uniformly postpositive,' does not ' uni- 
formly coalesce with its substantive.' 

* The most striking peculiarity about the South Jutland dialect/ says 
Mr. Kok, ' is that it does not apply the coalescing {vedhangU) or definite 
post -positive article [endear tihl). Either no article at all is employed, 
as om Dag, om Nal, om Summer, Ac, or it is replaced by den, det^ de, 
as dtn Hostruper, the Hostrup man, de Tdndtringer^ the Tonder folks ; 
or, what is most common of all, by simple e or ce^ wliich is used pre- 
positively and is the same for all genders and numbers ; as, e By, e Barn, 
tBynder^ the fanners, e htle //us.'* 

The same writer, in reply to the remark that the article in question, 
ihe prepositive e or te, is a proof of German, Frisian, Anglo-Saxon or 
English influence, proceeds as follows: — ' In our oldest Danish — that of 
the thirteenth century — the postpositive article -en, -«•/, -ene, is of very 
rare occurrence ; a circumstance which, as Molbech observes, may 
very well corroborate Grimm's remark, that the usage in question " may 
well apj)ear to be one of later inirotluction and originally unknown in 
the Northern speech, but which becomes of more frequent occurrence 
the lower we come down in the stream of iime."t In Henrik Harpe- 
sireng's (died 1244) lAFgebog it is met with only two or three times. 
Much the same is true of the Haderslev and Flensborg Stadsretter^ the 
latter bearing date 1284, the former 1292, and both written in the speech 

* iVf "Damlkt Folktifrog in Smnderjylland, ved Jolunnei Kok, Sogne pncst i Bftrkal 
red TsudcT. p. 161. 

t ' It ik aUo concluded tliat the fiiu] article was not In use in the more aiici^nt periods 
(of Uie speech), and that it was at a comparatively later time that it came into that general 
use which we arc accustomed 10. Even as it is, in certain nscs it is dropped in famitiar 
language; fnr instance, in neuter nouns in f, where the sufHxed / it not sounded, ai in 
BtUt{f)\ and aUo in fcminines in a, where the added n m bU cases drops out, as ui klokia 
for klokkan' Aascii't A'orsA GrammatU; p. 157. 




of the burghers of that lime. The postpositive article occurs from lime 
to time, but frequently it is either omitted altogether, or else replaced by 
the pronoun i/nEn, thati^ te (den, det, de) ; as the Bymen, the townsmen ; 
ihen By, the town or village, M^ Born, the bairns ; tAa mugha th€fr<tndcr 
ei iaka the Bom meth therai gooz iJhem goma, utan ihe/r{Ender gone full 
tvt'ssa : in that case the relatives must not lake the children into their 
guardianship, except the relatives give full security^ &c. 

* From the pronoun Maw, th<rf, th^,' continues Mr. Kok, ' the article 
t ox a has been derived on tliis wise: hurried articulation has first 
dropped the final n or /, and next the aspirated or lisping initial conso- 
nant th (J>), so that nothing but e or ie was left remaining. Correspond- 
ing rejections of the final n or / are of continual occurrence in the 
common speech of Norway, in the dialect of Funen, and in North 
Judand, and even, finally, in the ordinary or every-day conversational 
speech of the Danes, as de mami, de Hus. But, perhaps, the most con- 
vincing proof that the article e is thus derived is found in the South 
Jutland dialect, which still employs den, det, de, where the standard lan- 
guage uses the postpositive article ; as, det er de Pikers Lam : that is the 
girl's lamb, for det er Pigernes Lam ; de Tsndringer, de A&ottt'nger, 
de Shatter, &c ; and, in the Bible, de R&mere, de Korintier, &c. This use 
of the pronoun den, de can only be regarded as a trace still remaining 
of a once general Danish mode of speech which the Jutlandera have 
omitted to change as time rolled on/ 

This may serve, perhaps, lo throw some light upon the true nature, 
or origin and history, of the Northumbrian definite article. On the one 
side, Sir. Gamctt's statement is seen to be by far too sweeping. On the 
other, there seems to be no necessity for subscribing lo Mr. Peacock's 
theory of amalgamation and compromise. It is a fact that up lo the 
end of the tenth century the influx of the Danes had not materially 
changed the written dialect of Northumbria,* In the fourteenth cen- 
tury, however, the innovations, alterations and additions due to them 

* * It appcan that the admixture of the Northmen in the pc^lation of the Northum- 
brian provinces had not produced it> full elTcct opon the language in the tenth century ; at, 
with the exception of one or two isolated words, there is nothing that can be »ati$fictorily 
rcfencd lo that dau of dialects, either tn the Dwham Texts or the Rushworth OoipeU. 
la the fourteenth ccuturjr the traces of this influence l»ecome much stronger. The * Cursor 
Mondi' and the Northumbrian metrical veriton of the Psalms abound with words totally 
imkoown in the Saxon dialects, bat of regular occurrence in Icelandic, Danish and Swedish. 
One of the moil remarkable of these is the Scandinavian prefix to infinitives, a/ i^ini, a/ db, 
instead of ft> think, to do, which is an unequivocal criterion of a purely NoTtliero dialect, 
and an equallj certain one of the Scandinavian influence whereby that dialect has been 
modified.' Gamett's Phit. Essays, p. 188. The author then proceeds to give several other 
tUustrttioof of Danish words and grammatical forms. But neither be nor any other writer 


had been fully effected, although at what particular epoch in the interval 
we have no evidence to shew, The inevitable inference, of course, is, 
that the change which is faintly becoming sensible in the tenth century 
goes steadily on and is accomplished within llie next two or three gene- 
rations; in other words, becomes un fait accomph' at a period somewhat 
antecedent to that of what Mr. Kok calls 'our oldest Danish' (aldste 
Damk), when the postpositive article was of ver)* rare occurrence and 
open to be characterised as an innovation unknown to the original 
Northern speech [m uldigirf for de Nordiski sprog oprindelig uUkJendt 
Jndreim'ng) ^ and when, in the Danish writings still extant, the preposi- 
tive definite articJe per])etually took the form of ihe, or more rarely thef. 
If we further bear in mind that our English sound of ih was unknown — 
almost impossible — to the Scandinavian tongue; that as Thor was and 
is sounded almost as we sound Tor, ♦ so the must have been sounded 
nearly as our U; we arrive at tlie conclusion that the Northumbrian 
definite article, after all, may be, or rather almost certainly is, the Old 
Danish definite article, but thai its proper form is /', and not V, as 
Mr. Peacock would write it. 

Again, while strongly asserting the importance of the particles in 
indicating the origin of a dialect or language, Mr.Garnetl seems scarcely 
to allow for the number actually existing in the Northumbrian dialects, 
and still less for those which may have once been in use, but have since 
passed out under the inevitable influence of advancing knowledge and 
intercourse with the more Saxon parts of the kingdom. * The presence 
or absence of a few Norse particles,' he says, ' proves nothing decisive 
either way. Those which are wanting may have become obsolete, and 
those which actually occur might be introduced by the Danish invaders.' t 
Bui our question being — * How much in our dialect is due to the in- 

oa the tubject seems to make any allowance for what not only may, but most, have bc«n 
lo»t. In this one district alone the author of the Wbithy GloMary and myself have noted 
probably not less than fifty words hitherto unrecorded, of which the great majority may be 
pronounced to be excluttvcly Scandinavian. A few years more and these would have been 
6nAUy lost. Nay, it is a commoa remark among many of the more intelligent of the 
Cleveland Dalesmen, when led to speak un the subject, that their dialect has lost not only 
Kfuibly but very considerably withii] their own recollection — a fact that I am myself able 
to bear personal testimony to. And it is idle to suppose thai Cleveland ajfords an excep- 
tional case in this particular. Probably many hundreds of words, which have never been 
written, are lost for ever, and a slow but perpetual change rn idiom and coiulruction ha« 
oow nearly reached its last stage ; namely, that characteristic of mere ordinary or homely 

* Note the name Tor in the Dome»day list of owners of land. 

i* Phil. Eisays, p. 51. The author is contesting the position that Lowland Scottish is to 
be regarded as a Scandinavian dialect ; and regarding, as he of course Joes, Scottish a* 
• standing in the closest affinity to that used on the bank of the Tecs ind the Tyne ; being, 



fluence of the Danian invaders?' the reasonable course appears to be to 
enqiiire how many of our existing particles are either certainly or most 
probably Scandinavian in origin, and what likelihood there is that others 
may have become obsolete. 

I. As certainly Scandinavian I specify — 

aback, behind, in the rear of, O. N. dbak. 

amell, between, O. N. dmtUu 

amid, among, O. N. dmedal. 

at, to, O. N. a/, apud, ctma, quod attinet ad. 

an, than, O. N. on, Sw. &n. 

an, if, O. Sw. tsn. 

at, that, O. N. a/, Sw. ali, &c. 

at efter, afterwards, N. aUfUr^ Dan. tfter ai, 

efter, after, O. N. ^/rir, e/Hr, 

flra, tt«7, from, O. N.y^tf, which as spoken becomes /rav before 

a vowel. 
for, for, O. N. fyr^fyrir. 
i, iv, in, O. N. i. 

of, off,* of, from, out of, Dan. af, 
intil, intiv, into, Sw. iniilL 
tU, tiv, to, O. N. HI 
wi', wiv, with, O. N. vPS^ Dan. ved. 
holder, rather, in preference, O. N. helldr, 
inoo, inow, presently, Dan. / et nu. 
baoUingB, t backwards, S. Jutl. baglangs, 
parlous, greatly, terribly, Tfaji./erlich. 
sae, so, Sw. sa, Dan. saa. 
sair, very, exceedingly, Dan. scare, 
Mne 1 be off, away with you, Dan. hedan, 

II. As probably Scandinavian : — 
a, t in, on, O. N. d^ in, upon. 

The compounds with a, as afoore, aside, asteead, &c. 

off on. 

out in (perhaps Dan. uian). 

in fact — ^Uke that — Northumbrian Saxon, with a strong infusion of Danish/ what he ad- 
Tances with respect to the former must be, in the main, held to be applicable to the 

• As in the phrase * A foal off yon meear.' 

t This is a representative of a numerous class; as, neurlingt, nuUrtllnsi. fiUr- 
linsa, &c. 
. Z In such phrases as * It ligs a that hand.' 



noo, now, Sw. nu. 

oft, oSbns, often, Dan. oflt. 

sen^ syne, Sw. sedan. 

Both these lists might l)e increased : the latter largely so. 

The pecu- 

liar Northern interjections a! eh!, and the adverbial forms in som,* as 
what'Som^ Aow-som, in whataomever, howsomevor — compare Dan. 
hvadsomhthi^ &c. — are almost certainly Scandinavian, and so also are 
the assentative and negative panicles ay, neya (Sw. mj^ &c.), not to 
menlion otlier less obtrusive forms. 

But independently of what actually remains, what presumption is there 
that the Northumbrian dialects still retain all the particles originally in- 
troduced by the Northern invaders? 

Mr. Garnett adverts to an * inscription commemorating the foundation 
of the edifice, or more probably of a preceding one,' still extant in Ald- 
burgh Church, Holderness, in the following terms — Ulf hei ardan 
cyrui/or hanum and/or Guntkara saula : Ulf bid erect the church for 
him and for the soul of Gunthar, as remarkable in a philological point of 
\iew. The word hanum is the O. N. dative of hann (he), Sw. hotiom^ 
' a form unknown in all the Saxon dialects.' t WTiat has become of that 
dative? This Aldburgh inscription is the sole remaining testimony to 
what we know, as well as if our own ears had listened to the speech of 
those days, must have been the almost exclusive equivalent for our 
modem lo or /or him. Again, am^/i has nearly passed out of use. 
I have not heard it myself once in the twenty-one years of intercourse I 
have had with the Cleveland Dalesmen; that is to say, as a word con- 
tinuing in familiar use. Many of them are still familiar with its meaning, 
and it remains in the compound word Ameli-door ; but another gene- 
ration will not know either its sound or its meaning. Arval, too, has 

* * Another remarkable Scandituviuiiim is the particle stim m the sciisc of as, Dan. som .* 
e. g. *• Swa sum we forgive ourc dctturs." This form appears to be now obsolete.' Garnett, 
Pbil, Essays, p. 1 89. 

t Pbil. Euays, p. 188. Il is worthy of notice that another ind like inscription, dii- 
coTcred in 1771, over the south door of Kirkdale church, near Kirby Mnorsidc (Young*! 
Whitby, p. 741)* •ttid fixing its nvm date to abiout 1055-I064, is conceived in Anglo-Saxon 
words ahhough cooimemorating the pious deed of Orai the son of Ganirl ; names as cxclu- 
lircly Scandiaamn as the Ulf of the iuscriptioii commented on by Mr. Gametl. It was 
perliaps natural, not to say necessary, in the reUlire conditioiu of intclleaual culture of the 
resident Anglo-Saxons and the mvading Danes, that the language of the former should he, 
so to speak, the language of literature, and the repository of most of the records which it 
was desirable to make. There is abundant reason for supposing that the inradcrs and the 
invaded found little difficulty in making themselves mutually intelligible, and this would 
funiiih another reason why Auglu-Saxon might by common consent continue in use as the 
written language, for even some considerable time after the spoken language had become 
almost or even fax more Danish than Saxon. 





gone quite, and I question if there be two men in the existing population 
of this parish who can remember having heard it in common U8e. The 
common English word * burial,' with a sufficient latitude of meaning 
assigned to it to make it imply * entertainment on occasion of the 
burial/ has replaced it. Probably the history of our dialect, in common 
with its co-members of the general Northumbrian tongue, has been for 
some centuries one of slow alteration, due to the substitution of English 
words and forms for Northumbrian ones; the substitution itself origi- 
nating in the greater diflfubion of the standard tongue by means of 
books, enlarged intercourse with people who used it, attendance on the 
public ministrations of the Church, and the gradual innovations of in* 
creasing connection with the outer districts. Il might l^e a work of 
time ; but most of the causes specified have been more or less strongly 
in operation since the Reformation, and some of them would begin to 
operate from the time that the provinces began to be really and effec- 
tually constituent parts of one consoHdated kingdom. And thus not 
only hanum would give place to A. S. and O. E. A;w, hin^, but igjmnem 
would )ield to \urh (through), leaving only gam, gain-way as its repre- 
sentatives ; among, amartg would encroach upon aiueU. ; or, nor, owther, 
nowther, and so forth, assume and maintain their present exclusive 
right of usage.* 

Allowing then for the tolerably lengthy list of particles of Northern 
origin which are still in use (or only just obsolete) and for the inevitable 
loss of sundr>' others, there must have been originally not simply * a few/ 
but a goodly number of these ' winged words ' introduced by the old 
Danish invaders. 

A few words next on the subject of accents! may perhaps not be out 

* Some twelrnnonth ago, on going through Tounul. Mytt. again, 1 jotted down the 
wordi which, appearing in it, from their abtcucc in the local glouarici icctned to be no 
longer current cither in Weft Vorkshirc or any oilier part of the county. The Utt, though 
formed with no spKial object, and therefore somewhat looicly and carelculy made, numbers 
fort)'-eight words, and a telection made almott at random shews the nature of the gaps 
indicated: — run/, «pmt, breath, O. N. niuU, Dan. aaniU ; m, rc«t, O.N. r6, Dan. ro; 
t^H, tincw. O. N. iifl. Daa. MM/,- row. rouse, praise, celebrate, O.N. ^iJM. Dan. row; 
bodworde, precept. O.N. bodord; ihte, quickly, O.N. li/otf, Dan. »itJ9t; layn, conceal, 
O. N. Uyna, N. l^yna, Sw. D. loma; aud M) on A similar examination prosecuted carefully 
and systetnaticaUy in (tampole's writings, Sir Oawaynt and Grmt Knight, E. Eng. AUti. 
PofiHA^ and other like sources, would, there is no doubt, give a very lonj; List indeed of 
purely Scandinavian words which hare dropped out of use during the hist four or fir* 

t Mr. Oamett. Phil. Euayt, p. 63, remarks upon 'the importance of the acctntt of 
words in etyniology,' and proceeds to iUuslrate the lubjcct ai (oUows :— * Frav, Frtv, from 
Craven Gl., Comt>rian. Barbarous corruptions ! nujiy of our readers will say. Tljey are 
nevcTthele** genuine descendants of the Scandinavian frd, flill pronounced fnn in Icetand. 
Wf may adili thAt in the iccUndic Lexicons «re find a (Ofia, cms /rtNMina] a word to aft 



of place, nor without some value in indicating something more as to the 
measure in which our dialect is indebted to the ancient Danes. 

We have two words which are homonyms for * little/ lile and lahtle, 
the former of which is referred to Dan. //7/^,* and the latter seems at 
first sight to be a mere phonetic freak. A reference to the A. S. Lexi- 
con gives us the form />■/(■/> with the y sounded as in ' myster>'.'t The 
synonyms from the Germanic and Scandinamn tongues are South 
Germ, h'izei, luitel, O. Germ. lu%Uer, PI. D. lUti, lUtje, Fris. imich, 
Dan. lilU, Itden^ Sw. h'iie, h'ttn, neither of which suggests any solution 
for our puzzle. O. N. //////. however, at once clears the matter up. The 
long or accented ;' in the first syllable retains its proper power in our 
word, and gives us the form vhich, for want of better exponents of 
sound, is by some written ' lahtle.'J The same principle explains the 
twofold form of the preposition fra^ /rav, the latter of which is noticed 
in a preceding note from Garnett's Essays. In his translation of Rask's 
Old Norse or Icelandic Grammar, Dr. Dascnt notices the two soimds 
of 6, the one hke av or au, the other more like ihat of Sw. aa or E. o : 
the latter is the sound of our preposition before a word beginning with 
a consonant, an aspirate, or a y^ the former before a vowel. In the 
same way, with our preposition i or iv, in, we say (the sound of the i' 

appearance utterly anlike any known synon)!!!. But when wc obtcrvc the accent, and 
Inm that it is pronounced aw or av by nativci, wc immediately perceive its identity with 
the Sanscrit owi; Gr, ATi (t. e. /t^u) ; Lai. cms; Prov. Germ, auw ; and our own *w*. It 
would be easy to multiply similar iiutancei : the above will ibew the power of the Scan- 
dinavian accents.' 

« Cf. Garnctt'* Pbit. Euay$, p. i8q. 

t Bosworth's Comp. Anglo-Saxon Diet., letter Y. 

X See the remarks upon the word in the GIot»r>- below, under LItle, where the ilius* 
UatioD is fully given. The tendency of our dialectical phooeits ii to make all long Ts take 
the lound.of ab (ur Gr. dt, more nearly), although in many cases the word* are pure English 
or of late introduction. Still, this is simply a consequence of the priodple that the sound 
in question depends entirely upon the accented t in original Norse words. I believe the 
prindple admits of much wider illustration than is attempted in the text. Thus wc have 
what is sounded Grahp (Sc. graip), a fork used for agricultural purposes. But wc also 
say (Tip, grtp-ho'd, the O. N. vb. being gripa. There is no doubt that there is a long 
Towd involved in the former of these words, the Sw, and N. equivalents b<^g jre^, frW^, 
both probably from O. N. grtip; while, as to grip, we find that in all compound words the 
tense of which involves the notion of a completed act of seizing, the unaccented i is found 
in the prefix in question, as grip-fngi^ a bird of prey, grip-dnld, the act of plundering. 
This is precisely the sense in grip-hoMt and no less in our verb (tip also : there is a 
nipidity or suddeimess of action — begun and completed in the same iiutant. as it were — 
implied in grip which is not in ihc lightest degree conveyed by Eng. gripe. I conceive, 
therefore, that our grip depends opon the derivative grip of the Scandinavian tongaes. 
instead of upon the simple verb at gripa. Cf. N. grip^ sb., specially noticed by Aasen 
as pronounced with < short {nab. i), gripa. adj., and gripalig^ boides the vb. gr*po, grip* 
where the long vowel ii found iu the pret. grtip. 




being very nearly that of ee somewhat shortened) i t' hooa, i places, &c. ; 
but iv all, iv ony ease, for ' in all/ ' in any case.' Tliis too is a case 
of an accented vowel, the Old Norse preposition being i. 

But what Mr. Gamett calls * the power of the Scandinavian accent* 
is not fully seen until we notice the effect of xxs absence upon other 
words in the dialect. On the one side we have lahtle, Shahve (shivc), 
Bahsn (bisen), on the other binnd, blinnd, fiund, wmnd (vb.), 
minnd, &c., from O. N. binda, blindr, fimia^ vinda, minna, which all 
present the unaccented vowel. I suppose it would be impossible for 
any one only accustomed to the standard pronunciation not to be struck 
with the sound of wind, vb., in the mouth of a true Clevelandcr, as con- 
trasted with that of wt'ndy sb. The latter receives the accent which b 
given in reading poetry, and of course with more or less of the tJ sound ; 
the other is as short as wind, sb., in ordinary refined conversation. And 
so, in the hanest fields it is the Binnder who binda the 8hafib. We 
hear no other pronunciation of the words in the original of which the 
short or unaccented i is found ; and the class is not a small one. 

While touching upon this subject of accents, another class of vowel 
sounds, namely those which replace the sounds of o and oo in Eng., 
naturally craves our attention. Thus s/ortf becomes both stane and 
steoan;* Aome, hamo, heoam, yamm; /oay, leeaf; /oof, foeal, Ac. 
This divergence of form induced by sound may at first sight seem rather 
perplexing, but the difficulty will be found to disappear on examination, 
or ratlicr to admit of easy and interesting explanation. Kok remarks 
that, in the S. Jutl. dialects, long f takes the sound of an i' before it; as 
sfm (stone), ben (bone), dSr/ (a share, division), /rf (a loaf), a peculiarity 
observable also in the O. Danish writings of the fifteenth century, 
which afford such instances as sfitn for sfett, dieiU for dtU, dierts for 
deres (theirs), mym for men (to think, suppose). But the Scandinavian 
e takes much the sound of English a, as in ' fate/ Danish stfn^ then, 
corresponds with our Stane, South Jutland and O. I>an. ititn precisely 
with our Steoan. 

* It is almost impossible to represent this sound intelligibly. It is, in fact, exceedingly 
difRcull, by the aid of only ivpe, to represent tny sound to a reader whose ear is tmacctu- 
lofned to it. Neither t»,j, nor y are adequate exponents of the sound in question, though 
it seems to partake of the phoncui of each. On the whole, after much consideration, and 
atlentirc litteuing to the speech of the Cleveland people, I coiiccirc that m comes, if any- 
tiling, rather nearer the nurk than either of the other two signs ; only it must be under- 
stood that what it meant is rather an impulse ia the direction of the sound of «« in ' feet,* 
than the prolonged sound itacif. There is little doubt thai the sound m question is that 
of^. Danishy; but while ». with the qualification Just named, more neariy representa the 
desired sound than y, it has also the additional merit of not nuking the words written with 
it look ao outlandish u if > were employed. This will be seen by compuiog sto»ft& with 



Now Bosworlh's remark on the long or accented A. S. iJ is ' that 
words containing this long or accented d are now represented by English 
terras with the vowel sounded like o in no and bone. The following 
words have either the same or an analogous meaning, both in English 
and Anglo-Saxon : hdm^ home, dn, one, ban, bone, hdn, sMn, sdr, rdp, 
idfy gdsty wrdi. Sometimes the accented or long d is represented in 
English by oa, as dr, an oak, gdd, a goad, Idd^ rdd, brdd^ bds, Ac. Occa- 
sionally d becomes oe in English ; as dd, a doe, /d, a foe, rd, M, wd ; 
but the ot in these words has the sound of o in no. The same may be 
said of oa in boar. Hence it appears that the A. S. d is represented by 
the modem English o, oa, <w, which have the sound of o in no, — Dcut. 
Gram, von Jacob Grimm, Vol. I. pp. 358-397. 3rd edit. 1840.'* 

There is then a presumption, probably a strong one, that A. S. d may 
have been originally sounded as in ' no/ and stdn therefore would have 
been * stone' in utterance.! O. N. sieinn, O. Sw. sien, however, as well as 
Dan. skin, Sw. stm, would be more like our stane, and the same of O. N. 
ben (bone), Dan. ben^ Sw. ten ; O. N. heimr (home), Dan. hjsm^ Sw, hem, 
and the like. The coincidence between the Cleveland forms stane» 
hame, bane, &c., which are frequently heard still, and the correspond- 
ing Scandinavian words would^ by itself simply, be extremely interest- 
ing ; but, with the additional coincidence afforded by the Jutland usage, 
it becomes not alone interesting, but suggestive in a high degree. For 
it not only points to Danish influence in the material and formalton of 
the dialect under notice, but aUo points with some degree of precision — 
and quite independently of any direct historical testimony tending to 
the same point — to the particular or local source of such Danish in- 
fluence, namely the Danish peninsula.J 

i/yofi, heeam with hyam^ deeal with dyal^ and so forth. It must be further obsenretl 
that the final syllable — for the lingle syllable of the long rowel U expanded into two by 
the process under mention — is dealt with as of minor importance ; the on in steeazi, for 
instance, has precisely the ntomentum that an would have iu the sentence ' he saw an 
image.* In the same way, al in feeol is merely as the al in ' eeneral' in a distinct reader 
or speaker's mouth; and so of the other instances iu which the m sound is introduced in 
oar dialect. 

• Comp. A. S. Diet. p. II. 

■f In the Scmi-Saxon of Layamoo's Brut we have several examples of the commencing 
transition in spelling from A. S. a to Eng. o as in ' no,* or its equivalent sounds xia^ or, which 
is probably an additional if not a concltisive argument that this was the origiiul sound of 
the vowel in question. Thus vta (woe) takes the additional forms wa, wao, wo; fa (foe), 
Jc; bar, bar (boar), bor; ba, frrlS« (both), boa, botit ; bald*, bceldt (bold), boldt: a-^, 
aam (own), oy. o^mf. owe, <m>ent, &x. And what is worthy of remark U that the 
instances In are far more frequent in the secund text than in the first. 

X No one could compare the very quaint proverbial expressions quoted in a preceding 
P>gCi coiucident alike in idea and in expression, and current alike in Cleveland and in 




But, further, it is to the point to observe that words which in English 
are in long n, in the Cleveland dialect follow the rule of those in o ; 
thus dale becomes deeal, almost dyai or dycl^ the stress being on the 
* help vowel/ and scarcely at all on the final syllable, gaity geest, kaU^ 
keeal^ kav^, keeav. This too is of perpetual occurrence ; the following 
instances being met with on simply opening Costcllo's Poems : s<fam 
for same, hieeam for blame, ageean for again, ytfaw for fame (pp. 214, 
215). 1 take braid, or brade (to resemble, or 'take after/ as a child 
resembles or takes after his parents), as an instance of this class. The 
Wh. G/. example and orthography is, ' you breead o* me, you don't hke 
noise.' Now here the original being O. N. brtgda, Sw. Dial. brdgdU^ 
Sw. brdi (imp. br&ddes), the vowel, by the syncopation of the original 
word, is necessarily long. And in this case, then, as in that of the Scan- 
dinavian /, equivalent in soimd to English «, our dialect, following the 
rule of the JuUand f^, lakes in the Danish/ or our ee sound, before, and 
pardy instead of, the proper sound of the vowel. 

Here again, however, the rule makes no exception in favour of such 
words as have come to us from sources very divergent from Scandi- 
navian tongues or dialects, or, in other words, are of later introduction 
than the formation of the dialect. Thus fame becomes feeam, and 
davie, deeaxn, quite as fully as samt (O. N. samr), eeeam, /ame (O. N. 
iama)j looam, name (O. N. na/tt^ Sw. tuimri), neeam, &c. 

But, further, with neeam, deeal, seoam, for name, dalt\ sarrUj com- 
pare ahamm for shantc, gamm for game, darr for dare^ and a few other 
instances of the same kind. It is certainly remarkable that, while A. S. 
has seeamu, sceomu^ PI. D, schaam, Fris. scame^ Eng. skame^ &c., the O. N. 
word is skomm, sJkamm, the Dan. sJtam, skamme, beskismnu ; as also 
O. N, gaman, Dan. gammen, against Eng. game. Mid. Saxon game, gome, 
A. S. gamen ; O. N. Jx?rj (the unaccented), Dan. /w, Sw, for, against 
Eng. dare, A. S, dear. 

But let us revert for a moment to a word which, in its several forms, 
has already passed under review, but did not meet with all the attention 
which, in the matter now under consideration, it dcscn-ed. That word 
is home, which in this dialect takes the forms hame, heeam, yamm. 
With honu A. S. kdm may be collated ; with hame, O. N. luimr, O. Dan. 
hem, Sw. hem, Sw. Dial, heim, haim : and with heeam, Dan. hjem. But, 
as it would appear, the presence and influence of another principle has 
to be looked for in the case of the thhd form yamm : and that prin- 
ciple is not, as I conceive, an assumed transition under strong aspira- 
tion (strong aspiration is scarcely the rule in Northumbrian disdects 

Jutland, without being led to think od the connection between the two dUtricts, ind whit 
it hat) been, to lead to luch 1 singoUrly linking connpondcricc. 


generally, and certainly not in the Cleveland dialect) of the Aee into ye, 
BO that heeam becomes ye-am and eventually yamm, so much as the 
same which accounts for yan, ya (yah) for one, yall for ale, yak for 
oak, and so on without end. 

Mr. Kok* remarks of the South Jutland dialect that in it, as well as 
in that of North Jutland, all vowels admit of that extension of sound 
which is developed by the preinsertion of/ {alle selvlyde ktmne udvides 
ved etforamaij) ; and, among the instances he gives, ^ejen for ^«, one, 
jyver foryver, udder. Compare our Cleveland yan, Yure, merely bear- 
ing in mind that Dan. J is almost exactly equivalent in sound — in such 
a position, that is — to our^. 

Mr. Kok further observes that a like extension of sound obtains in 
certain Norse dialects, and even in the later Islandic speech, while in 
fifteenth-century Danish J is frequently found inserted before e. The 
insertion of the J therefore is not a peculiarity affecting barely the Jut- 
land dialects, however true it may be that it prevails more extensively 
and fully in the peninsula than elsewhere. 

It is of course impossible that the peculiarities of dialect adverted to 
in what has been advanced above, and evidently so susceptible of reduc- 
tion to rule, could have originated independently of some specific source ; 
and I think it is almost equally impossible to observe the general corre- 
spondence, and even, in many cases, minute coincidences, between the 
peculiarities in question and the sufficiently marked characteristics of 
Scandinavian tongues and dialects, without being led to the conclusion 
that in all the particulars specified the Cleveland dialect is indebted to 
the Old Danish tongue, and, in a marked manner and no small degree, 
to the Jutland forms in particular. 

As a sequel to, and conmientary on, this conclusion, I append the 
following translation from Professor Worsaae's Minder <m de Danske og 
NordmeEndene i England, Skotland og Irland : — ' The popular speech in 
North England is speciEilly remarkable for its correspondence with the 
dialects ciurent in the Danish peninsula. Many words occur which are 
common to N. England and Jutland, but which, otherwise, are not found 
in the Danish tongue. For instance, in North England the shafts of 
the various carriages employed are called h'mmers, which word is most 
evidently of the same derivation as our Juttish Item, a broom, both of 
them being derived from O. N. limit a branch, spray. But, besides, the 
broad pronunciation makes the likeness even more striking and extra- 
ordinary. Thus in N. England, styanf {sleen, Eng. stone), yen (een^ 

* S. J^and DaruJte Folktsprog, p. 97. 

t It U Karcdy necessary to observe that Prof. Worsaae simply uses y where we, for 
reasons given above, have preferred to substitute ee. 




Eng. one), welt (r^r/A*, Eng. to upaei), swell (sve!k*j Eng. overcome 
with heat and exercise), maw {mave, Eng. stomach), low (/«r, Eng. flame), 
donse (datuise, Eng. dkmcc), fey (y^/i*, Eng. to remove the earth), ouse, 
{oxty Eng. ox), raun {ro^rit Eng. roe of fishes), war and war {varre <^ 
Vitrrty Eng. worse and worse), with many others of the same sort, are 
just pure juttish.t 

* In fact, the Jutland dialects resemble tlie English language more 
nearly than any other section of the Danish tongue. The West Jut- 
landers use the article tz before tlie word in the same way as English 
Vu is applied, although tlie Danish tongue otherwise is unacquainted 
with such an article ; i and the broad open w which the folks of Funen 
and Sealland can only enimciate with the utmost difficulty, falls from 
the Jutlanders as easily as from an Englishman.'§ 

It would have been easy to have pushed illustrations of the kind which 
have been so far adduced considerably further. Thus the sound of the 
Cleveland a in such words as hand^ man, Ac, is utterly unlike any recog- 

* The word winsinaglt occurs here in the original, and is evidently a miiprint. 
I have replaced it by xvelt* ftom Molbech'i Dialect Lexicon, which it current in 
Falitrr with the ngniticatinn, 1o die ilowly or of exhaustion. I might alto add that 
Kok'i Juitiih form ytn U more to the point than Woruae'i tf<n in tbe Uoe above, thit 
in which tttlt occurs. 

+ It would have been very possible, indeed easy (and apart from the broad pronunciation 
under meiuion), to make the at>ore parallel much more striking by leaving out such words 
as suftU, which occurs tn Sfmi-Saxon and Middle English (not to mention K. nutlttr also), 
mcau, damtf, and inserting in their stead such words as flui, 0*rtal, Boran. MOUOOt 
■oraflle, Begg, &c..— words which are unknown to Danish and English alike, but are com- 
mon to Cleveland and Jutland. In Tact, the number of such words is very considerable, 
and the illustration of our dialect derivable from a study of the Danish dialects, and espe- 
cially of those current in Jutland, most important. Scarcely second, indeed, to that from 
the Swedish dialects at large. 

t This itatement, as has been seen at a fonner page, must be received with some 

i At a sabseqnent page (257) the same author, speaking of the Lowlands of Scotland, 
says, — ' According to a tradition widely spread in this locality, the Lowland speech is so 
like the Scandinavian forms that teamen from the Lowlands, who chance to be wrecked 00 
the coasts of Jutland or Norway, have no difficulty in making thenuelves understood by 
the use simply v{ their nio:her tongue. That is uo doubt a great exaggeration, bat so 
tnuch is cenain, that the Lowland dialect contains a still greater proportion of Northern 
words ami idioms than that even of North England.' While demurring to the perfect 
accuracy of this itatement. 1 may take the opportunity of recording that an English 
dcrgymin, bom and brought up at the eastern end of Cleveland, and who had not 
only spent a great deal of time in Norway, but spoke Danish with entire facility, men- 
tioned to me that, on many occasions, he had becti most forcibly reminded of the rer> 
nacular of the Cleveland people and their mode of speaking it by the words and the 
accent equally of one and another of his attendants in his fishing and other excuniont. 
He repeated several of these sentences to me, and they certainly sounded like very pure 
and good * Yorkshire/ 



nised vowel-sound in English. The ordinary orthography hcmd, men* 
entirely fails to give any adequate idea of il. But, I imagine, it would 
require a nice ear to dbcriminate the vowel sound in Dan. haand from 
that in hand as spoken by a true Clevelanrier. 

Again, there is a remarkable softening of the hard g sound in many 
of our dialect words into a i' or y sound, or p>ossibly only into that of 
gh, which runs parallel with many like cases in modem Danish or Danish 
dialects. I'hus, Kng. pioitgh, in Cleveland is plewf or pleeaf. Compare 
Dan. plm.\ S. Jutl. phri\ pliwe (to plough), sounded pi&vv, with O. N. plogr^ 
O. Dan. plog, phug. Iiow, again, a flame or blaze, S. Jull. lege (sounded 
/tfrr), Dan. /w, as compared with O. N. logi, N. loge, Sw. l^a. 

But, however interesting, and even suggestive, such instances are 
in themselves, and however numerous they may be in liie aggregate, 
yet itiey scarcely illustrate principles of such wide application as does 
what has t>een advanced above ; and, consequently, they afford rather 
detached pieces of testimony than an array of weighty and organized 
evidence towards the decision of tlie quesdon with which we are 

Some analysis of the verbal constituents of the dialect, however, may 
suggest itself as not unlikely to yield valuable results in the prosecution 
of our enquir>* : and I think one thing will make itself very apparent to 
any one a little familiar with English in its more archaic forms, as soon 
as he begins to examine and analyse our vocabularj-. He will find a 
varietj' of Old English words and expressions, and several which scarcely 
appear, or possibly do not appear in Early or Middle English at all, but 
which are still to be found in Anglo-Saxon. But, for a few of tliis 
description, he will find a s^iy considerable number that are not to be 
foimd cither in Anglo-Saxon or any stage of English; while a not in- 
considerable proportion of the whole will be found to consist of vocables 
which are either met with individually, or by some representative of their 
Stock, in both the Scandinavian and Germanic languages and dialects. 

• ' We would particularly recominrad the pemul of the Craven Olouary to our <Ira- 
matins and novelists, who. when they introduce a Yorluhire chancter. generally make 
him tpeak tomething much more like Hampshire — occaiionaUy, even, broatj Soitiersctshire.' 
Gamett't Pint. Es.-nys. p. 55. ( ani afraid this rcconinicndation is as much needed still as 
when it was written. Mr. Browdie's ' Yorkshire' would be not too intelligible in Yorkshire, 
cither in fomi or material, while the dialect in Sylvia's Lovers, the scene of which is sup> 
posed to be laid in or near Whitby, would cenuinly not recommend its speaker to the 
kindly notice of the Dalesmen as a fcllow-ClcvcUnder. Mr. Browdie says bond and fb<U, 
ftnd so fortti, but he makes, among many others, the unpardonable mistake of saying * yan 
day.* while the stajde of hit discourse is ordinary English m masquerade, with scarcely a 
lingle characteristic Yorkshire word introduced, and much less any of the peculiar idiom 
and racy pregnancy of meaning which cbaracterise the tmc Yorkihiieman's familiar dis* 




It must be my effort to give some kind of analysis in a few folIo\ving 
pages such as may serve at once to justify and to illustrate these 

In the first place, out of 218 words taken in sequence from the com-* 
mencement of the following Glossary, omitting none but those which in 
point of derivation might be justly looked upon as duplicates of one 
already admitted,* 28 appear to be A. S., 97 Scandinavian,! 42 com- 
mon to A. S. (and other Germanic tongues) and Scandinavian, 5 Cel- 
tic,! 11 Mediaeval Latin or Norman French, 18 Old English, 10 cor- 
rupt or familiar English, and 7 the origin of which may be doubtful. 
Again, out of 359 from the latter pan of the Glossary (under letter S, 
indeed), 21 seem to be A. S., 129 Scandinavian, 103 common or mixed, 
4 Celric, 8 M. Latin or French, 17 archaic English, 60 corrupt or 
familiar English, and 17 doubtful. Estimating these figures on another 
principle, the tabulated results will be as follows : — 

In each 100 words in the first and second selections from our Glos- 
sary, respectively, there will be, exclusive of fractions — 

A.S. IScand. 

Conunon. C«hic. 

Old Eng. Doubtful. 



= 100 
= 100 












This result is remarkable in more respects than one. In the first 

* Thus I lake Bairn, bat omit baimish, baimlihneaB, Stc. Should, however. ■ 
compound word ocnir, which appears as a compound in A.S. or any ScandiiutHan tongue 
or dialect, it has been included, although a rcpreKnlativc of its class might already hare 
found place : Baim-team being a case in point. 1 should observe that the work of claui- 
ficalion wu by no means caty. and the difficulty wai not leucncd by the foregone con- 
cloiioiu rxistine in my mind. For, with the ycari of study I had tfcstowed upon the 
enquiry, it was mevitable that my own decision upon the nature and constituents of the 
dialect should have been arrived at long Mitcc : and that, as word after word passed under 
rrview. and to large a proponioii of all pointed to distinctly, and to nuny of them lo 
strikingly, to the inipresiion produced by one particular class of infiucnces. the effect upon 
my thoughts should tiave liren very distinct and decided. Rtil I think 1 may say that 1 
strove to be strictly impartial, and even to allow for any insensible bias. It may be added, 
first, that the analysis of these 550 words was tlie work of nearly two days with the com* 
pkted MS. before me; and. secondly, that in selecting the letter S, a letter has been takca 
which occupies a conspicuous place among the other letters in all tongues of CSothic origin. 
In Haldor»cn's Lexicon words beginning with S take up almost 14^ per cent, of the entire 
space; in Dalin's Swedish Dictiorury about iS ; in Molbech't Danish Dictionary nearly 16; 
in Bosworth's A.S. Dicticmary about i^l ; in Hilpcrt's German Dictionary nearly 17I; iu 
Richardson's English Dictionary only about II ; and in our Clevel, Glossary about I4f. 

f O. N.. Swedish, Danish, or occurring tn some dialect ofcttbci. 

t GaeUc. Welsh, Bret^ &c. 



place, we remark upon the decided preponderance of words of Scan- 
dinavian original over those of Anglo-Saxon. Secondly, we have tlie 
noteworthy particular that the sum of the three first columns is seventy- 
six in the first line, seventy-one in llie second ; and that, after allowing 
for this coincidence, the main diflerence will be found under the head of 
corrupt or familiar English phraseology. But the presumption surely 
is, that, when in the one case we have thirteen A. S. terms against forty- 
four Scandinavian, and in the other, six of tlie former against twenty- 
nine of the latter, that in those terms — nineteen in the one case, twenty- 
nine in the second — which are due to vocables common to the Scan- 
dinanan and Germanic classes of languages, the real derivation in the 
proportionate majority of cases must be from the former rather than 
from the latter. 

Put this conclusion side by side vnih the names of places in Qeveland, 
according to the results of examination slated in a former page, with the 
names of owners at the date of the Domesday survey, with the presimied 
names of serfs or villancs sixty or seventy years later, ^vilh the conclu- 
sions drawn from our pre\ious remarks upon the Northumbrian definite 
article and from our notice of the power of the Scandinavian accents 
and other pronunciational peculiarities brought under re\'iew. — and I think 
it will be impossible to come to any other conclusion Uian that, wherever 
the Cleveland dialect diverges from the ordinary or standard langiiage, it 
is indebted to the Scandinavian tongues and dialects for certainly not less 
than sixty per cent, of such divergences. 

Of course, the figures on wliich this conclusion partly rests may be 
regarded as merely an approximation, but still I am convinced that for 
all practical purposes it is a safe and sufficient approximation; and it is 
certainly one that is entirely consistent with the suggestions which are 
perpetually offering themselves in the course of continued and attentive 
study of the elements of the dialect. It is a remarkable fact, that, with 
all the striking illustrations of Cleveland words, phrases and sounds 
which arc met with in the Danish dialect, and especially in that of South 
Jutland, yet there are almost more and more striking ones dispersed 
throughout the entire volume — a most admirable one — in which Dean 
Rietz has collected the peculiarities of the Swedish popular speech 
throughout the various provinces of the entire kingdom. At first sight 
it seems scarcely reasonable to anticipate any such result. We hear of 
the Danes and the Northmen as the invaders and ultimate conquerors 
of England. We identify the Jutes as forming no small comparative 
proportion of the invading and colonising hosts. We the 
successful chieftains, who, with their men, settle on the lands granted or 
conceded to them in Northumbna, and Yorkshire especially, as, gene- 
rally speaking, Danes; but we hear of very few Swedes, eidicr as among 

XXXV in 


the troops or the leaders. Not that we doubt there were Swedes 
among them. It could scarcely have been otherwise. But what I 
mean is thai the proportion of Swedes among the Scandinavian 
cruisers and marauding" or invading parties must necessarily - have 
been so small as to be insignificant, and that, as forming or taking 
any part in the various exi>editions directed against our English 
coasts, the Swedes engaged must have been simply present more as 
recruits in a Danish force, and in no sense as a separate or independent 
auxiliary force.* 

And still the Northumbrian dialect, and the Cleveland form of it in 
particular, unquestionably indebted to Scandinavian speech for consi- 
derably above one half of the peculiarities which constitute it a dialect, 
is illustrated as much by existing Swedish dialects as by Old Norse or 
existing Danish or Norwegian forms, even if not almost more. 

Anomalous as this seems, yet in realit)* it admits of easy explanation. 
There can be no doubt that at the lime when the Danish conquests in 
the North of England were becoming consolidated, and acquiring more 
and more of Danish form and consistency, as well as population, that 
the original Scandinavian tongue, supposed common to Uie Danes, 
Northmen and Swedes, was already undergoing considerable modifica- 
tions, which in one direction resultt^d in Old Danish, leading down into 
Modem Danish ; in another, into Old and Modern Swedish. But it 
must be obsen'ed that, in the case of Danish, the modification adverted 
to is much more thorough and operative, and has resulted in a much 
greater divergence from the original, than in the case of Swedisli. The 
latter is the child in whom almost all the features of the parent are 
reproduced, and not a few of his peculiarities of personal habit or 
gesture : in the former tlie likeness exists, and strongly, but it is not so 
obtrusive, and often presents itself rather, as it were, lo the thoughtful 
and comparing beholder, than thrusts itself on every passing eye. 
I would say that Swedish, and especially the Swedish dialects, may be 
in a sense (and that not a misleading one) regarded as a kind of instan- 
taneous photograph of a transitional state of the Old Norse tongue, the 
period of transition being not very far removed from the date at which 
the Northumbrian dialect began to assume distinct consistency and 
form ; a date we cannot fix, even very approximately, from internal or 
locally historical data, except in so far as we assume, on seemingly very 
sufficient grounds, that it must have been subsequent to the middle of 
the tenth century. And hence the simple explanation of the fact that 

• Sm IVofcMor Woruie't rpmirlci upon this subject, and his expUtution of ihe (act, la 
the opening ptgci of bii ibk Mindtr om tU Dtuukt, &c. 


the Swedish and the Northumbrian dialects stiil retain a very large pro- 
portion of words common to both, not a few of which moreover occur 
in no other dialect or vocabulary besides these two. 

Another illustration of the extent to which Northern elements still 
prevail in our vocabulary has been obtained by the careful collation of 
the Semi-Saxon Ancrm Riwie* and Layamon's Brui ;\ and, secondly, 
of the Early English Piers Ploughman's Visi&ttfX with the Cleveland 
Glossary. In the first-named there are a 15 small 4to p^es rather 
closely printed, in the second 32,200 short verses, and in the last 
14,700, together with 1700 in the Creedy in all 16,400; while the Glos- 
sary contains about 3920 words. The result of the collation is that 
in Ancrm Riwle there are about 235 words which either are found 
in the Glossary or are nearly related to some that are there met 
with : in Layamon the number of such words scarcely amoimts to 
more than 300 : while in Piers Ploughman the number scarcely ex* 
ceeds no. 

This result is, it must be admitted, a somewhat remarkable one. The 
average percentage of pure Anglo-Saxon words in the Glossary can 
scarcely be set down at less than 10 (and it is probably more); 
and yet in Ancren Riwle scarcely 5^ per cent of our words or their 
connections occur, in the Brut only a little over 4^, whOe in the 
Vision of Piers Ploughman the percentage dwindles down to about one 
half of that. 

And what makes this perhaps somewhat more remarkable is the occur- 
rence in the Semi-Saxon writings named of certain phrases or modes of 
speech which not only retain their currency to this day in Cleveland, but 
retain it to the entire exclusion among all the older people of any 
parallel form of expression. Thus, one very striking — at least to a 
Southern ear — mode of expression here is, to sit upon one's knees, 
as an equivalent for ' to kneel/ I had compared this with Dan. sidde 
paa hugy simply as regards the external form of the phrase, but the 

* ' This work was probably composeii if not in the latter part of the twelfth, at least 
Tery early in the thirteenth century, and !s therefore nearly contemporaneous with the 
Chronicle of Layamon, to the earlier text of which it bears much resemblance/ Marsh's 
lActuret on the Origin and History o/tbi English Language^ p. 169. 

+ • There is neither internal nor external evidence by which the date of the poem can be 
fixed with exact precision, but there are allusions to events which occurred late in the 
twelfUi century ; and, on the other band, the character of the diction and grammar justify 
OS in saying Uiat it could scarcely have been written after the commencement of the thir* 
teenth.' lb. p, 156. 

X ' The precise date of the poem called the Vision of Piers Ploughman is unknown, but 
there is little doubt that it was given to the world between the years 1360 and 1370.' 
lb. p. 395. 



following passage from Lay, ii. 506 unmistakeably suggested a truer 

connection : — 

' (:'«H hcTe-t»rigc$ hrco : These host-chicfi three 

comen to han ktge. Came to the King 

8c (ctten an hcore cncowcn : — And sat oa their kneet 
before han kaiscre.' Before tlie cai&cr. 

Again, to mention but one other like instance, we find our common 
expressions gan. nor stand, gan or ride (equivalent to * walk or stand,' 
'walk or ride'), not only in Layamon, but the latter also in Piers 
Ploughman, the idiom, in the Vision, corresponding to the former being 
steppf rw stand. 

I turn now to ask attention to a very few grammatical peculiarities. 
The definite article has been already dealt with. Some few plurals in 
en yet remain ; as owsen, houBen, een, (cyen). Chllder is also heard : 
but beyond these forms there is no deviation from tlie ordinary English 
noun forms, except indeed as to the genitive. The Cleveland man 
invariably says bird nest, not ' bird's nest/ men names, not ' men's 
names/ stee foot, bank top, instead of ' foot of the Stee' (ladder), 
Mop of the Bank' (hill) — a construction of frequent occurrence in 
Chaucer, and met ^vilh in P. Phughm.* Mrrlin, Mali Mddmhad^ 
S, Marhcrete, &c., as well as in Taumtley Myst, and other books of 
Northumbrian origin, passim. 

The relative pronoim at (see At, below, in the Glossar)') is stiU in 
full use, while wheea, corresponding to O. N. kverr^ supplies the inter- 
rogative form. Tlie second personal pronoun, thou, is of continual 
use among the people themselves, but >'oa, not_yc, plural. 

Among the adjectives are a few which are compared by the addition 
of more and most as sufhxes, instead of in the ordinary manner, as 
bettermore (usuaUy bettermy or bettenner), nearmer, farmost, 
baokmest, Ac. The forms farr = further, narr = nearer, farr'st, 
neest = furthest, nearest, are also in continual use. 

In the class of verbs, there are some noticeable deviations from 
English usage. Thus sleep, creep, hear, in their preterite forms 
become sleep' d, creep'd, hear'd (sounded heerd : not as £. heard is). 
Wash, wax, snow, make wesh, wex, anew. Freeze gives firase, rise, 
v. a., rase, rive, rave, steal, stale, swear (pr. sweer), sware, speak, 
spak, break (pr. breke), brak ; while leach, if used at all (learn 
is the word in almost invariable use in the sense to teach), makes 
teacht, hold (pr. ho'd), hodded, heave, heaved (hove being some- 

• • |>ii l»reke> mnim Urgei* Ske*t*i edit. p. 76. 
lb. pi 18 

And le^^cft telh and hti ivtArr »fd. 


tiroes heard), weave, weaved and wove. Find (pr. finnd) again 
roakes fiin', fan', bind, bun', wind, wun'; but blind gives blinded, 
ding both ding'd and dang, hlng (for hang) hing'd and hung 
(tt as in 'bull').* 

But it is in the p. participle that the greater number of peculiarities 
is observable. Stand, stooden, gtit gitten, cleave, olowen, shear, 
Bhoren, creep, oroppen or cnippen (u as in ' bull' or as ot? in ' stood'), 
sleep, sleppen, oheeas (for choose), ohossen or ohossen, knead, 
knodden, freeze, frossen, come, oxunmen, rive, rovren, swear, sworen, 
weave, wowen, break, brokken, drive, drowen, thrive, throwen 
and throdden, hold, hodden, take, takken, tekken or tokken 
(u as the oo in 'took'), bind, bTin* and bnnden, wind, wonden, find, 
ftin' and fonden, Sec. 

Traces of the pres. participle in -and are met with also, but they are 
now only traces, unless indeed the universal suppression of the final 
g be looked upon as tantamount to the continuance of the and form. 
Oonnan I look upon, from its unmistakeable sound, as really gannan(d) 
and not gannin(g) ; wakan' (pr. wakkan) too, I think it is, and not 
wakin' ; and so of a few others, as laitan', lakan', &c. But ridin', not 
ridan\ flytin*, not flytan\ helpin' and not helpari is, I am sure, the rule, 
and so of the great preponderance. 

The inflection of the present tense of verbs conforms pretty closely 
to the general Northumbrian rule ; as — 

Swo. Plur. 

I (Ah) is. We is. 

Thou is. You are. 

He is. They is. 

Ah gans. We gans. 

Thou gans. You gan. 

He gans. They gans. 

The imperfect of the verb substantive is — 

Swo. Plur. 

Ah, thou, he, wur. We, you, they, wur. 

Emphatic, the word becomes war (sounded like the £. sb.). 

* Seen as the pret of * see,' is not in infrequent use ; as, Ah seen 'ixn a week syne, 
as pawky a lahtle ohap aa ivrer Ah seen. So also gaed is of perpetual occurrence 
as the prcL of gae in preference to E. wmt. Steead for stood, deean for done, are 
merely phonetic variations. 




What is called ihe gerundial construction is of perpetual occurrence, 
as in he'll be to lite on, they 'b to lait, bad to beat, ill to see, &c. 
The future of intention or purpose is frequently rendered by s\ as in 
thou b' ha'e, Ah s* gan, for tliou shalt have, I shall ^o, where I look 
upon s as undoubtedly the result of a double contraction of the usual 
Northumbrian form sal^ first into j7, the / being slurred as in ordinary 
talk, and then into x\ the / being dropped altogether. Wheea a' aw 
or owe P is also explained on this principle. 

The future of necessity is rendered in a slightly different manner. A 
man may say to another, thou has t' gan, implying the necessity of 
his going, and the ' has ' may be rendered emphatic. But thou is t* gan 
is equally good Cleveland, and not infrequently the form as actually 
sounded is simply thoust gan ; thus. Miles, t' maaster says thouBt 
gan te StowBloy t' moom, where the emphatic form would be, thou 
la t* gan, a' t* same. 

At, as the sign of the infinitive mood, is lost, or so nearly so that it is 
unrecognised among the people themselves. I sometimes hear the 
form what's a' deeanowP in which 1 believe the a stands for at, and 
1 have suspected that the expression nowght t' say might rather be 
written, judging by the sound, as nowght 't say, that is, nowght at say, 
or ' nothing to say.' 

The tendency of the dialect to use adverbial forms in 'lings has been 
remarked on. Adjectives in -sonUy as ridfiome, viewsome, langsome, 
fearsome, are fully as characteristic as adverbs in -hngs. -mtni also, 
as a common termination of nouns, deserves notice; as perishment, 
dasement, trashment, muokment, minglement, and very many 

A few remarks upon the vowel and consonant sounds may, perhaps, 
be not quite uncalled for. 

A has the four soimds noted below :■ — 

I. Long, or as in faU. 

a. Short, or as in /a/,- in yal, HaUy, dander, Ac. 

3. Broad, or as betxvecn the o in * hole' and an in ' maund ;' in 

such words as hand, man, land, stand. 

4. Before /, that of <m.\ the consonant being suppressed, as in 

cau'f for calf, aau't for salt. 

E has the ordinary long and short sounds of English t, as in perching 
(pr. pcerdiing), pettle; 


/ has three sounds : — 

1. Long, as <T + ^ or Gr. d<. See above, p. xxix, and under 


2. Short, as in 'hit,' ' pit-' 

3. Before r (as in * bird'), that nearly of in * Boz,' as ho't = hurt, 

bo'd - bird. 

O has five sounds : — 

I. Long, as tea dissyllable; the ee as in *feet,' but with a 
quick impulse of the voice, the a as in missal, or the 
short a at the end of Latin words; as stone, steean, 
bone, beean, &c. 

a. Short, as in ' hot.' 

3. Before r, as with i before r, when the sound is as in ' word,' 

not in ' lord.' 

4. Long, before /, as au, suppressing the consonant, as oau'd, 

bau'd, for 'cold," bold/ 

5. Short before /, as in 'sod/ suppressing the consonant, as 

ho'd for 'hold.' 

^has five sounds: — 

1. Most generally as « in E. dui/, as in lumbering (pr. loom- 

mering), olxmter, oluther, cumber (pr. coommer), &c. 

2. As in £. ' dull/ in a few words only, as duss, changed from 


3. Before r, as 1 and before r. 

4. The peculiar sound noted imder Tuflt or Teiiflt, nearly 

approaching to, if not coincident with, that of Dan. >. 
The transition from this sound into that of Clevel. 00 in 
' fool,' ' school,' ' door,' or of long as in ' stone,' ' bone,' 
or of long a as in ' dale,' seems a very easy one. 

5. As in bou'k for ' bulk.' Cf. howk, vb., with Sw. huiAe. 

£oy in ' yeoman,' is sounded as i, as yemman. Compare ' weapon.' 
£i\ in ' eight/ much the same as in E. height, 

Oo has two sounds : — 

1 . As in ' door,' ' school/ ' fool,' and the name Foord, as long ; 

deear, soheeal, feeal, Feeard. 

2. Sometimes, as in ' book,' ' nook,' as eu. But the forms beeak, 

neeak, obtain more generally than beuk, neuk. 


Ou has two sounds : — 

I. As in ' hound/ not as in ' wound/ as lound, Btound, ought, 

nought, outher, nouther, &c. 
3. As in huif, as in through (pr. thruff), fiough, &c. 

For the consonants, it may be noted that b after m is either suppressed 
as in numb, or changed into another m, as in slumber, cumber, lum- 
ber (pr. sloommer, coommer, loommer). 


1. In the middle of a word is very frequendy sounded as ih 

hard (%), as in dither, dother, flither, for didder^ dodder, 

2. Final, as in andy and in the preterites and p. participles 

of verbs, bound, bund, ftmd, is slurred over or sup- 

3. After n takes the sound of a second n in some words, as 

in thunder, sounded thoonner. But in winder, sunder, 
it is sounded with distinctness, and slurred rather than 
changed in blunder, blundered, &c. 


I. After n is sounded as in Germ, schiangen^ Dan. anger ^ as 

in angered, nang-nail, &c. 
3. Final, is almost invariably suppressed ; thus both the ^'s in 

hinging-mind are subject to these two rules respectively. 

3. Guttural, or as in £ng. through, Dan. plog, becomes a labial, 

as in thruff, pleaf or pleuf, beuf or beeaf (bough). A 
very considerable number of Cleveland words depend upon 
this principle, and in some of them the form ch or gh, 
intermediate between an original g and our ff, is not easy 
to trace. See Arf, Mauf, &c. 

4. Simply guttural as in enough, of which 'enew' does not 

fairly represent the soimd. Sc. etuuch is nearer. 

K before s, either immediately or with a silent vowel intermediate, as 
in Stokesley, is softened into w, as Stowsley. 

L after a, 0, «, ou is usually suppressed as in ' calf,' ' balk," * old,' 
*cold,' 'mouldie,' 'bulk,' which become cau'f, bau'k, au'd, oau'd, 
mou'die, bou*k. 

Qu is changed into w, as in * quick,' wick, ' quaint,' went or 
waint, Ac. 


R after a is in some words suppressed, as a't for 'art/ a'm for 
' arm/ pft't for ' part/ ga'n, gain, for gam, gaim, 'yam/ &c. 

T in the middle of a word in some cases becomes /A, as in daugh- 
ter, pronounced dowth'r. 

7% at the commencement of a word in the mouths of many is 
sounded simply as /, as trone for * throne/ trow for ' throw,' while / by 
itself in the same place sometimes sounds as M, as in tlurimml for 
' tremble/ 

Wh initial is usually spoken with a strong aspirated breathing, as in 
wheea, woU, for ' who/ interrogative, * whole.' So also in whewt. 

Xj or the sound of k before j is in many words softened into ws or ss, 
as in owse, owsen, Boufiby, assel, for ' ox,' ' oxen,' ' Roxby,' ' axle/ 

FT and J^are frequently prefixed to words beginning with a, £>, as in 
wots (& as in ' hold,' but sounded short), wossel, woiBf tiB, for ' oats,' 
' hosde,' ' host-house,' yal, yan, yaoker, yabble, for al (ale), an (one), 
' acre/ ' able.' 





O.N. Old Norse. 

Isl. Icelandic. 

Hald.* Lexicon Islandico-Latino-Danicum, B. Haldor- 

sonii. Havn. 1814. 
Egils. Egilsson's Lex. Poeticum Antiq. Linguae Sep- 

tentr. Hafn. i860. 
Mobius. Altnordiscb. Glossar, von Dr. Th. Mbbius. 

Leipz. 1866. 
Rask's Icelandic Grammar, by Dasent. Lon- 
don. 1843. 
O. Sw. Old Swedish. 

S. G. Suio-Gothic. 

* Haring made by &t the most nie of Haldorsen's Lexicon, until within the last two or 
three yean, I have in the majority of instances quoted O. N. words with his orthography. 
Greater conectness would have been obtained by altering all the (/'■ in words properly spelt 
with "S, and so also of words which by Mobius and Egilsson are written with a j instead of 
the f exchuifely employed by Haldorsen. Remarks of the same kind apply to Molbech's 
Danish and Dialect Lexicons in reference to the employment of i instead of the more 
approved j of the present day, and • instead of o. As a rule I have simply cojned the 
words quoted faithfully &om the pages of the author in whose book I found them. 




Sw. D. \ 
Prov. Sw. j 








Dan.D. ) 
D.Dial. } 
D.D. j 

Gloss. Suio*Gothicum, &c., auct. Job. Ihre. 
Upsalise. 1769. 

Swedish Dialects. 

Ordbog (ifver Svenska Allmoge-spr&ket af Joh. 
Erast Rietz. Lund. 1862-8. 

Ordbog ofver Svenska Spraket. Af A.F. Dalin. 

Stockholm. 1850. 
Tauchnitz' Pocket Swedish-Enghsh Dictionary. 
Dansk Ordbog af C. Molbech. Ki0benhavn. 

Ferrall og Repps Dansk -Engelske Ordbog. 

Kj0benhavn. 1 86 1 . 
Engelsk-Dansk Ordbog af C. Rosing. K0ben- 

havn. 1863. 

Danish Dialects, Provincial Danish. 


Dansk Dialekt- Lexicon ved C. Molbech. 
Ki0b. 184Z. 


Det Danske Folkesprog i SenderjyIIand, v. 
J. Kok. K0b. 1863. 


Old Danish. 

Molbech, Dansk Glossarium. Ki0benhavn. 1857. 




Ordbog over det Norske Folkesprog af Ivar 

Aasen. Kristiania. 1850. 
Norsk Grammatik af 1. Aasen. Christiania. 





Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language, by 

Rev. J. Bosworth, LL.D. London. 1838. 
Compendious ditto. 1855. 





Old English. 


Middle Engtish. 


New Dictionary of the English Language. 
London. 1856. 


A Dictionary of English Etymology, by H. 
Wedgwood, MA. London. 1859-67. 


A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial words, 
by J. 0. Halliwell, F.R.S. London. 1850. 




Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Lan- 
guage, by John Jamieson, D.D. Edinburgh. 



O. H. G. 


Old High German. 


Middle High German. 





Piatt Deutsch, Netiier Saxon, Low German. 

L. Germ. 


A Dictionary of the German and English Lan- 

O. Fris. 


guages, by J. L. Hilpert. London. 


Frisian, Old Frisian, North Frisian. 

N. Fris. 












A Dictionary of tiie Welsh Language, by W. 
Owen Pugh, D.C.L. Denbigh. 1832. 










Latin, Middle or Medi«val Latin. 








Gam. Dan. Mind. 



\ French, Old French. 




Fhitey. Flateyarbok. En samling af Norske Konge- 

sagaer. Christiania. i860. 
Islands Landnamabok. Havnise. 1774. 
Gamle Danske Minder in Folkemunde; af Svend 

Grundtvig. Kj0benhavn. 1855-61. 
Minder om de Danske og Nordmsendeme i 

England, Skotland og Irland, af J. J . Worsaae. 

Kjob. 1 85 1. 
Den Danske Erobring af England og Nor- 

mandiet ved J. J. Worsaae. Kjob. 1853. 
Warend och Wirdame. Ett fdrsok i Svensk 

Ethnologi, af G. O. Hylten Cavallius. Stock- 
holm. 1863. 
Ame, af Bj0mstjeme Bj^mson. Bergen. 1859. 
Die vier Evangelien in Alt-Northumbr. Sprache 

von K. W. Bouterwek. GOtersloh. 1857. 
A. S. Gosp. The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with 

the Wycliflfe and Tyndale Versions, by Rev. 

J. Bosworth, D.D. London. 1865. 
The same. 
La^amon's Brut, or Chronicle of Britain, ed. by 

Sir F. Madden. London. 1847. 
Ancr. Riwle. The Ancren Riwle. Ed. by James Morton, 

B.D. London. 1853. 
Orm. The Ormulum. Ed. by R. M. White, D.D. 

Oxford. 1852. 
P. Ploughm. The Vision and Creed of Piers Ploughman. 

Ed. by Thos. Wright, MA. London. 1856. 
Townel. Myst The Towneley Mysteries. Surtees Society ed- 

London. 1836. 

War. och Wird. 

North. Gosp. 






£. £. AUit Poems. 
Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 
ReL Pieces. 
Gen. and Ex. 

Meid. \ 
. Meid. ] 

H. Meid 
S. Maib. 


Kn. of LaTour-Landry 

Man. Voc. 

Percy's Fol. MS. 

Phil. Soc. Trans. 



The Pricke of Conscience. A Nortbumb. Poem. 
Ed. by R. Morris for Phil. Society. 
Early English Text Society. 

The Vision of William concerning Piers Plow- 
man. Ed. by Rev. W. W. Skeat 

Alliterative Poems in the West Midland Dia- 
lect. Ed. by R. Morris. 

Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight Ed. by 
R. Morris. 

Religious Pieces, in Prose and Verse. Ed. by 
Geo. Perry, M.A. 

The Story of Genesis and Exodus. Ed. by 
R. Morris. 

Hali Meidenhead. Ed. by Oswald Cock- 
ayne, M.A. 

Seinte Marherete, the Meiden ant Martyr. Ed. 
by Oswald Cockayne, M.A. 

Merlin, or the Early History of King Arthur. 
Ed. by H. B. Wheatley. 

King Horn, with Fragments of Floris and 
Blauncheflur, and of the Assumption of 
our Lady. Ed. by J. R. Luraby. 
. The Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry. 
Ed. by Thos. Wright, M.A. 

Manipulus Vocabulorum, by Peter Levins. Ed. 
by H. B. Wheatley. 

Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript. Ed. by 
J. W. Hale and F. J. Fumivall. 

Transactions of the Philological Society. 

Philological Essays of Rev. R. Garnett. Lon- 
don. 1859. 

Early History of Mankind, by E. B. Tylor. 
London. 1865. 

Curiosities of Indo-European Traditions and 
Folklore, by Walter K. Kelly. London. 1863. 




Patr. Purg. 




Burnt Njal. 

Orig. and Hist. Eng. ) 
Lang. / 

Lect. on Eng. Lang. 

Dip. Angl 

Gloss, of Architect. 

St Patrick's Purgatory. By Thomas Wright, 

M.A. London. 1844. 
Observations on Popular Antiquities, by John 

Brand, M.A. Ed. by Sir H. Ellis. Lon- 
don. 184 1. 
The History and Antiquities of Cleveland, by 

J. W, Ord. London. 1846. 
The History and Antiquities of Cleveland, by 

Rev. J. Graves. Carlisle. 1808. 
The Works of Geoffery Chaucer. By John 

Uny. London. 1771.* 
The same. Bell's Edition in the Aldine Poets. 

8 volumes. 
Deutsche Mythologie, Von Jacob Grimm. 

Gottingen. 1854. 
The Story of Burnt Njal. Translated by 

Geo. Webbe Dasent, D.C.L. Edinburgh. 

The Origin and History of the English Lan- 
guage, by George P. Marsh. i86a. 
Lectures on the English Language, by George 

P. Marsh. New York and London. i86a. 
Lectures on the Science of Language, by Max 

Mtiller. London. 1861. 
Diplomatorium Anglicum JSvi Saxonici, by 

B. Thorpe. London. 1865. 
History of the Four Conquests of England, 

by James Augustus St. John. London. 

A Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, 

Italian, and Gothic Architecture. Oxford. 


* The refcrencct to this editon are usually made by the number of the page, sometimes 
to the number of the line in the separate Poem ot ' Tale* quoted. 


Hist of Whitby. A History of Whitby and Streoneshalh Abbey, 

by the Rev. Geo. Young. Whitby. 1817. 

Ft. Pm. Promptorium Parvulonun sive Clericonim. 

Dictionarius Anglo-Latinus princeps. Ed. 
by Albert Way, A.M. London. 1864. 

Brock. A Glossary of North Country Words in use, 

by John Trotter Brockett. Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 1835. 

Carr, or Cr. GL The Dialect of Craven, with a Copious Glos- 

sary, by a native of Craven. London. 1828. 

Wh. Gl. A Glossary of Yorkshire Words and Phrases 

collected in Whitby and the neighbourhood, 
by an Inhabitant. London. 1855. 

Lincolns. Gl. Provincial Words and Expressions current in 

Lincolnshire, by J. EUett Brogden. Lon- 
don. 1866. 

Joco-Ser. Disc. A Joco-Serious Discourse, in two Dialogues, 

between a Northumberland Gendeman and 
his Tenant, a Scotchman. London. 1 686. 

I will only add iiuther, that the books which I have found most useful 
in my inquiries touching the origin or derivation of our various dialect 
words have been Mr. Wedgwood's Dictionary of English Etymology^ 
Dean Rietz's Swedish Dialect Dictionary^ Aasen's Norse Glossaryy and 
Molbech's Danish Dialect Lexicon. I have found Mr. Wedgwood's 
book most suggestive and full of varied learning and material, which, 
even where I was unable to agree with him in his conclusions, was sure 
to be of use, and instructive, in the general course of study and research. 
My obligations also to the Swedish Glossary named are very great in- 
deed. "It is, I think, the most carefully compiled and comprehensive 


book of the kind I am acquainted ^th, and, in countless instances, so 
complete an account of the word under notice and its various cognate 
words in other languages and dialects is given, that a perfect word- 
study is afforded at a glance. It is impossible to speak too highly of 
this excellent book. Aasen's Dictionary is also an admirable work» and 
it is to be hoped that it will before long be given to the world in its 
second edition. One feature in the book, that of giving the synonymes 
of the words dealt with as well as their varying forms, might be imitated 
with advantage in all like publications. 





A I int. An exceedingly common interj., expressive of different emo- 
tions, surprise, sympathy, &c. : sometimes used singly, sometimes in 
conjunction with another word. See A ! but. 

*A1 man: that war a yarkerl' 

* A Ihesu Crist, Lorde, full of myghte.' Rtl. Puas, p. 67. 

Ay num. adj. (pr. yah). One. 

O. Sw. a, one : — * in Dalekarlia, Westrobothnta, Gothlandiaque anitatis nota est.' Ihre ; 
written at by Jam., Scott, &c. Under A the former observes that it. A, ' is used by our 
oldest writers in the sense of one. The signification is more forcible than that of a in 
Eng. before a singular noun, for it denotes not merely one out of many, but one exclusively 
of others, in the same sense in which ae is vulgarly used.' But it must be observed that 
CI. a (pr. yah) and aru (pr. yan) are not interchangeable, and therefore are not equivalents. 
Atu may stand by itself, absolutely or pronominally : a never does ; it is always adjoined to 
a noun expressed, as, * yah day,' ' yah lass :' while, on the other hand, it is, * yan iv 'em,' 
' niwer a yan,' and so forth. The same renurk applies to Sc. ae and one, and is borne out 
in regard to a in all the quotations from early writers adduced by Jam. 

'"You have two daughters, I think, Mr. Deans?" " Ae daughter, sir;— only a«*." ' 
Heart 0/ Mid Lothian. 

* Ony ane or two o' ye come forward.' Blcuk Dwarf, 

* Ae body at a time.' lb. 

• Ah seen yan o's brithers, a week gone Saturday.' 

• They're twea lads an' yah lass in family.* 

Cf. * The Trynyte .... tbre persouns and a Godd, es maker of all thynges .... Haly 
Kirke oure modere is hallyly ane thorow oute \>e werlde.' Rel. Pieces, p. 3. 

The usage, however, in these writings is not strictly uniform ; as the line, p. 59, * a god 
and ane Lmd yn threhed,' shews. 

Aback, adv. Behind, in the rear. 

O.N. dhak^ ahaki: O.S. onhac, 

* |?e justise for schyndisse : nolde loke )>erto. 
Ac bihuld abac and toumde his ejen,' Seinte Margarete, p. 28. 



* Thou iJulie abai, bcwshcre, that blart I rorbedc' Taumil. Myst. p. 241. 

* Deean't t'e thrust sae mich aback there.' 

Cf. ' Oh huomu \*ar rr Jv/r mtnn i-oru w Lappir btita, Jwf #r n bait Finnmork; and 
arrived at thai place where the men who Were called Laps were. That is aback of P'in- 
mark.' Flat. i. 2x9. 

Abaok-o-l>eyont, adv. At an indefinitely great distance ; too remote 

to be within reach or accessible from. 

* I wiih they were all abnck 0' bcyont;' of pcrsoni occasioning annoyance. Wb. Gl. 

' We were all thrown aback o' btyont the day through;' could never recover ihc ground 
lost by delay in the morning. lb. 

Abear, v. a. To endure, to put up with. 

Abide, v. a. To endure, to put up with. See Bide. 

A. S. bidan, abiJnti. 

* Abid* and abit (like guidt and gvy> Prov. ghidar and guiar. It. gridart, and Ft. erier) 
are cuentially the same verb under ditTcrent forms, of which abidt hat deKcnded to as from 
our Saxon ancestors while abie has come to us through the medium of the French.* 

Able (pr. yabble), abable fpr. yabbable), ablisb. (pr. yabblish), adj. 
X. Competent or possessing a siifficiency, in respect to bodily strength 
or ability. 2. Possessing a competency, in respect of property or worldly 

O.N. o/f f O.Sw. a/l, ajw<l; A.S. dba!^ ability, power of body. O.N. Afa signifies 
both I can. I am able, and. 1 gel or procure or acquire. Ihrc says, * As the Latin idiom 
applies pareri to the acquiitiiion of any matters, so also afia f<B means to gtrt property; 
whence is derived afian, aftmg, what is goncn or acquired. l*hus. njtingt gods, acquired 
property, is opposed to arf, byrd, /ctdtmfs-Jordt &c,, hereditary poiscssions. 
I. '"A yabblt kind of a man;" a strong, stout person.' Wb. GL 
1. ' Neea. Nanny B. is lune we needful; she 's a yabhit body eneugh.' 

* " They 're tyabblvjf lot ;" a rich family." H'h. Gl. 

Ablins (pr. ablins), adv. Perhaps, possibly. 

Comp. O.N. ajla, I am able; the idea being that of possibility. 

Abociif abune, prep. Above, higher in respect of place or position. 

A. S. b^ufan, bttfan, abufan, 

* The Quccii 's aboon us all.* Wh. Gl. 

' Will you ax my lord ? He '1 over mich aboon us.' 
Cr. also, ' Godd ^at es abouene hym.' Rel. Pifcts, p. 45. 

* Uodd is abouen all thynge,' lb. p. 46 ; and. ' large and wyde aboume* lb. p. 48. 

* With floodes that from abonc shal fallc.' Toutut. Mytt. p. 25. 

Aboon-heoad, adv. Above, over one's head. 

' " h wets aboon-bcfad :" it rains.* IVb. Gl. 

A ! but. Used mterjeclionally, but wiili a tacit reference to some 
menial comparison or remark of the speakers. 

' A ! but, that was a Wg yao;' big compared to all the others. 



Ao-oom, sb. (pr. yak'ron). An acom. 

Pr. Pm. * Aeeonu, or archade, frute of the oke, Glans.' 

Addle, V. a. To earn, acquire by labour, 

A. S. tdUam, adUoH^ a reward, recompense, requital ; whence the vb. tdlt^tnan^ tdleanian, 
to reward, recompense. But cf. especially O.N. odhz^ to obtain, make one's own, 

' Ah*s nowght bod what Ah tuUUt;' I have nothing bejond my earnings or wages. 

Addlings, sb. Earnings, money got by labour. 

* *' Poor addUngi ;** small pay for the work done.* Wh. GL 

* Hard addUngt;* retunu hboriousty obtained. lb, 

* Saving 's good addling ;* the terse sense of which is obvious. Ih, 

Afore-lang, adv. Before long, soon. 

Comp. the puaUel forms amoi^, bimong in the following passage, Ancr. Riwle, 102 : 
' )>u ueir bhnomg wnmmen, and himoag englcs )»x meiht don ^rto : hu schalt siker elles 
hwar beoD ueir nout one among wummm, auh among engles.* Chaucer writes tofortf as 
well as afon, ajonu^ afortn. A. S. atfaran. 

Observe the idiomatic use of our word in the example. 

* *' It will happen afore tang gans ;* before any long time elapses.' Wh. 01. 

Afterbirihy sb. The placenta. 

CH-tftirburdr; 0,Sv. t/Urb^d; Dzn. efierhyrd. 

Agait, agate. Astir, agoing, on the move. 

See Oate, Oait. Rich, remarks that the word gait * is applied not only to the way 
jftMf, bat also to the going, the motion in going.' Hence a-gait or on-gait, implying the 
action of going or moving. 

' They ve getten fairly agate ;' they have well begun. 

* ThoQ *s early agaie this morning/ 

Agee, ajee, adv. To one side, awry, askew. 

Jam. observes that Serenius ' gives Sw. gaa as signifying both to budget and to turn 
round' Ote is here, as elsewhere, the carter or ploughman's word to his horses when he 
desires them to turn to the right. No doubt the connection of the word is with O. Sw. ga, 
and cognate verbs, and that originally some adjoined particle decided the direction of the 
motion when it ceased to be straightforward. Comp. the terms used in directing the move- 
ments of oxen by their driver : when he desired them to turn from him, or to the right — 
the same as when gee is used — the word was bop, or bop off; the turn to be made being a 
turo to what is termed the q^ride. Gee thus derived, agee would be formed as arc a-ikew, 
a-dvrjr, and the like. 

* •• It was all aget;'* quite crooked.' Wb. Gl. 

Agin, conj. As if. 

Probably a contracted Pr. of oi gin. 

Ahint, adv. (pr. ahint). Behind; i. In respect of place or position. 
2. In respect of time. 3. In respect of advantage. 

The inronuDciation of our word is its chief peculiarity, and one which deserves notice. 


inasmuch at it retains the short t which belongs to aQ its ctjmoQS. as also to the modeni 

Genn. hinter. 

I . * He 's close abint.* 

3. ' " I 'm afraid I 'm late?" " Nae, thou's nane sae mich ahint.*' ' 

3. ' •• They say Josey 's come badly on ? " '* Nae, he *8 not that far abint.*' * 

Aim, V. a. i. To intend or purpose. -2. To presume, suppose, or 
conjecture. 3. To expect or look for, to anticipate. 

Gamett remarks, PbtL Essays, p. 60, * Aim is from the Oerm. abmtn; Bar. amem, 
h'dtnen, properly to gauge a cask, also to fathom, measure. This is evidently the sense in 
Mr. Boucher's second quotation from Langtoft ; — 

" A water in Snowden rennes, Auber is the name, 
An arm of the sea men kcnnes, and depnes may none am*," 
We are not aware of its erer being used by the Germans to denote compuu, nekon^ as it 
seems to be in the passage, — 

" Of men of armes bold, the number they anu" 
The connection between the two ideas is however obvious enough. A diligent examination 
of our old writers would perhaps decide whether our aim comes immediately from this 
source, or more indirectly so through the medium of the Fr. »snur' Mr. Wedgwood takes 
the latter view. 

z. ' Ah €umi t'gan.' 

' Ah *s seear he airrud o' coming.' 
a. * I aim that is the place.' Wb. Gl. 

* What o'clock is it, aim you?* Ih. 
3. ' I aimed he 'd be here by now.' 

* I never aimed he wad ha' ganned yon gate.' 

Aim, sb. Iron. 

O. N. iarn, O. Sw. and Dan. iern. 

Airt, airth, sb. Quarter of the heaven, direction or point of the 

O. N. da; O. Sw. o/r, quarter of the heaven, distiict, country. Cf. SuduraU, the south 
quarter ; Norduratt, the north. 

• The wind is in a cold airt.' 

• " Did ye hear t'guns at Hartlepool, yesscr neeght, John?" " Ay, I heerd a strange 
lummcring noise. I aimed it cam' fra that airt" ' 

Airtling, pcpl. (Pr. of ettling). Aiming or intending to proceed in a 
given direction. See Ettle. 

Aither, sb. A ploughing. Wh. GI. gives, as the meaning of this 
word, * furrowed ground,' and then, as the instance of usage, a sentence 
which clearly refers only to the act of ploughing, and not at all to the 
land or * ground' ploughed. See example. I believe the meaning to be 
restricted to the ploughing or furrowing. See Ardir, in Brock. 

O. N. ma, yria^ imp. ar^i, or r/r^i ; O. Sw. aria ; M. G. arian ; A. S. erian ; O. H. G. 
erren; Germ. erm. d. also A. S. yt^, ploughed land. The connection with the Bible 
word ear is evident ; ' He will take your sons, . . . and will set them to ear his ground,' 
1 Sam. viii. 12. * The oxen likewise and the young asses that ear the ground,' Is. xxx. 34. 

• " The first or second aitberi" the first or second ploughing.' Wb. Gl, 


Ak, sb. (pr. yak). The oak. 

O. N. tH^ tyh; Sw. tk; Sw. D. tii; Dan. ttg^ tg; A.S. ae^ €te. 
■ A piece o' bniTe and yak: Wb, Gl. 

Akwert, awkert, adj. (pr. ockert or orked). Perverse, difficult to 
deal with, hard to manage. 

* He '1 bad to do with : be 's as awkert as awkert;* he is difficult to deal with ; he is at 
perrene and impracticable as possible. 

Akwertness, awkertness, sb. Perverseness, obstinacy, impractica- 

* Ah aimrer seen nowght like his awtertnest: 

Al, sb. (pr. yal). Ale. 

O. N. 61; O. Sw. ol: A. S. eaU. 

The Pr. of this word suggests a Scandinarian derivation ; inasmuch as A. S. eaU presents a 
long pliable or sound in contrast with the shorter and sharper sound of the word in either 
of its three northern forms. Comp. Al-us. 

' A jill o'yal;' half a pint of ale. 

Ale-draper» sb. An alehouse-keeper, or publican. 'A term now 
obsolete, but occurring in the Whitby parochial register a century ago.' 
WL Gl. 

This word probably owes its origin to a corruption of the sense of the word draper, 
which converted it from a merchant-worker in cloth, into a retailer, simply ; the word ale 
being then prefixed. 

Almisse, almose, almous, sb. (pr. ommus, awmous, or awmas). 
I. Alms; an almsgift. 2. A small quantity or proportion; a definite 

O.N. blmusa; O. Sw. almusa; Sw. ajmosor; Dan. almisse: A. S. almesse, almysse; 
O. H. G. alnus, alms, gifts bestowed in charity. ' Almesse^ or almos. Elimosina, roga, 
Almesse of mete,' Pr. Pm. The second sense or application depends upon the first, the 
lequence of ideas being that an alms may either easily degenerate, into a pittance, or at least 
be regarded as such by the recipient. And what is alike curious and interesting is that a 
like sequence of idea obtains in the case of the O. N. homonym, only there in reference to 
a person instead of to a gift. Thus Haid. gives bomuncio as a second meaning for olmusa, 
and the legend of Olaf Tryggvason's meeting with Thor, Flatey, i. 397, aflbrds a good 
illustration of such meaning. Thor, under the form of a strong, powerful man of lofty sta- 
ture, youthful, handsome and red-bearded, has caused himself to be taken aboard the king's 
ship, which had formerly belonged to a hero called Kaudr. The visitor had soon begun, 
what would be called now-a-days, ' chaffing' the crew, telling them they were not fit to be 
atuched to so famous a king, or man such a splendid ship ; that the ship's company was far 
'more like' when Raudr the Mighty had her, and that that leader would scarcely permit 
such a man even as he (the speaker) was, to join the crew except it were in the post of 
jester or as a jolly companion : * and yet, all you,* he continues, * are but mere dwarfs or 
mannikins, ommusei, by the side of me I' En nu eru )>er Y-o aulmusur tea mer. So, in 
Cleveland a messenger is sent to a shop for, suppose, a shilling's-worth of such and such an 
article, and returning with what seems to the purchaser a very small proportionate quantity, 
is greeted with the remark, ' Why what an ommus thee has getten ;' as if, like ahns, it had 


been sparingly or grudgingly doled out. Cf. the Lincolmh. use of the word quoted by Hall. : 
* When i Ubourcr has been tiUing a cvt with manure, com. &c., he will uty at la»t 1o the 
carter, " Have n't you got your awmoui?" ' 

1. ' " Pray you can I beg my aumas of you?" Fonnerly the ordiuary address of tfaa 
mendicant: now, rarely if ever heard.' IVb. Gl. 

* Those that trow in my mrght and luf welle almta dcde. 
Thay fthalle shyne as son bnghte, and hevcn have to tliarc medc.* 

TowHtl. Myu. p. apa. 

All out, adv, Altogether, utterly^ beyond comparison. 

' " Yon 's f best, Jo»." " Ay. all out." ' 

Comp. the u&age in Aner. RhoU, p. 33, where the writcf U giving directions for th« 
ordering of the anchoresses' private devotivns : — 

* £t (at) Placebo jc muwcn sitien rart (at far at) Magnificat, and abo et Dirige, bute 
(except) ct le tescuns Sc et le Miserere, Sc from Laudaie al til.' 

All-to-noughi (pr. aw-to-nowght). A phrase occurring with differ- 
ences of sense and application, but always as impljing an approach 
towards nothingness more or less real and effectual. 

• " He has gone away all to nowght;" he has wasted away to a mere shadow.' Wb. Gi, 
' ** Ah aims yon 's t' best stirk, Jooan." " Ay, man. it beats t' ither all to nowgbi'* * 

Cf. * Steundia demon. 

Alas, that ever cam pride in thoght. 
For it has brought us alle to nr^bi' 

Along of, prep. In consequence of, owing to. 

Tottnul. Myst. p. 5. 

' It 's all along 0' his dceins we 's i' this needcessity.' 

' Joiepht, soliloquising on the circumstance that the V, Mary wai ** found to be with 

• Ccrte*. I forthynk sore ofhir dede, 
Bot c1 is long of vowth-hede, 

Alle sichc wanton playcs.' Towntl, My$t. p. 78. 

* And bad hcom leoten weorpen : 
& fondicn Icod-nnien, 
whcron hit wcore ilongi 

\^\ ^ wal K wcs twa strong, 

ite mo«te mht longes : 

nauere iitonden.' Ltty. II. JJJ. 

AI-uB, sb. (pr. yaU'os). An alehouse 

Comp. S. Jutl. •Tc-'W-Hfl. 

Amaiflt, adv. Almost 

A' mak'B (pr. au-macks). 
See Hak*. 

See Ommoet. 

All sorts, of all descriptions or kinds. 

Amang, pr^p* Northumbrian form of among* 

■ And for )ut it wnuntc to be ihu» in mangti menc, ^at )>e fTadir wu mare ffebill Kn he 
ione for bis cldc. and ^t tone mare mwyic ^an \>c ffadire for his jouthc.' Rd. Puu^, p. ^j. 


Amang-hands. A phrase or qualifying expression applied descrip- 
tively to work or badness of such a nature as to admit of being carried 
on or completed coinddently with other work or business. 

* ** We can do it amang-hamdi ;** that it, we can do it together, or at the lame time, with 
certain other work we hare on hand.' Wb. Ql. 

Amelly prep. Betwixt, between, in the midst 

O.N. dinUU, O. Sw. tmOlan, Dan. imtHUm, Dan. D. (S. Jutl.) amdlt, amdU, 

* They cam' am^l leren and eight o'clock.' Wb. Gl. 
' Chop in amdi;* direction to a Colley or iheepdog. 

' He fand it anuU t' shaffs ;' be found it among the sheaves. 

* Seamdui nula. My Lord, ye have a manner of men 

That make great mastres lu tmdlt* Toumd. Myst. p. 55. 

Amell-doars, sb. Doors between the outer door and that of an 
inner room. 

Anoe, adv. (pr. yance). Once. 

Comp. JntL/nu, which i» abnof t exactly coincident with onr jwuv. 

Ancle-bands, sb. Sandals, the support for low shoes so called; 
leathern straps for the shoes, to which Aey are attached behind, button- 
ing in front over the instep. Wh. GL 

Ane, niun. adj. (pr. yan). One. See A. 

O.Sw.or;; Dan.M»;; O. H.G. and N.Genn. <m; Dnt #m; 
A. S. an, an. The S. Jatl.^m, which corresponds abnost precisely in form and sound with 
our yan, is especially noteworthy. 

Ane : t' ane replied to by t' ither ; but, more frequently, t* tane or 
the t' ane, answered by t' tither or the tither. 

•Tak' thou the fan*, an* Ah'U tak' the tiOter: 
Cf. * When thon ministers at the hegh autere 

With bothe hondes thon serve tho prest in fere. 

The Am to sUbolle the totber 

Lest thou fayle, my dere brother.* Bokt 0/ Curta^. 

* ffor it kennes vs to knawe ^ gud and )>e iU, and alswa to sundire >< tan* fira (>« A))w.' 
Rtl. Pieces, p. II, * 

Tbe /d)«*, in die sense of tbt second, is of perpetual occurrence in the writings last 

Anenst, prep. Against; i. In the sense of near to. a. In the 
sense of opposite or over against. 

Jam. says, * Some derive this from Gr. dmrri, oppositum. Skinner prefers A. S. ntan, 
near. The Gr. word, as well as ours, together with M. G. and, Alem. amU, S. G. and, 
anda, contra, seem all to claim a common origin. But I suspect that anens is corrupted 
from A. S. ongean, ex adverse.' Comp. the fonns following,— /ordn ongean, opposite, 
Bosw.; foran gen, foran gen Mddry^ ctker; over against Mildred's field, Thorpe's 
DipUmai. p. 541 ; ^coxAA fin-an*nt,forHtns, aforment, &c., and I think we may see how 



anttut — written wuium io Rd. Pi^ets, pp. a, 5 — origiiutet, without much trouble. The 
list reference is interesting in another connection. It runs. 'Of (he whtike icne (commander 
mentis) be ihre fm ere firste awe us haltyly to halde ancace oure Qodd, and ^e seucnc l<at 
ere ehyxt anenct oure eucn criiteiie;' and it gives an inktancc of what may be called the 
transitional meaning between ' ouer againit. opposite to,' and ' touching, or pertaining to,* 
ss in Sc. antnt, thereanent, (onont in JlaJi Mttdtnhnd^ pp. 9, 1 7, Aner. Riwlt, pp. 4* 10, 1 lo.) 
Comp. also the forms again, agatiui, and the meaning, by the side of, of the Latter. 

1 . * I sat dose antHst him.* 

2. ' There, set yoiu name in this spot, antnst his ;' over againit hit. To a witness about 
to attest a man's signattuc to his wiU. 

Mr. Wedgwood thinks the word anemt shews a northern influence, from the Isl. giegnt^ 
Sw. gent, opposite ; g*Ht ofuftr, orcr against. It is more than possible, notwithstanding the 
passage from Thorpe. 

Angry, angered, adj. (pr. with a suppressed g, or with the sound 
that letter has at the end of the words pang^ fl^"gt ^^•) ^^ * sore, 
I. That looks vcr^- red and inflamed; 2. That is very irritable and 

0. N. iingr ; lingra, grief or pain, anguish ; to give aneasitiess ; O. Sw. dngm ; Sw. D. 
cmgo'. sorrow, pain, anguish ; N. D. angenom, painftit. Ny bejSr mig angrat sil^ Jnsi: 
the fiost has occasioned me much suiTenng since. Flai. t, 350. 

• Jesu Criste J»at tholedc for mc 
Paynes and angm bitter and felle. 
Laic mc neuer be partcde fra ^e 
Nc Me )>c bitter payncs of hcUe.' Rtl, Pu€*St p. 73. 

• Holy sei[ilcs, 
What penance and poverte 
And passion thet siiflrcde 
In hunger, in hete. 

In alle manere atigra.' P. Ploughm. p. 3 II. 
For the Pr. it coincides precisely with the Dan., Swcd., O. N., and Genn., as in /«nj'«nr, 
^mger, ubloHgen, &c. 

1. '"Hoo's Willy's leg t'moom?" "Whyah, it's nae better. It's de^nit sail wi' 
OMgtrd." ' 

2. * It leeaks dcsput amgrred ta aV 

Anon, non. An interrogadve exponent of uncertainty, whether as 
to the meaning or the substance of the words addressed, on the part 
of the person to whom they were addressed ; and equivalent to ' Wliat 
did you say, Sir?' or, * What may that mean, Sir, if you please?' 
Anan in former limes^ and even yet in country places more to the 

HaQ. says of the latter that it is ' a corruption of amon, immediately.' I think it is ccr- 
tailt thai it is not so: the etymology of anon (A. S. on an. in one, jugtter, continno, sine 
intenninkme — Lyt) lettlcs the question. Anon or atian is moch more likely to be an 
interject lonal sound of doubting enquiry, simibi to the utterly inciprcuible (by letters) 
sound of assent 01 attention which is employed by many Yorkshire people when iislcning lo 
« ojuTatire or a remark where verbal observabons are unnee^ed. 



AnonBker, adj. Eager, very desirous, set upon a thing. 

O.Sw. Aittka: O.N. dska^ to wish, almost or quite to the extent of praying for; A. S. 
ttiicoH, whaux our current English word wish. Comp. also Dan. ensJtt, to with. 

* They have s«t the lad OHonsktr about gannan* to sea.' Wb. GL 

AnotherfrinH, adj. Of another or a different kind or character. 

Comp. Lane anolher-gautt bearing nearly the same signification : though this seems to 
kx^ more to the manner of action peculiar to the person qualified, whUe the Clevclknd 
word adrerts to the indolts, the peculiarity of nature or breed of the actor. The kins in all 
thoe compound words, tuu kiru^ onny kins^ See,, it hardly need be observed, is the genitire 
cue, following the old usage. 

* He was anolberkim body te t' ithcr chap.' 

Anthersy ananthers, enanthers, conj. In case that, lest. 

Corrupted from N. Fr. aintUun, which occurs in the form auntre in Chaucer. Comp. the 
form ptrawrUtr, Rel. Pieea, p. 3. and ptradvtntura. Hall, gives atUers in the senses, both 
current in the North, of i. In case that ; 3. adventures. Compare auntrous, adventurous, 

* Tbon 'd best tak* t' umbrella, anantbtrs it lains.' 

* I weant be tu antbers he comes.' 

The an a scarcely a reduplication of the first syllable : but probably a corruption of on ; 
thus, on tauurtt on adventure. Cf. on a venture, at a venture. 

A-quart, adj. In a state of variance, or mutual opposition. See 

• " What, then, Marget an* her man hae getten aquart agen ?" " Ay : they 's had another 
differing-bout." ' 

Arf, arflflh, adj. i. Afraid or fearful. 2. Reluctant, backward. 

Brock, quotes A. S. yritS, sluggishness, cowardice or dread, and gives the form ainb as 
well as arf, adducing as example, ' an airthful night ; i. e. a fearful night :* but there can 
be no doubt that the words arf and airtb are both but other fomu of the word which Jam. 
writes areb, argb, airgb, ergb (guttural), and which bears almost exactly the same signi- 
fications with arf; and this is etymologically the same as O. N. argr, as well as quite 
coincident in meaning ; O. Sw. org, a coward ; A. S. *arg, earb, timid, slow or slothful. 

X. * Ah felt arfsb in the dark.* Wb. GL 

3. * Ah's oy/about gannin'.' Ih. 

* Nis he trub chaumpion j>et skiimeiS touward J>e uet?* Is he not a cowardly champion 
who strikes at the feet ? Ancr. RiwU, p. ly^. 

In another text the word is written arcb; in Lay. i. 185, eanb; iii. 266, ar%^: and In 
Pr. Pm. ano*, arbwe, artm/e. Repeated instances of the substitution in our dialect of the 
/••ound for the guttural cb, g, or gb will be met with in the following pages. Cf. the form 
arebt as also O. £. grucb^ our gruSl 

Argufy, V. a. To argue, dispute. 

* It '» t' nae use argufying the matter.* Wb. Gl. 

• " He*s owcr fond o' etrgufying ;^' too ready to gainsay or dispute.' lb. 

Aries, sb. Earnest-money given to a servant on concluding the con- 
tract of service or hiring. Elsewhere, arUs-penny, See God's penny, 

* Aria U a diminutive from Latin arra^ which it itself an abbreviation from arrhah% 




formed as in many oiher caics by adding the lermiiution U.* Arrbabo or arrba dnukted. in 
gcwrat terms, an earnest or pledge for the completion of any contract, and at the same 
time implied or, in a ien»e, proved, the contract to have been made. 

Arr, sb. i. A scar or cicatrix, a mark left by a wound or ulcer. 
2. Hence a guilty recolleciion, as if a mark left on the conscience. 

0. Sw. ^rr: O. N. orr: Dan. or. 

1. * I '11 gic thee an nrr thou 'II carry t' thee grave/ Wb. Ol. 

3. ' It 'i nobbut a black arr. thae dteingi o' tJiahn (thine) wi' t' aud man ;* the w»f yoo 
dealt with the old man mutt have left a black mark on your conscience. 

Arridge, sb. i. The edge of a squared slone or piece of timber. 
2. * The ridges of furniture,' Wh. Gi 3. The edge or selvedge of a 
piece of cloth or cotton. &c. 

The derivation *rf this word seemi tincertain, as also it* onhography. Jam. givei • nrrai, 
arresst the angular edge of a stone or beam. Lothian.' Hal), gives * arridge, the edge of 
anything that is liable to hurt or cause an or;* an etymological definition which at least has 
the merit of simplicity. In some MS. annotations on Brockett's Gl. which have come into 
my hands, witli permission to nuke use of them. I find arub given as a Durham word, and 
signifying an edge ; wliile, further, it is derived from arfte (Old French ares/t) : ' L'angle 
laillant que fonne deux faces.' Diet, de I'Aead. It seems more probable that the Yorkshire 
arridgt, Durham aritb and Lothian arras all originate in the same older word, from which 
also the French arrU may descend through another channel. I suspect a connection with 
O. S.jalSarr at Jahar, Sw. D.j'idtr^ aii edge, extremity. Ust or selvedge, but cannot make 
it out. 

Arse-end, sb. Lower or bottom-end, of a sheaf of corn, for instance ; 
of what stands on a lower end, generally. 

O. N. and O. Sw. an ; S. Jutl. ftr/s, <ib%. ats, the hinder part of man or beast. * MeUem to 
Uoit falier art! pna jorde:' between two vtiHils, &c. ; arlilo.ngi, in a backward direction, 
with which comp. aruUns, Norf.. given by Halliwcll. 

• Pick thje slooks doou, and let I* arsmd$ o' t* shafTs lig i' t' sun a bit.' 

ArsGy-varsey. Topscy-turvcy, in confusion, contrariwise. 

' Eij-molo^ obvious.' Brockett. 

Arval, sb. A funeral entertainment 

* In tite North the funeral feast is called an arfol or arvH-supprr : and the k>ave$ that are 
sometimes distributed among the poor, arval -brtad.' Douce's lUuUra/iomt, 1 1 . iOj. Halli- 
well says. * Arval M/ftr is a funeral feast given to the friends of the deceased, at which a 
particular kind of toaJT, called arval-brMdt is sometimes distributed among the poor. Arval- 
brtad is a coarse cake, composed of flour, water, yeist, currants, and some kind of spice ; in 
form round, about eight inches m diameter, and the upper surface always scored, perhaps 
eahibiting originally the sign of the Cross.' Jam. remarks that ' The term arvai may have 
b*eii left in the north of England by the Oines: for although A.S.^fj/denoics an inheritance, 
I see no vestige of the composite word in this language.' There can be no question that 
arval — lieir-ale, as Dr. Da>cnt Englishes it — is a Scandinavian term. S. G. ar^ makes so 
much quite apparent ; while Wormius gives the combination ar/utol as an ancicni Danish 
term, the modiim Danish form being arvol. 

As to what the arval or arvd was, Daient lells in a few terse words, as finlkiws : — * On 
great orcaiioni. as it the Yule feaiu in honour of the godi. held U the temples, or at «nv/ 





— ** heir-ale** — fcaU, when Imrs drank ti)€nuelvts in/o tbiir father^ land and goods. .... 
there wai no doubt great minh and jollity, much eating and hard drinking of mead and 
freih-brewed ale.' The u»agc^which scenis to have had the force of a law— was that no 
heir could lake possession of his inheritance before gtring the arval feast. In t)ie early 
Christian times, the complete fimeral rites were solemnised on the day of the funeral : after- 
wards on the seventh day after, then on the thirtieth day, and ultimately at the expiry of 
the year rrom the death; and the inference from Ihrc's statement on the subject is, that the 
day thos set apart was also fixed upon, by use and custnnt, as the day on which the division 
of the deceased maa's goods was formally made, and on that account the occasion was 
designated ar/ut or arfuni6i. Desides iIm^ northern eiyuiulogics, the Celtic term for full 
foDcral rites is stated as arwyi. 

That the observances still kept up at oor Ctereland fiincrali, and. certainly not less, some 
of those which have only recently pasted into desuetude, evidently descend from the old 
Scandinavian arftl, will be suflicicntty apparent from a brief account of ihem, for a part of 
which 1 am indebted to the Whitby Olastary, though most of it is of wonted occurrence in 
my owD parish and in the country part of the dJstnct at large. 

Ou the occasion of tJie death of an inhabitant, one or more persona, according to the 
eateni of the deceased person's acquaintance, or the esteem in which he was held, go 
through the parish to the several houses of the neighbours and relatives, and of otlicrs who 
ate to be invited, to bid them to tbf burying. These persons are designated the Bidders. 
Occasionally the friends and others thus hodden or boden amount to two or three hundred, 
and the proviiion that is necessarily made for them is of a pn->portiooal ntagnitudc. On 
more than one occasion within the last ten years, in the author's parish, the number of 
flonei of beef and ham provided for the ftuieral of a well-known or much •respected 
parishioner has been specially quoted afterwards. Compare the above extract from 
DiKnt's Introductory Chapter to Bymt Mjal, and this from Landnamabok, Pan III, ch. x. 
That arval (er/e) which Thorward and Thord held in honour of their father, was the most 
ever known in Ireland. I'hey bade {budo) all the principal people round, and the 
[atunbcr of those that were bidden {bodftnenn) was twelve hundred :' and it must be botne 
mind that the hundred was what is itill knowni in Cleveland— having been introduced by 
Ihe couDtr^'mm, perhaps kinsmen, of these very Icelanders — as the LaDC-huiidred» or six 
Kore. The company assembled — and the bidding ii usually for an hour preceding midday — 
the hospitalities of the day proceed, and after all have partaken of a solid meal, and before 
the coffin is lifted for removal to the churchyard, cake, or biscuits, and wine arc handed 
round by two females whose office is specially designated by the term Servers* ' At the 
ftmcnlft of the rich in former days,' says the compiler of the Wb. Gl.^ ' it was here a custom 
to haiul Burnt wine to the company in a silver flagon, out of which every one drank. This 
cordial seems tn hare been a hrited preparation of port wine with sptccs and sugar. And 
If any remained it was sent round in the flagon to the houses of friends for distribution.' 
Reference is also nude to the disinclination, on the part of many of the older inhabitants, to 
be carried to their last home in a hearse : ihey prefer ' to be carried by hand and sung 
before" as their fore-elders had been. ' Uncovered coffins' of wainscot were common some 
\c»T* ago, with the initials and figures of the name and age studded on the lid in brass- 
headed nails ; but coffins covered with black cloth arc now commonly seen. The coffin is 
almost never borae on the shoulders, but cither suspended by means of towels patscd under 
il. or on short stares provided for the purpose by the undertakers, and which were custo- 
marily, in past days, cast into the grave before begiiming to fill it up. The author saw 
one of these bearing-staves dug out when rc-dtgging an old grave in August 1S63. Men are 
ttsuaUy borne by men, women by women, and children by toys or girls according to sex. 
Women who have died in child-birth have white sheets thrown over their coffins. In the 
cue of an unmarried female, the cuslom. until recently, was to carry a Oarland, composed 
of two circubr hoopi crossing each other, dressed with white paper cut into Rowers or 
leaves (Yoong's Hi%t, nf Wbi/by). or in the form of a wreath of parti-coloured ribbons, 

C 2 




baring a white (paper?) glove in the centre inscribed with the nune, or inituU, and age of 
the deceased. This garland was laid on the coffin during its passage from the church to 
the grave, and afu-rward^, ut leaU in Miiiie cases, siupeudeJ from the ceiling of the chtirch. 
In ifac chancels at HinJcn^'cU and Kobin Hood's Bay soatc of tlicsc garlands were still in 
being Qidy a few yam since. Compare with all this, the picture drawn by Shakipere of a 
Danish damsel's funeral : — 

* Her obsequies have been as far enlarged 
As we have wuraiiiy : hec dcalli was doubtful; 

Yet here she u allowed her virgin craiits. 

Her maiden ttrewmcnls, and the bringing home 

OfbcllanJ burial;' 
where crants is simply the O. N. and S. G. krans, a garland or chaplcl. Truly our Cleve- 
land custom is here ^^red forth, as vividly as the arval-feast in the * funeral baked meats,' 
which did ' ctiliily funiish forth the marri.igc tables.* 

Other peculiarities in the conduct of a Cleveland funeral are yet, or have been till lately, 
that when the corpse of an unmarried female is carried to the churchyard, the bearers ate 
■II single, and usually yrung women dressed in a Icind of uniform, in some places all in 
white, in others in black dresses with white shawls and white straw bonnets trinmicd with 
white. The Servers also always precede iJie coffin as it approaches the churchyard, or is 
borne to the grave, sometimes in white, more usually in black with a broad wlute ribbon 
worn scarf-wise over one shoulder and crossing over the black shawl ; or else with knots or 
rosettes of wtiitc on the breast. Verses of a hymn or psalm— often selected before death by 
the person about to be buried — are sung at liiting the body, as bouses are passed on the 
way to the church, and on ap(ruachu)g the church-gate more nearly; and the chief 
moqmcTs kneel round the coffin, which is usually laid in the chancel — in former times just 
in fn>ut uf tlie altar railing— during the reading of the Psalm and Lesson, the nules with 
their hats always on ; and after the Lesson tliree reries of a Psalm are usually sung before 
leaving the Church. 

Arval-bread, sb. (pr. averil-breead). A species of bread, or rather 
cake (sec Spice-bread), specially prepared in days gone by for con- 
sumption at the Axval or Burying. Confectioners at Wliiiby still pre- 
pare a species of thin, light, sweet cake for such occasions. 

Asher^ adj. Made of ash, ashen. 

* An oiivr pail ;* ' an asher broom.' EgtoH SworJ Datue Rtcti. 

Aakf hask, ea]c, sb. The newt, eft, or water-lizard, supposed by 
those who know no better to be venomous, as is noticed also by 


Gael. asr. It is somewhat singular that the Celtic name of this creature should have 
maintained itself aj{a<nst any rompctitur from the nortlicm dialects. A. S. ap*x« and Germ. 
ntUeht4 are tlie nearest in sound perhaps : Old N. #dZa, S. G. ^a do not seem to approach 
M any particular. See Tleein'-bAsk. 

Ab8, sb. Ashes. 

O. N., O.Sw. o**a; Dan. aikt; M.G. oAgo or atja; O.H.G. a»ca: G. and Dut. ascbt: 
A. S. a$c4^ OMt, axit, nhtt. The sound of the double consonant seems to have been softened 
down as in aevcral other ca»es ; e.g. ma*/ for <»/#. Stotnlty for Stoiftify, Romshy for Rwthy, 


tod thus oila or axu lus become osi ; a change which teems to have already, in Anglo- 
Saxon times, taken phice in some degree, if we may found a surmise on the fonn ahsa. 

' •• Burnt tir an ass ;" burnt to a cinder.' Wh. GU 

* Clamed wiT a$s ;* smeared over with ashes. 

Ass-oard, ass-oaird, sb. A fire-shovel for cleaning or carding up 
the hearth-stone. See Card. 
Aaa-ooap, sb. A kind of tub or psdl to cany ashes in. See Coup. 

ABsel-tree, sb. An axle-tree. 

Brock., besides adducing Fr. asstui and Ital. assil*, in both of which the x of axl* is simi- 
larly softened, quotes also Gael, aisil. The change is one which occurs not infrequently in 
the CL D. ; as omen for oxen. See also the instances quoted under Ass. 

Aaa-hole, ass-pit, sb. The place provided for receiving the ashes, 
usually a hole or pit, and so diflfering from the dust-heap of the South. 
Also applied to the square hole beneath the fire-place devised for 
collecting the ashes. 

AssU-teeth, sb. The grinders. 

O.S. jaxiar, dentes molares, maxiUares; Sw.'D. aisla-iand; Sw.oxelttmdi Dzn. axel- 
tand. For the softening of the x-sound comp. Sw. ox</, N. asaUt names of the 
Sorina arui. 

Afls-maimer, sb. Ash-manure : manure, so called, of which the chief 
constituent is ashes, especially peat or turf ashes. 

Ass-midden. The heap of ashes collected by the daily casting forth 
of the ashes of the household. See Midden. 

Ass-riddling. Riddling or sifting of ashes; on the hearth, namely. 
On St. Mark's Eve the ashes are riddled on the hearth, for the super- 
stition still lingers, though it may be partially veiled under the guise of 
laughing incredulity, that if any of the inmates of the house be going to 
die within the year, the print of his, or her, shoe will be foimd impressed 
in the soft ashes ; — a superstition which has led to many a thoughtless, 
but very cruel and mischievous, practical joke. See Cauff-riddling, 
Marks E'en. 

At. Now rarely used before the infinitive instead of /o. 

Conunon to the Scand. tongues. Cf. Dan. De gave mig eddike ai drikke; they gave 
me vinegar to drink. Ferguson gives an instance or two in which a/ still takes the place 
of /o, with the infinitive, in the Cumb. dialect ; and I have, though rarely, heard it in 
CleveL, in such phrases as ' What 's at do, now ?' Hall, gives two instances out of the many 
aiforded by MS. Lincoln, ' 1 have noghte at do with the,' and * that es at %a.y,* that is to 
say. There is little doubt that the idiom was common throughout this district fifty 
years ago. 

At, rel. pr. That, which. 

It is usually supposed, or rather taken for granted, that this is merely a vocal corruption 


or contraction of thai. However ihere it no question (see Jim. in v.) that in the Northern 
dialects it was of old continually vrritten a/; for insunce : 
• Claudyns send Wcspasyane 
Wyth that KjTig to fecht or tiete, 
Swa that for luwe, or than for thretc. 
Of fors he suld pay at he awcht.' Wynt<ivm, v. 3. S9. 
It is. in fact, the O.N. rd. pt. at, unaltered. Thus, bvar er ui at gatf where '» him ai 
gat it ? And it is used indifferently in either number ; sd at, he that ; ^ir at, they that. 
• " If there nought at Ah can dee?" " Nowght, at Ah can tell." * 

Cf. • That at is dry the crth shalle be,* Towntl. Mysi. p. a ; and, ' hot if we make misethe 
ID bat M we may,* Rtl. Piten, p. 6, side by tide with ' fibr u many we da m ^l a/ we 
may, all wc slaundire or backbite.' Ih. 5. 

0. N. at: O. Sw. and Sw. aU; Dan. tU. Jag wH alt tv gor that: in the CTerel. form. 
Ah wiihcs at thou wad dee it. Ok »va nor gert ai btnni nor gtrt annat bal, tn Sigttrdi 
annat: and so it came to pass that one bale-fire (funeral pile) was made for her, and 
another for Sigurd. Flat, i. 355. 

' Ah said at Ah wad, an' Ah ded.* 

* Wccan't cc ? Bud Ah 'U see at thoB di».' 

At, prep. I. To. a. Of or from. 3. With, a person namely (the 
sense of the Lat. apud) ; as with the intent of urging a suit, or hearing 
a purpose or resolution. 

O.N. at, ad, usque, apud ; Sw. D. at; Sw. At, to, at, with; A. S. at, at, to, with, of, 
from : * bccauK you approach a person or thing when you wish to take something away, as 
ihey say in and about Nottingham ; TaJu this at nu, i.e. from me.* Botw. 

1. * Ah caau't dee owght niair at it ;' spoken by a workman of a job of wotk be had 
been labouring at. 

* What did he do at thee?' A very common formula. 

Cf. ' What aileth this same lore at me. 

To blinde me so sore?' Chaucer, Rinu of Sir Topaz, 
a. * T' maaster wur here a bit sync, an* he wur spcirin' at ntc about applet.' 
Cf. O.N. Ntma at montntm. to learn from men; A.S. £t bu/am nima^ cyningai ga/oJ 
otftlr tolif of whom do kings take custom or tribute. Matt. avii. 25. Anti btgent mrd 
bis tmth wreneoH . ^ at Staorratt ; and with his sly tricks obtained of or from Stcorra. 

Tborpit Diplom, A.S. p. 339, 
* QnhrMU. Mary, madyn hcynd 

Me bchovy* 10 wcynd. 

My leyf at the I take.' Toumd. MyU. p. 75, 

3. 'Well, t WIS tu my lord agen, laast nceght. an' he said he wad me her it ne;* he 
would not permit it to be so. 

* Ah was ai 1* priest about it, but *t wur tc na tue.* 

At after, adv. and prep. After, after^-ards. 

An archaic form which is met with in Chaucer and other early writers, in both its 
characters. See At under, and comp. At our, = at-OTor, in the saiscs orcr or beyond, 
and moreover. Jam. 


* I Inut to «ee yon ott-afitr Estur 
As conning u I that ttn jour master.* MSS. Rawl. C, 358. 
' AU things i* their proper placei : ploughing fit*t, towing ar after.' XVb. Ot. 
Cf. also at h*faM, in the foUowiog Una froni Robert of Gloucester, quoteil by Mr.Marsh. 
Origin out ffta. ^/ Bng. Latgrnixge, p. 232. 

* Watcrcs he hap eke gode ynow, ac at btfort aUe o)>cr )>rc 
Out of ^ load into ^ »ee, anncs u M be.* 

Athout, prep, and conj. Without 

A cormiption of without. Jam. girc* h*AoHt a> a Hfeshire form* adding that * it may be 
loalogous to A. S. bK-utaa^ sine.' Home Tooke observes that "but and vnfbout have 
exactly the ume signification ; that it, neither more nor leu than be-cut. And they were 
both originally used cither as conjunctiotu or prepositions,' which renders such an analogy 
more than potable. Jtetbout may fomi the Hnk between without and aibout. the 6# initial 
getting chiogcd. in cocnc ol* time or nte, into a, as in the cue of abint for b€bint, atttrutt for 
h€t%»i*t, &c. 

Atter, atteril, sb. i. Purulent matter from an ulcer or sore. a. The 
fur on the tongue in cases of fever, &c. 

A.S. o/fcr, dtter. poiwn, matter, pas: Bosworth, Comp. O. N. ettr; O. Sw. ttter, 
tittr; Dan. edder; O.H. G. and Germ. n/«r; Dutch tyter: both the latter bearing the 
tmsc, matter or pus. The original application oi the word in each of these tongues teems 
to haTc been in the sense of poison, the root being supplied (see Ihre in r. E/ter) by the 
O. H, Germ. tittM, urere, from the • eating* or consuming nature of many poisonous sub- 
stances. In connection with this the O. N. word a/a, which signifies both a cotisuming 
efficacy and a cancel or 'eating' sore, deserves notice. 

I. '" Whyah. Willy's han'i brussen then?" "Ay: an' a strange rasl o' bloody otter** 
coomed frae it.** * 

' A thick yellow attrrii.' WJ. 01. 

1. ■ Mally 's varrey dowly tc daj : her tongue 's &' covered ower wiv a thick while otter' 

Atter-cop, sb. A spider. 

It woold be strange if this word, which is familiar in Northumb., Dnrham, Ciimb.. and 
South Scotland, should not t>e retained or remembered in Clevel. According to all analogy 
it must have once been freely current here, but it is now of very rare occurrence. 

A. S. atttr-tfippa. Jam. writes, ' evidently from otter vcncnum, and copp cabz : reccirtng 
its dcDomination partly from its form, and partly firom its character : q. d. a cup of venom* 
No doubt atttr, venrnum, is the prelix in the word in question, but the rest of the pro* 
poicd etymology is less saiisfaaory. Upon the O. Sw. iopp, which, he «ays, survives only in 
the word koppe fintd, occurring in an ancient legal enactment, and thrre means bee, thre 
remarks that it mutt once have had a wider signification, and denoted ail kinds ofimects, 

* I cofijecinre this,' be adds, ' from the fact that in other Scythian dialects the word is used 
for spider ;' and he quotes the Germ, ipinneiopp for the creature itself, besides E. eobweb, 
Belg. kopft^be : and he might bare added Dan. edderkop, O. Sw. eterkoppa, Wal. adargop, 
and Sw. D. eilerhoppa, ederkoppa. He also adduces the Welsh cop or cttppiit, in the word 
gwer-<Qpfyit^ spider's web. On the Germ, spintukopp his comment is, that it does not mean 
eapMt (one oi tlie meatungs of hop or koppe^ Jilum (htcens, but an insect pouea&ing the power 
of such prodnction. Rietz, however, thinks ettgrhoppa may properly signify c//rr-/>Ji«— that 
is, ver>om-bag — from the great bag of egg* the spider is wont to carry, the Datecarlian word 
hippe being tynonymoMU with pose, bag, pouch. Palsgr, gives addtreop as equiralent to 

* spinner*t web,* which according to Ray is the case tn both Ctunb. aiwl Yorkshire. 



In Toumd. Afyst, p. 1 13. the word btUttrt stands for tpidcri : — 
* But batters 
I can 6nd no fleth. 
Hud nor ncsh« 
Salt nor fresh. 

Bel two tome pUttcrt, 
Whik catcUe hot tbii, tame nor wjide 
None, u t have bljrue.* 

Aud, auld, adj. Old. 

A. S. aJdn, nlJ, eald. The corresponding O. N. noun u <rf/d>*, D«n. oldtr, Sw. iidtr; 
but there scenu to be no Scuid. adj. from the same root. 

Aud-farrand, adj. i. As applied to adults, sagacious with the saga- 
city of experience. 2. As applied to children, gravely or quaintly wise 
or sagacious beyond their years ; * old-fashioned/ as copying the manners 
and expressions of their elders. 

0. N. and O. Sw. fetra ; O. H. G. faroK, to gain experieoce. become used to a thing, or 
capcrienccd in it. Comp. frfarttthtU >^iU or osc. acquired by practice. Block, quotes 
Oan. trfaren, Dutch ervaren, experienced. 

1. * Ay, he 's an aud-farrand aud chap : he *s oop tiv ought.* 

s. * A'but she's an aud'/arrand l^htlc lauie I She's like a lAhtle gran'roothcrl' 

Aud-lad, Aud-scrat. Names for the devil, prompted perhaps by a 
feeling of unavowed fear, or a disinclination to mention the being in 
question by his more forcible appellation. 

O. N. siralti, a fiend, an evil spirit ; iJkrattiH^ the devil ; Sw. D. dtratt^ akrat, thrtt, a spirit, 
ghost, nissc; iJtraatn^ the devil; O. H. G. urn/o, a ghost, bugbear; M. H.G. sf^roir, 
sehrarzf; Czra-tcbrdtt; SiiY. ibhrat, id.; Boh. sn-r/, cobbold or uitte. Hence, no doubt, 
the English by-name Old Scratch. The common £. name answering to T' ttud tad, u * the 
Old Boy/ x$ often heard in the South. 

Aud-Uke, adj. Having the appearance of age. 

* " He \i beginning to look varrcy aud-like:" to become mnch aged.* Wh. Gt. 

Aught, ought, sb. (pr. owght). Anything; opposed to nothing. 

* Ought or nought ;' something or nothing. 

* He 's owthcr ought or nought :' of any profession or none : that is, virtaally of none, an 

Aund, auned, awned, adj. Fated, destined, ordained. 

The instance of usage given by Jam. in v. An almost juitifies the atsnniplion that that 
word and the word awn or aum used in Clrvdand, as well at in other patts of Votkshtre and 
the North, arc the same; — * Y uke that me God an,* which is thus explained, * What God 
owe* me : i. e. means to send mt' How * What God means to send hk' becomes equivalent 
to ' what God owes me,' or how It is right or correct. In tny Knse, to «y that * God owe*' 
anyrhingy is another question. To justify it at alt, an is derived from S. G. fgta and 
assumed to mean ' to appropriate, to allot as one's own.' Certainly egna docs mean to 
appropriate, to make one's own, but the action is in the person appropriating, not la 
another: the idea being mktJy of taking, and not of receiving. This, howerer, is the 



direct coovmc of the tense of our word tamrd^ and of the word an in the quotation addaced. 
A more probable etyrtiology might perhaps be sought in O.Sw.anti, animo pracsagirc.ominari; 
Dan. ant. Germ, ahten. Still. I belieTe the origin of our word will be found elsewhere. Mr. 
Hylten Cavillius. speaking of the relics Ktill to he met with in South Sweden of the heatliendoni 
if remote antiquity, sayi there is still a very deep-rooted conviction inWiircDdof the existence 
~ a blind, all-con trolling destiny, called Odt; and on the next page goes on that : — * More- 
rcr in the popular lauignage of the district the word iiden, b*H, on is still in common use as 
Ipplied to what is destined or ordmined by iate ; as, for instaiKe,— ** iiis ja a den te A loiva 
den linen iommer :" if 1 am auneti to lire till that day comes ; ** ban va inte oen te a/a so> 
Ma boira vajuna :" he was not auned to sec his tons grown up.* Cf. O. N. audid: * audid 
werdr ^s ;' it is auned tu liappcn. This is not the otily curious instance, by many, of illus- 
trations of Clereland words from the expressions or practices of Warcod, in South Sweden. 
See Naok-reeL 

Atmtersome, adj. Adventurous, bold, ready for any risk or ad- 

See Azumthers or Anthora. The leiue is precisely that impUed in taaUrt in Chaocer'i 

* I wol uyse and aut^e it, by my fay.' 

Pr. Pm. 'Auninm, aventryn. Fortmno.' ' To awuer, put a thing In danger, adren- 
tnrc' Palsgi. 

• " Dinnot be owcr auntertome ;" do not be too rash.' Wb. GL 

Awanting, adj. Needed, required. 

' *• Well, I hope, Mr. B., its going to take up and be fine weathct.'* Mr. B. " It 'i to be 
loped sac. It 's iair aufanting." * 

Away-gannan-cropr away-going-crop, sb. The crop of corn which 
an outgoing tenant is entitled to sow and reap on his late farm, in con- 
sideration of, and in proportion to, the quantity of land duly fallowed 
and manured by him during the last summer of his occupancy. The 
rules which regulate the propordon of land thus appropriated vary 
slightly, I believe, according to the district. 

Awe, V. a. To own, to possess, have belonging to. 

A. S. agon, ttgan ; N. S. egen ; Fris. eigenje; Dut. eigenen ; O. H. G. eigan ; O. N. tiga ; 
Dan. eji ; Sw. ega. 

Latham, Engt. Gr. ii. 309, says that the word own, which he distinguishes from moti, 
to acknowledge, by calling it * oimt (pouidentis),' had no n onlil after the time of Elisabeth. 

' This is no sound 

That the earth oim«.' Temp. i. a. 
' . . . . Thou dost here usurp - 
The name thou oukU not/ Ih. 
In older times still It was owe. Thus, — 

* Ffor Godd auM vs to lufc hally with hertc, with all our myghte, with all our thoghtc. 
with wordc and with dedc. Oure ctiync crystene alj swa awe vi to lufc vu-to Mat iike gudc 
^t we lufe oure-sclfe," Rtl. Pi'eett, p. 7. 

With this form cf. O. N. pres. a (of eiga), A.S. 3rd pcrs. pres. ah. Sec Wheeu »* f aud 
d. O. N. bvtrr a f which is exactly e<iuival«nt in form and sense. 



Awebun*, awebund, adj. t. Under restraint or discipline, so as to 
be orderly, obedient, attentive. 2. Submissive to authority. 

Jim. * hesitates whether to view this ai fonned from the ib. awbttnd^ or u compounded 
of awe and botatd.' Awband is it Lanarkshire and Lothian name for a peculiar apparatus 
okcd for fastening unruly cattle by the neck to the rudstah. And there is an 111. word 
hdbanj, which signifies a ligature (of hide) applied to the legs of sheep in such « way as to 
prevent ihcni from leaping or straying far. The sinularity of sound and application beiween 
awband and bdhond is certainly suggestive, and probably, if not larcly. supplies the deriva- 
tion of the sb. aufehand in the sense of, i. check or restraint; and, a. a moral rcstnintag 
inilaence. The word awobiind, however, can scarcely proceed from this source ; fur the 
verb is not awfMnd, but awband. O.N. at htihmda, still in use in Lanarkshire; and one is 
iccordingly thrown back upon the more obvious compound derivation. 

' " Thae bainu uc ndly owcr little au/thum' ;" too little under diicqtline, ill-tratned.' 

* " They were aunbntt nowther wf God nor man ;** disregarded all precepts htiman and 
divine.' fb. 

Awf, sb. 
See Awflsh. 

I. An elf, or fair)-. 2. A fool, a silly or half-wilted person. 

O. N. al/r, alfi; O. Sw. «//,• Dan. o//<; A.S. alf, c«//. » The word W/,* says Sir Walter 
Seott, Minstrrliy, ii. 1 10, ' which seems to have been the original name of the beings after* 
wards denoniiiiated fairies, is of Gothic origin, and probably signified simply a spirit of a 
lower order." To thfw spirits were attributed the various operations of nature, and cons^ 
qncLitly various kinds of elfs were distinguished. The Scandinavians divided them into 
tvart al/ar and Hot alfar. black elves and white. The Anglo'Saxoni ' had not only dun-*lftnt 
ba-g~eifen and munt-tlffn, spirits of the downs, bills and mountains ; but also fdd~^tn, 
wudn^ftn^ sat^l/en, and vHBtfr-tifen, spirits of the fields, of the woods, of the sea, and of 
the waters. And in Low German, the same latitude of expression occurs ; for night-hags 
axe termed aiuimntn and alttm. But the prototype of the English Elf ii to be sought chiefly 
in the btrg-tlftn or dutrgar of ihc Scandimviaiis. From the most early of the Icebmlic 
Sagas, as well as from the Kdda itself, wc learn the belief of the Northern natioiu In a race 
of dwarfish sprrits, inhabiting the rocky mountains, and approaching, in some respects, to 
the human nature. Their attributes, amongst which we recognise the features of the 
modem fairy, were sapenutural wiidom and prescience, and skill In the mechanical aru, 
especially in the fabrication of arms. They are further described a» cai>rictou«, vindictive, 
and easily irriuted.' Minstr. ib. This * harsher character of the Dvcs' seems never to have 
quite passed away in the folk-lore of this district, as in Southern England, giving place to 
the gentler, more amiable, though still, possibly, capricious attribulci of the Fairy proper^ 
a circumstance which stands out strongly in the notions connected with the words next fol- 
lowing; the explanation of which probably is that the traditions of the district, under the 
one name * Fairy,* confound the persons of the Dwarf proper and Ihc Elf proper. The 
Fairies in Cleveland nuke artd wash butter, and even tub it. or put it down for keeping ; 
wash their linen industriously, nay often noisily ; fire their bolts at animals : dance around 
the fairy-ring ; are capable of Inflicting mischief on mankind ; take charge of deserted chil* 
dren, rear them to manhood, protect them through life, and bury them when dead ; abstract 
children; stand in need of the services of human niidwivcs: resist the building of churches, 
destroying the work done in the day and Aittiog the materials to a spot less objcctioiuble to 
themselves, by night ; haunt certain tumuli or HouM as their chosen residence : live under 
grfxmd ; and the like. Tlic author has collected varioiu legends embodying all these 
iKttions. and all with a distinct locality assigned to them. Oamorc Well, a certain spring 
in tUysdalc. and a stream in the vkfauty ofEgton Qt'inge. besides Fairy Crots Pl»ns in the 


ptrish of Dauby, and other ^bces in the neighbourhood, are qiedally famous in the fairy- 
lore connection. But most of these legends point distinctly, as an attentive study of the less 
disintegrated f<A-4ore of North Continental Europe abimdantly shews, to the Dwarf or 
TroD as the agent, and the small remainder to the Elf proper. Thus the Dwarf or Troll 
does not dance, the Elf does. The Elf uses tu supernatural artillery, the Dwarf does not. 
Bat while the abstraction of children is a trick of the Troll or Dwarfs, the detention (or re- 
tention) of mankind In fairy haunts may belong to either TroU or Elf. All stories, how- 
«Ter, iriiidli inTtdYe the practice of any handicraft or manual operation seem to belong to 
dkc Dwarf society by q)ecial prescription. As to our Clevel. form Awf, comp. the form 
oi;^ and ' O&cnM, that is, AiiUron iac AlbermC Orimmt D. M. p. 421. 

Awflflhy awriah, adj. i. Half-witted, silly, dull a. Out of sorts, in 
the sense of not feeling well without being positively poorly ; neither sick 
nor well. 

This must sordy be referred to auf^ oupb*, df, cdf^ aljr. Sec. In the Cant. Tales, Pro- 
log* to Sirt IT/opaSt is a description which is taken as a sketch of Chaucer's own appear- 
ance and demeanour : — 

* Thou lokest as thon woldest find a hare ; 
For erer upon the ground I se the stare,* 

nyi the host to the poet ; and then of him this : 

* He seemeth dviseb by his countenaunce. 
For unto no wight doth he dalliauuce.' 

The thooj^itfiil k>ok, with eyes fixed on the ground, combined with absence and reserre of 
manner, are certainly the characteristics described by the word tlviscb, which, in the Glossary 
to Bdl's ChauctTt is ezphiined by 'like a fiiiiy, shy. reserred.' It is, in fact, not an 
onHkely remark to be passed on either a very absent or a rery shy person, that he seems to 
be * not all there,' or, in other words, not so wise as he might be. And from this the tran- 
sition to half-witted, or weak in intellect, is easy. It is further supposable that in the 
meaning of ftwvisli, which is given second, there may be a reference to the fancied connec- 
tion between the fairy and mankind ; on which indeed, according to Ihre, Andrew Gud- 
mundsson founds his etymology of a^f; deriving it, namely, from half, the elf being 
Siq>posed * semi-human.' On this principle awri^ elfish, would naturally mean half-and- 
half, neither one thing nor another; and so the transition to the sense in the example 
would easily follow; — 
* Ah fiecb quite queer an* aundsh* Wh. GL 

Awf-shot, ab. An arrow-head of flint, or other like material, of 
pre-historic origin, but alleged by popular superstition to have been 
fabricated and used (in malice) by the Elves or Fairies. See Awf-shot, 

Awf-flhot, awf-Bhotten, adj. Stricken or aflected by an Awf-shot ; 
' shot by fairies.' Jam. 

O. N. alfr and tMota ; O. Sw. «(/'and d^ta. Under the word tkoU^ Ihre states that it 
is the Swedish name for a disorder which sometimes attacks cattle, and under which they 
die as suddenly as if struck by lightning ; adding, that it is vulgarly attributed to super- 
natural agency. The Norwegian name for the disorder is aUskaadl^ and the Danish elle^ 
ikud; both words meaning awf-shotieu. The same superstition prevails to a marked extent 
throughout the Northern districts of England and Scotland generally ; only, alike in Scot- 
land and the EngHsh home of the betief, the malady is not instantaneously faul, if at all. 

D 2 



Jim. sUtci. on the tnfoniution furnubcd by a friend, that the discaxc coDsisu In tn over- 
dislention of the Gnt stomach, and mentions the mode of cure adopted in Clydesdale ; while 
eltewhcre he notices the more prevalent notion as to the efficacy of the arrow-head itsdf iu 
curing the tlf-*hot animal. • In order to dTect a cure the cow is to be tooched by an df- 
%bot, ox made to drink the water in which mic has been dipped.' Pcnnant't Tottr in S£Ct' 
land. Comp. the following from the Wh. Gl. for Cleveland ; ' to cure an awf-Bhotten 
animal it must be touched witli one of the shots, and the water adniintstered in which one 
of them has been dipped.* It would appear also, that in Upper Germany the disease which 
* iruuntaneoosly deprives a person of his senses is cafled nip or alp~druckm : literally the 
pressure of an elf.* I friace side by tide with this the following extract from LamdHamabokt 
p. 1 19 : 'Or kom i Utorarinn , . , oe bamadiit bonn :' the arrow, that is, the tif-shot, came 
opmi Tliorariu and he went distraught. Iu one district of Jutland it is believed that cattle, 
when 4i/-ihot, become ftiff and surely die unless speedy help is at hand. The quickest aud 
sorest remedy consists in dririiig the beast up out o( the mou, and firing a shot over it ; 
orily care must be taken to fire from the head in the direction of the tail. 

Awmous-loaves, sb. Alms-bread, distributed in the church to the 
poor after Divine Service; usually provided from money specially be- 
queathed for the purpose. WA. GL 

Awmus. See Almisse. 

Awn, V. a. To own or acknowledge, as a friend or acquaintance, 
tliat is ; to visit. 

' Voo never aum us now ;* you oerev come oear us to pay os a vi^ 

* T' au'd dog put a pheasant ben aff her nest Sunday was a wedc, an* she *» nimrcr 
it nae mair.* 

Awns, sb. The beards of corn. 

O. Sw. Qgn : O. N. ogn (in the pL agnir) ; Dan. awu ; N. agn ; M. G. obatia ; O. U. 
^ana ; the idea of pointed (like a spear) lupplying the radical tense in each case. 

Ax, ex, vb. To ask. 

A. S. dxlan, ticaan, ubtian. The etymons in the cognate languages are O. S 
O N. <riiia. Dut. Wse^n. Germ, btixbm. But the form of the A. S. verb is decisive, and 
we 6nd the word in the earliest English wrttcri, with ftomc little variation of speUtng but not 
of sound. 

'AitdIM bt Hna Muts. him axodon ^at bigiptU fie twe^t iii mid htm warom* A.S.Oo§f. 
Mark iv. 10. 

* And when he was lingtder the iweloc that weren with hym OMidm him for to expowne 
the parable.* Wyditfc's Trattti. 

■ When he was alone, they that were aboute hym with the twelve OMtd hym of the limi* 


Tvndale's TVfuui. 

a funeral especially 
the publication of 

2. Pro- 
banns in 

Ax'd, pcpl. I. Invited or bidden, 
claimed or announced ; in reference 

Wb. 01., after noticing the second application, itatcs that * formerly in our Moordale 
churches, after the clergyman had proclaimed the marrying parties, it was rustomary for the 
clerk to rcspoiKl with a hearty ** God ^>ccd them wed." * In the Liiuolmb. Gl. a distioe- 
lion ts made, in a note, bctwccd nxtd and nxed up; as also, in the Icat, between futrd up 
aitd tutsd out — diitiiKllons which make ajted up to bear different meanings in different 
localities. Here »Kod out means asked all three timet, antd tip not being ttsual. 


Aye manry! int An expression of assent, conveying a different 
expression of feeling on the speaker's part, according to intonation; 
sometimes of a little quiet triumph at the consdoosness of superior 
"Wisdom, sometimes of irony or semi-contempt 

•"TbenWilfyioi/tbebookantbetime?'' **Ayi marry t I know'a he had." ' 
* ** What, they're fbrgiTeQ joa, Bfr. Dale, and asked yoa to go and see them again?" 
''Aytmanyt They wants ma' brass, ye kco." ' 

Aye seear, (Pr. of ay, sure.) An expression of assent, sometimes 
sl^hdy interrogative, sometimes conveying a tinge of reserve. 

*■* Weil, Josey, I am going to be married.'* ** Ay*, u«arf" ' 

*** Than thou 's gannan to get wed, after aD.Jeeains?" (With a sly smile, perhaps) "iljw, 
ttaar;** whidi <Mily means, yon are at liberty to sqipose so, if you like.' 

Ayont, prep. Beyond. See Beyont. 
Comp. Afinre^ AXbooX, 


Babbiflh, babiah, adj. i. Childish, puerile, a. Faint, strengthless; 
as when a person speaks of ' feeling f;unt' 

This word is to habt^ or its ^miliar proTindal eqniralent, hab, (* Alas my btA, myn inno- 
cent, my fleshly pet.' Toumd. MyU. p. 149,) what bahyab is to baby. 

* I felt babbab enough to be knocked down with a feather.' Wh. (?/. 

In Toamd. Mytt, p. 78, babytb oocun as a rb., apparently in the scnic, * Treated me as a 
child, toki mc sndi tales as they would to a child.* Josq>h q>eaks of the Virgin htary : — 
' Thay excused hir thus sothly 
To make hir dene of her foiy 
And babythtd me that was old.' 

Babbles and Saunters, Gossipping tales and repetitions. 

Sw. D. AoUef. empty prate, diattering gossip; 0.'H.,btAb\ Dan. fioUm, id. ; Dan. D. 
hobU; N.S. btMdn; Fris. babbOn; Dut. babd; Fr. babUUr, to prate, chatter idly, utter 
inarticulate sounds ; together with £. babble, sufficiently account for babbit. Hall, quotes 
the word ummdrit as meaning * slanders,* in the following couplet ; — 
* I may stonde in thilke rowe 
Amonge hem that $amndri$ use.* 

Oower, MS. Soc. AtUig. 134, f. 74. 
And to this word probably soam/m should be referred ratfier than to the Engl. soiMAr. 

Back, V. a. To retard, keep down or under. 

Comp. proT. rb. baehn, coincident in sense. 

* T doctor did all he could to back t' inflimation ; bud t* warn't te neea use.' 

* That fit o' cand weather jest afore Mayday bached t' grass strangely.' 



Baok-bearaway, sb. The bal, or rere-mouse : genus Vtsptrtilio, 

The former part of ihU tume is an archaic and ftill-a»cd proT. name for ihe bat. 
Pr, Pm. • Baiie. Flyinge best. VaptrtUio.' Comp. O, Sw. Hati-baeka^ Dan. a/tenbakkt. 
It KCI1U difiicult to give any explanation of ihe latter part of the name. The A. S. name it 
hrgre-mus, whence E. rtrt-mouu. Rietz gives the Sw. D. name itati-blakka, and also 
nat-halta from Warend, arul natter biakksla, collating Old Dan. nathhaeka, as well as 
KVKTo^Sa, a bat, and YVKTO&oBia^ night-wandering. 

Back-burden, sb. A load or burden borne on the back. 

Baok-ca£t, sb. (pr. bakkest). Anything which causes loss of ground ; 
or, the loss itself. _i. In business matters, a loss or failure. 2. In respect 
of health, a relapse, or any cause which sets recovery at a greater 

The Scand. tongues and dialects present numberless instances of compouiwi words used u 
nounf, of which the first element is a preposition and the second a participle ; or else, iu 
which both part5 are nouiu. I'he same is specially true of our dialect. 

I. 'Josey Deal's lossen three of 's kyc: Ah douis it's ginuan lo be a sait backhmi 
tiv 'im.* 

a. * Mally 's had uiilher bout o' t* aud complaint, an' its gien her a dcsput back-etut.' 

Back-end, sb. TTie latter part of some definite period of time ; 
e. g. of a week, a month, a year. 

* Last back-ind;' the tatter part of last year. 

* Baek-<nd o' last week." 

Backerly, adj. Backward, late; applied either, i. To the season; or 
a. To crops generally ; or 3. To peculiar varieties of produce. 

A contraction of Backvmrdiy, 

Backerly, adv. Late, after the usual lime. 

* T* far ride o' yon field wecant be fit yet a bit : it wur ower badttrly sown.* 

Bad, bod, pret. of to Bid. 

Bad, adj. In continual use in colloquial phrases in the sense of 
I. Hard, difficult; a. Disagreeable, annoying, wonting. 

X. * Bad to beat ;' not eaiQy surpassed or excelled. 

a. ' Bad to do with ;* said of a person who is provoking in hU conduct, or unmanageable 
or disagreeable in his ways, or exacting in his cxp<-ctai)ons or demands ; and the like. 

* Bad to bide ;* hard 10 be borne : requiring much fortitude or patience in the endurance. 
It need hardly be remarked that all the»e instances present also instancn of what is called 

the gerundial construction in the case of the verbs employed : a coastniction which it suffi- 
cicntiy frequent in the Clerelaiid vemacuUr. 

Bad, badly, adj. Poorly, indisposed, ill or sick. 

Tlie derivation of K. bad is possibly not very certain. Mr. Wedgw. collates Germ, ftow, 
Dul. &00S. Pen. bud, bad. See Wedgw. in v. Bad. It may be remarked that the idea of 
active or operative badness seems alwa}-s pceieni in the idiomatic use of the word bad* and 


iu deriratlvet. In Cferct and tfae N«th. See Badnew ; and coo^. Badlmg in Brocket!, 
*a worthle» penoa, A Aaif one ;' ntXmPr.Pm, 'Bad or wykjrde.* 

■ Oor Maiy '1 rany fad?^, for seear. She '■ deqmt had in her booeU an' uir foUered on 
vir a hue/ 

Badger, sb. A huckster; one who goes about the country with 
basket and bag, or with ass and panniers, or with a cart, to buy up 
butter, eggs, fowls, fruit, ftc, to sell again at some market-town in the 

Some few yetrt ago, when shopi were few and far away, the Badser was a pedlar as well, 
and deah in needle*, thread, and the rarions imal] wares with which the pedlar's padc was 
woot to be stodttd, for which he wonld take the abore4uuned &rm-produce in exchange. 
On the snppositioa that the Badcer was a * Koensed hawker' the word has been suppoMd 
to take its origin from the drcnmstance that he possessed a badgt. In Selkirkshire, how- 
ever, badf^ still ngmJEc* * a Urge ill-shaped harden,' and Jamieson^ suggestion is, that that 
is the OTgin of Badcer ; of. O. N. baggi, a burthen, a padc-saddle ; O. Sw. haggt. This is 
die more likely ezplanatioii, partictilarty as the calling of hadgtr mnst have bran followed 
by great numbers who needed no licence, and (n'obably long before licences were issued. 
Brockett, howerer, says that * Originally he was a person who purchased grain at one 
market and took it on horselnck to sdl at another ;' and Mr. Wed^^ in a very ingenious 
notice, and arailing himsdf of the Ft. name of the animal called hadgtr^ UatraoH, derires 
oor word Badtfor directly from Pr. bladuTt a corn-dealer, one who supplies Um maikets he 
attends with com carried on mole^ck. This word, he alleges, would be comqrted in 
Pr. u so/cfiffr is, that is to say, into wtdgtr, todger ; and then an omission of the /, not with- 
out analogy in several odier words, would gire Badger. 

Badger, vb. i. To beat down the price of an article in the process 
of bargaining. 2. To banter, treat with rude or rough raillery. 

I. * Htm an' me coo'dn't agree, nae-tdns form. He wad ha' badgfrtd me doon to 

3. * Mebbe t* lad 's not midi aboon a ganvison : bnt they hadgind him ower sair for 

Badness, sb. Depravity, active wickedness. 

* ** They war gi'en tiv a' males o' hadrua;" to all kinds of practical evil/ Wb. Gl. 

* Nobbut a ragally chap, at allays had a vast o' batbu$$ iv 'im.' 

Cf. * Felice her faimesse 

Fel hire al to sdaundre ; 

And Rosamonde right so 

Reufiilliche to bileve, 

The beaut^ of hir body 

In baddtriMti she despended.* Pitrt PL p. 331. 

Baffounded, adj. Perplexed, bewildered, stunned. 

I find this word in no printed collection except the Wb. Gl.t in which it occurs with the 
following example appended '^ — * I was quite bewildered and haffhundtd* In its present form 
it is not easy to suggest an explanation. True, the Sw. Dial, presents the fonns haff^ a prac- 
tical fool, a stupid, and bafing, a half-witted being ; but there is no clue to the terminal 
portion of our word. Possibly the word should rather be spelt btfoundidy and it may be a 
corruption of some such word as Ihre's befctngd. Germ. bifiingtHt diKoncerted, embarassed. 


The A. S. bt/imgta, befongen does not seem to pnsseu tht ipccial mraning of the German 
word juft giveii. Bf-JxtHd-id {bt-ftond-td) analogoos lo bt-devil-td is possible, but itut 
likely. But the most Itkdy sup{Knition ic that the word ii really btfonded. Sec Fond. 
Hall, gire* /)««*, to be foolish ; and WycHf \xicifonHyd in his Tramlation of ih* Ntw Tttt.^ 
and the form hefonded would easily connect with this- Comp. Sw. D. J^antg, J^aiUig^ 
j^uiUig,_fiynud,fjanttd,Jj6nted: DitL^anted; all with the meanings fond or foolish, lilly. 

Bain, adj. Near, direct, easy ; as applied lo a road or way, 

O. N. heittn ; Sw. D. ben or bnjn, direct, straight, near. Conip. O. Sw. htm^ a gw^] or 
even road. B&ln appcan to haTc had, or to hare yet, other meanings in diflcrcnt parts 
of the North, while iii Scotland it is of wide applicatiuti : see Jam. Kay explains it ai 
' willing, forward;* aiid to be 'bain about one' implies nHiciousncu, forward readiness to 
help io the person spoken of — senses illustrated in the following extracts : — 
* Noab. He uide alle shalle be ilayn bot ooncly we, 

Oure baraes that ar hayn, and thare wifes thrc.' 

TWncf. Myit. p. 38. 
* Thow (St. John) wu bouuome and bayn§ his body to tent.* 

Rtl. Piten. p. 90. 
Perhaps Pr. Pm. * Beyn, nr plyaunle (beykn. P.). FlexibHis* throws some light upon this. 
The form heyhn leads one at once to O. N btygjot Sw. bit/a, A. S. bvgan. Sec ; to A. S. 
bocittm, Kris, botgsum. Old Dnt. gbf-booghstum (Uosw.), flexible, obedient, humble. 
' Huhsomemste or boitgbtQtiwtts*. Pliablcness, or Aowfomefuss.' Wedgw. 

Bairn, sb. i. A child. Also, 3. A tenn of address from an elder to a 
younger person, without regard to stature. 

O. N., O. Sw. and Dan. barn ; A. S. beam : M. 0. and O. H. G. barn. 
*** I'm giring you a deal of trouble, William, I fear.*' " Nay, 6a<r*i. nay : nowgin 
o* t* soort ;" ' from a man of sixty lo the parson, a man of forty-five. 

Bairn-bed, baim's-bed, sb. The worab, uterus, matrix. Comp. 
Calf-bed, Foal-bed. 

' She 's getten a swelling o' t* baim-M:* 1 turooor of the olerm. 

Baim-birth, sb. 

O. N. harnburdr. 

Lying-in, a confinement. 

BaimlBh, adj. Childish, puerile. 

Baimishiiess, sh. Childishness, imbecility. Wh. GL 

Bairn-lakinga, baira-laikings, sb. Children's toys, playthings. 
See I»ake. 

Baimteam, sb. A continuous succession of children, a family, 
generally in the sense of a large one : ' lots of children/ Brock. 

A. S. 6*(jm-*fow, posterity, generation ; Sc. haim-iynu, bame-ienu. Cf, N. S. ftMM, pio- 
genies, sttrps ; Dut. Zoom, a team of ducks : also a bridle, as in the case of N, S» loom and 
Fris. Mm. dam ; also A. S. team, issue, offspring, a snccession of children, anything foUowing 
in a row, order, or team : Bosw. See Team. 

* JesM*. Ye doghters of Jemsalcm, 1 byd ye wepe nothyng for me, 

Bot for yotire self and youre bam^eme' Ttmnel. Mytt. p. ail. 


* And schaft greni godles iawiV wute wahet. and in breadei wone brede d barnteam :* 
Aon shah groan without goods withm bare walls, and in want of bread breed thj bairntmm. 
Soli Mmdmbadt p. 31. 

* The fen^ was fiulyr of thiese doghtyrt. pe firste ^-of Hs foole bartu-4ytni higbte 
EDTjre, the to>er faighte Pride,' &c Rd. Pmts, p. 57. 

Baimwort, banworty sb. The common daisy {hettis perermis). Spelt 

An apparent deriration is offered in A. S. haiMayn; boiuwwe, a violet, perhaps the small 
knapweed. Botw. Hall, gives * a violet, Dtauiin.' and then adds, * Aorording to Cooper, 
htUU is the white daysv, called of some the margarite, in the North battwoort.' A. S. dagu- 
0ag0 is the original oif £. dotty ; and it certainly seemi, both on that ground, and on account 
(rf die accentuation and consequent sound of ftofi-u^r/, that the plant indicated by that name 
was distinct from the daisy and our Bairn- or Bui-wort. Dr. Prior gives barmoortt * from 
its baning sheq), by ulcerating their entrails,' as ramuticuliu fiamnua. There is very great 
perplexity about the majority of the local names of plants, ^om ^ uncertainty (or worse) 
of their application ; the same name being often applied to two, three, or more plants which 
are perfectly distinct. 

Bake-house, sb. (pr. backus). A baker's oven, or rather the building 
containing it. 

Pr. Pm, * Baiboiaet or bakynge howse. Pistrina.* 

This is of course the origin of the prevalent North Colmtry name Baekbous*, which in the 
Danby Roisters, 150 to 300 years ago, appears in the form Baekiu or Baikus. And, rather 
quaintly, on the tame page in one instance 1 find the name (still borne in the district) of 
Venus or Vents : a name mnch more difficult to account for. 

Baldng, sb. The quantity of com — varying with the size of the 
family — sent by the several fanners to the mill to be ground, and which 
is fetched away by the Cadger at stated times. 

What Batch is in connection with the oven (comp. Dan. bagt^ Sw. hag. Sic), that Baldss 
u in reference to the mill ; that is, as regards the usage of the word. 

Balcsta^zi, bakatone, sb. A circular plate of iron with an iron Bow 
to hang it by, to bake cakes upon. It is sometimes, though rarely, 
formed of slate. 

Comp. O. N. hakttjdm, literally, bake-iron, or iron for baking purposes. The transition 
of sound from what I take to be the O. N. original to the Clevel. word as spoken (the j 
sounding as y), is simple when once the sense of the original has ceased to be noticed. The 
tatdt Gl. spells the word bakstan, varying that spelling in the explanation with backstotu, 
boMtomt^ or baxstoH. Brock, gives backs/oru, with the definition, * a heated stone or iron 
for baking cakes ;' and Cr. Gl. backstont, ' formeriy a sUtc, but now a plate of iron on 
which oatcake is baked.* The author of the Gl. named first describes the Bakstan as a 
stone fitted by shape and dimensions for insertion in the ordinary fire-side ovens, but adds 
afterwards, * A baxs^m* cake is now made when the stones are nil by taking one of the iron 
shelving'plates out of the oven, fixing it over the fire, and placing the cake thereon.* This 
u the true use of the Bakstan, and for my own part I doubt if stone ever were, or could 
c<Hiveniently be, used in the way the real Bakstan is applied. In * Hire cake beame'5 o 
^ Stan,' Halt Mnd, p. 37, we have a reminder of the Alfred legend, the cakes burning on 
the bearth^one. 

a6 oiossARy of the 

BakBter, baztery sb. A baker. 

A» S. h€Kt%tr$, a woman who bakes, a baker. 

* Bahr, or baxter, bakstar. Ptsior^ pameha^ pamfat* Pr. Pm» 

Balk» sb. (pr. bawk). i. A beam. a. A ridge of land left between 
two furrows, or by the wall or hedge-side. 

Hald. gives bjdUtij a beam ; Dan. bjaUn ; and Ihre, balk^ a ridge between two fvaromt. 
A. S. balea bears both meanings. Comp. also O. N. bdlh-y a wooden partition ; e. g. a 
pUnked wall of or in a house, or merely a means of separation between cattle. According 
to Ibre, Qudmund Andr. remarks that Icel. bdlh" signifies not only the ridge left in pkn^h- 
Ing, bat any low ridge. Sw. D. baika, bolka, is to miss certain ridges or stnps in ploughing ; 
Mtt. a beam, a wooden partition, a strip in a ploughed field left untouched by the plough. 
Pr. Pm, • Balkt, trabs ; baikg, of a lond eryd. Porca.' 

* With his own hand he made them laddirs thre 
To cUmbin by the ronges, and by the stalkes 
Into the tnbbis hanging by the balkn ;' 
of the roof namely : MiUtr't Tale, p. aS. 

Sec Hay-bmks, and cf. * The owle all oeght aboue the baikm wonde.* 

L*g*Md€ ofPbUimda, p. 354. 
* He can wdl in myne eyin sene a stalk. 
But in his own he can nought sene a balk* Rn^t Pnl<^ti«, p. 30. 
For the second sense, comp. — 

' Primut PaUor, To my sbepe wylle I stalk and herkyn anone, 
Ther abyde on a balk^ or sytt on a itone 

Full soync.' Tounul. Mytt. p. 99. 

Ball, sb. I. Of the hand, the palm. 2. Of the foot, the sole. 

Dan. haldt, ball of the hand or foot, as haldt 1 haandtn^ bold* under fodm ; Sw. D. band' 
ball, palm of the hand ; fotball or/oteball, planta pedis, sole of the foot ; Qerm.fii$»-ballem. 
Comp. Lat. vola. 

* About t' bigness o* t' ball o' my hand.' 

BaUy-bloese, sb. A bonfire. 

A. S. bM-hUhe, bal-blite, the blaze of a funeral pile. The Scand. languages and dialects 
give equivalents for both the parts of this compound word ; thus O. N. bdl and blout ; 
O. Sw. bil and 6/oss; Dan. baal and blusser; but they are not met with in the same con- 
junction. Sw. D. bil, ' or the more usual form offerbdl, denotes a pile of boughs, stones, 
and other materials of every description, thrown up by means of the contributions of passing 
wayfarers on the place where a human being has lost his life ; the object of the contri- 
Jbutors being by this means to bind the spirit {att binda gasten) and render it harmless 
quoad sc.' Rietz. To this Mr. Hylten Cavallius, Wiirtnd oeb Wirdame, p. l6l. adds that 
the piles thus formed are from time to time burnt, and that such burning is expressed by 
the words ait brditna M/, and that even as late as 1828 divers prohibitions are met with as 
issued by the authorities against such bale-burning. The Dan. Dial, gives the vb. baale^ to 
make a blaze, or a great blazing fire ; the connection of idea with Dan. baal, a funeral pile, 
or pyre, being evident enough. What the blaze of the funeral pile, or bdl, must hare been 
may be easily conceived by any one who has ever seen the opening of a tumulus containing 


>n intenncot after barnmg. The writer hat met with many urns in which the Temains of 
the hmnan body were reduced to two or three handfuls of crumbling bones ; and in tome 
cases incredible quantities of charcoal still in dose company. Again, in Flat. I. 355, Bryn- 
hiUdr is described as first tlaying her seren thralls and her fire maid*, then stabbing herself, 
and ordering tiertdf, ttiU liring, to be carted away together with the twelre dead bodies to 
the funeral pile (tS hah) to be burnt : ' And to it came to past that there was one bal (o€ 
her and one iw her husband Sigurdr.* But imagine the pile required for consuming thirteen 
human bodies to ashes. It need scarcely be added that any asiumptioa of an etymological 
coonectioa between die name Baal and this word Ballj-bleeio must be groundless. Even 
in the Gadic form baltmn, while ttM is equiralent to our Bleese, Dan. bly$$tt Sw. blout &c.. 
I doubt if Adi be radically distinct from £. bait, Sw. bAi, Sec. In other words* I do not for 
a mcHuent mppoie that the worship of Baaly any more than that of BaldtTt or ApoHo^ or 
netbus^ ccmsidcred as persons with distinct ethnic names, was intended in Uicse balt^firn* 
It was the worship of the Svm-god simply, and his nam* not even hinted at in that of the 
filVfStet inTDlred. 

* Pirste to brenne the body 

In a baU of fiir. 

And sythen the tely soul slen. 

And senden hyre to helle.* A Ploughm. Crnd, 1329. 

Balm-bowl* bawm-bowl, sb. An urinal, chamber-pot 

Only a eant term, probably. There is a Tent, word bamut with a signification which 
would probably indude urine ; and if the wOTd is really an old word, that is its probable 
deriratimi. Bald, also gives bambur, a vessel of conesponding f<»m, a bowl or pot. 

Balrag, ballyrag, bullyrag, vb. To abuse violently ; to pour foul 
or savage words and epithets on ; to banter contemptuously and angrily. 
Also spelt balarag, ballerag, bullirag. 

There can be little doubt of the essential identity of our word with bully-rook, 

* Ho$l. What uys my byUjH'ookT Speak scholarly and wisdy.' M. Wives of W. I 3. 

Wedgw. connects buUy-rook or -roek, * a hectoring, noisy fellow.* with PL D. hndler-brook, 

btiUtr-jaax^ buller-bak; and these words, toother with £. bidly, he links with Dut. 

boiderm, btddtrm^ wrbuldtrtn^ to bully with loud menaces ; Q. polterm^ Sw. 6iJ/cr. noise. 

OQtcxy ; btUtr-bas, a bhuterer. 

Baiter, v. n. (pr. bauter). To trample or tread heavfly or clownishly. 

The connection of thb word it not veiy evident. On one side we have Germ, potttrttt 
to beat, thump, strike heavily or noisily; Sw. buUa; Lat. pultart; with which may possibly 
be classed Sw. D. btdlta, to drive a roller ; bulltklabb, a bittle. battledoor. On the other, 
Sc. pout, Sw. D. paiita, to hobble, to walk with faltering, uneven steps ; fjallia, id. ; and 
possibly our own paddle, with all the class of words it introduces. 

Baltidmm, sb. Riotous proceedings ; the boisterous merry-making 
which often accompanies a bonfire. 

' They played the very baltiorum.' Wh, 01. 

I do not find this word printed anywhere except in Wb. Gl. ; nor is its alleged resem- 
Uance to Bdtant in Jam. very suggestive of any reference to the customs described under 
that WOTd. 

£ 2 

aS aiossARy of the 

Bam, V. a. i. To put a joke or trick upon one. 2. To take in 
or delude. 

Bt, bttmant to bewitch, cheat. 

Bam, sb. i. A deception. 2. A trick, or imposition. 

I. '"It '4 all a bnm;" all a deception, or tike in,' Wb. Gt. 

a. ' ** That 'v* putten a 6am on him ;" played him a txi<:k or ** made a fool" of him.* lb. 

Bamsey, sb. A fat. red-faced female. WA, GL 

Cf. Sw. D. 6amm6d, ■ tioui balky woman : Swab. bamM, bamptl, hompiit a itout slut 
of a woman. 

Ban, V. n. To curse, blaspheme. 

Pr. Pm. ' Bannyn, or waryyn, fmprtcor, maltdico, vttrrar* 

O. N. and O. Sw. hanna^ to interdict, to denounce by ecclesiastical authority. But O.Sw. 
hannoi was applied to ludi as made use of wicked imprccatioiu in their talk. Ihre. Tbe 
same author also quotes O. N. bannaz and Belg. banndn in the same sense. 

* ** He banntd till all was blue ;" gave loose to furious unpiecations.' Wh. Gt. 

• FrintHi Potior For thi* tresp:t>, 

We wille nawther tan ne flytc, 

Fyght DOT chyte.' Tovrnd. MyU. p. II5. 

Ban, sb. A curse. 

O. Sw. barm ox ban; O. N. barm; A. S. ban; Dan. band. The meaning of tbe O.Sw. 
and O. N. words seems to hare been to interdict, or prohibit. The primitive meaning of 
the O. E. or A. S. word seems to have been to summons the army. Wcdgw. 7*hcncc was 
derived the sense of exclusion from the privileges of religion; and from this the meaning 
which our [>reseiit word still bears. And it i> worthy of note that, inasmuch as there wu 
a formal publication of the summons, or prohibition, or interdict, the word bann cunc to be 
applied to other fomul proclamations ; as, e.g. that of the purpose of nurriage between any 
two contracting parties : whence the phrase, * banns of marriage.' 

Band, sb. i. Small string or twine, a. A rope of small or moderate 
size. 3. The ligature of a sheaf of corn. 4. Thin straw rope twisted by 
hand, employed to seciue llie thatch of stacks, &c. 

0. N. band seems to have had a sense almost exactly coincident with our first ; viz. 
thread, small tie* whether of wool, linen or other material. The ordinary sense o( O. N. 
and O.Sw. fra/b/was simply (from binda, to bind; prct. bamf) somcihing bound, that ii, 
applied in binding ; a Ugalure. Hllet. surgical bandage ; and thence tbe other ntcaning jast 

1 . * Such and such a thing U not worth a band'^ end ;' i. c. it is valueless. 

1. ' " There 's a band foi thee ;" there 's a rope : go and hang yonnclf.' Wh, QL 

Band-maker, sb. i. A Iwinc-spinner or rope-maker. 2. The per- 
son, usually a lad, who makes the Bands for tying up the sheaves of the 
newly-cut com. 

The operation of Baad-mAkinc is performed by twisting tightly together, at the ear «nd, 
two handfuls of the lung corn ; and the Baad, »u made, ii cairfully laid on the ground so as 


not to ODtimt before the rabstaoce or the iheif is laid upon it. Comp. Dan. baandit to 
tvist ttnw n^ for biiuting theav^ 

Bands, sb. Hinges. 

* A piir o* bamda ;* a con[^ of hinges. Wh^ Gl. 
Cf. O. N. irobhpar, par fibularrun. 

* Dmiid. For of this prynce thus ere I saide ; 
I swde that he shold breke 
YouK barrel and baiida by name. 
And of jonre warkes take wreke.* Taunul. Mytt. p. 348. 

* £t lolrit Ricardo Sknyth pro daris, Aoiufu et crowkis pro tenementij in ^rett.* Pr. 
/ItKi. p. ocdx, 

Bandgter, sb. The person who binds the sheaf laid upon the BaJid, 
as described under Band-maker, by the Qetherer, usually a woman, 
who follows the mower with a light four-toothed rake to collect the com 
into masses sufficient to form each a sheaf. 

Bank, sb. x. The steep hill-side running up to the moor-edge, 
a. Any l:dll-side. 3. A road running up a hill-side. 

A. S. htme^ and O. Sw. hank^ the idea implied in each word being, according to Ihre, of 
a ding whidi rises from or abore the ordinary level. Sw. D. bank^ meaning a cloud-bank 
or fog-bank, must be collated with N. hakhjt, O. N. hakhi^ with the same signification. 
And these fonns are coincident with Sw. bacitt ^ hill, hiU-iide. The phrase tn h'OMi Aoeitf, 
a steep bill, ii one of continual occurrence, and answers with the closest correspondence to 
our own a bra&t bank. We may observe that like as batu, bank, backt vary in form 
only by the presence or absence of n, so ttw Sw. adj. brant differs from O. N. brtutTf but 
no furdier. 

I. * ** HaTC you seen my brother, Josey?" *' Aye, Ah seed him gannan' alang t' bank- 
$idt an' o<^ lil t* moor nae lang tahm syne." * 

a. * A bnnt bank;* a steep hilU 

Cf. * And np that bank that was so staire.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. 244. 

3. * T* batik*$ desput sleeap wiv ice. t' moom;' the road is in a very slippery condition 
wiUi ice. 

Banky, adj. i. As applied to land; steep, lying on the hill-side. 
3. As applied to a road ; hilly, abounding in steep places. 

I. ' Aye, he 's getten t' farm nane sae dear : but there 's a vast o* banky land iv it.' 
3. 'T rooad to Whitby 's sair an' baniy.* 

Bar, adj. Bare. 

* Primus Tortor, To bett his body bar 

I haste, withoutten hoyne.' Towrul. MyU. p. ao6. 
' Nobbut t' bar walls ; that 's a' he 's getten ;' of a man who had had a house left him, but 
everything else bequeathed some other way. 

Barfluny barflBLa, sb. A horse-collar. See Biimble-barfto. 

The derivation of this must have seemed as uncertain as its orthography. It is written 
barfitm^ barfbamt^ barribam, barson, barkbam, barkbaam^ braffam^ braugbanty baurgham^ 
baurgbwoHt brecbam, breebtm, jam. says ' Gael. Ir. braigb, the neck ; whence bratgb 


aidtUM, a coUv. The last iylUble has more resonUance to Teut. hammt, a collar.* 7*be 
last sentence shews he b not satisfied with the inggested denrmtioa : and no wooder. 
Brockett gires, 'Bttrkbant, a hone's collar, fonnerlj made of bai^ ;* the derivation hinted at 
being, however, even less satisfactory than the Gaelic one. Under bamn or btam, Mr. 
Wedgwood gives what is, beyond doubt, the true origin of the word : * The stnflbig <^ hay 
or straw by which the hames were prevented ftom galling ^ shoulders of die bosse was 
called hambtnimt or boMabcrorngb, a coarse horse-collar made of reed or straw ; from fttrwr 
or borough, shelter, protection against the hames. The same dements in the oppo si te order 
may be recognised in Prov, £. baurgbtpan^ brauebm, a eoXkax for a horse, made of cM stodc- 
ings stuffed wiA straw (Grose) ; and in Sc. bncbamt, ** The straw brtdxtnu is now np- 
plantcd by the leather collar.** Jam.' Our Barfto or Barfiun. allowing for the ^ or g'A 
concealed under /^ presents the true word only dightly (Usguised : hargb^yarC. Cocnp. 
the /V, Pm. forms ; berwhantt btmbam ; and bargbeamt in Calbol. Amgl. 

Bargh, bamgh, baurgh, sb. (pr. barf). A hill, usuaUy one fonning 
a low ridge by itself; as Iiang-baragh in Oeveland. 

O.Sw.btrg:,berg,hiarg; X>an,bjarg;^; U.Q^bairg; A,S.h0org, 
heorb. The word harf {Limeoins. (?/.) is merely the phonetic way of spelling Bargh m 
Banrgh, and the dosest analogy is found in the Clevel. Pr. of Anu^bt Umugb, plougb. Sec. : 
namely, ihvff, tbof, plttaf or pUuf. Comp. O. N. pl4gr, plongh ; pl^jm, cooher, with 
Dan. plov, phvjern^ couher ; Clevel. pUuf, pUufirC-tum ; for a paraUd softening of the gut- 
tural. Ziancbftor^ is written in Domesday and other andent documents LamgAtrg; 
and so of other places now known as Bamsh or Bwxr^i. 

Bargaest, sb. An apparition in the form of some animal, most fre- 
quently a large shaggy dog, but always characterised by large saucer eyes 
and a terrible shriek or roar. 

Correctly, no doubt, this word should be bur^bost; Germ, babr^ g«*t: Dan. &aanr, 
geist, Scott's Miiutn^y i,cix. note. Several other derivations have been proposed, all 
more or less absurd ; but Sir Walter's, besides falling in with the still commonly recdved 
notion — once, I bdieve, universal — that the BargUMt is, in -its proper office, a harbinger of 
death, at once suggests a comparison with the Sw. hxrht-grim^ Dan. birit-var%d or k i rh§- 
wm. See MoHibiy Packtt, xxix. 347. It was the custom, in the countries referred to, for 
the workmen engaged in building a church to take the first living creature which crcwwd 
thdr path on the day the work was to be completed, and build it in alive in the waU. It 
became afterwards the office of this animal to give warning of approaching death to the 
people of the township it bdonged to. Thus, animal forms of many kinds belonged to 
the several larkt-grims of a district ; and similarly, in Yorkshire we hear of Barsoeste in 
the form of a mastiff, a pig, a large donkey, a calf, &c. Other names for the Barguest 
are padfoot (East Yorkshire and Leeds); gjrtrash (Leeds); skriker, trash (Lancashire; 
Cboict Nott$^ p. 33), shuck. Sec. 

Barkened, adj. Coated or crusted over with dirt ; or with anything 
calculated to form a dry superficial coating. 

S. Jutl. borhtif a scab, or crust fonning over a sore. 

< T* putr bairn's hecad an' feeace an' airms an a* wur fairly barktntd ower wi' dry mock.* 

Barley-bairn, sb. A child bom too soon after the wedding of the 

So called, it is said, because the barley-crop comes forward sooner than other com. 


Wh. Oi. Sec Barlej-orop. But the exj^anation is nnsatis&ctory. There is a word 
oooiinonly used io die North, quoted by Brock., Hall., and Jam., and current also in 
Lancashire, with tfM sense, to beqicak. put in a daira. The word referred to is barity ; 
and its speciat scdk would gire a significance to Barley-bsim not alien to the Northern 
geohu ; dut is to saj, » baim already bt^okt before the formal rites of marriage. 

Barl6y-crop, sb. Not quite synonymous with Barley-bairn, inas- 
much as it is applied rather to the fact of the too early birth than to the 
child born. Thus : — 

* So and so *s getten a 6arify-fro^ then ;' in reference to the circumstance that his wife 
has gotten her bed within too short a time after marriage. 

Barm, sb. Yeast. 
O.Sw. htrma; Dan. barmt; A.S. hiorma; Dot harm. 

Barreiit sb. The external part of a cow*s sexual organs ; the ' shape.' 
Hall, extends the meaning further and makes it the ' vagina of an ani- 
mal :' but I think mistakenly. The cow seems to be the only animal to 
which the word is applicable. 

Sw. D. frornm, a cow's sexual parts; other forms being bdranm^ bSrtu, hart, Dan. D. 
bartnd, barUd; Old D. baramdat baramU. Cf. Germ bdnnutttrt Dut. baarmotdtr. The 
word is dosely connected with O. N. btra^ O. Sw. 6<era, &c., to give birth to. Comp. N. 
ftoro, to calve ; bera being also specially applied to the parturition of a cow, and Sw. bam- 
mg meaning the act of calving. Ihre remarks that the modem use of bora is restricted to 
cows simply ; /bla being ap^^ed to mares, lamma to sheep, btoalpa to the dog tribe, h'ssla 
to cats, and yngla to oUier animals. The spirit of this restriction of course gives its peculiar 
sense to the word Barren, as the part so much concerned in the act of calving. 

Barrow, sb. The flannel in which a newly-bom infant is received 
from the hands of the accoucheur. 

* When Sir Amelonn was worn out with leprosy, and reduced to " tvelf pans of catel " 
{ltd, in money) the faithful Amoraunt expended that little sum in the purchase of a 
&aroiM, therein to carry the Knight about. A. S. bercwe, vtctula :' Note to Barowt^ 
Pr. Pm. The barow* in question was a vehicle of some sort, of course ; but the funda- 
mental idea is the same in its name and in our Barrow: that in which one is bonie. 

», adj. Of indifferent character or behaviour. See Mean. 

bast, sb. I. Matting; originally, no doubt, confined to that 
made of the inner bark of the linden-tree, but now inclusive of other 
materials, as straw, large rushes, &c. 2. A hassock or cushion to kneel 
upon; again from the common material employed in their structure. 
3. A limp or flexible basket, of like material, used by joiners &c. to carry 
dieir tools in. 

O. N. htut; O. Sw. 6tfs/; Dan. bast; A. S. bast; N. S. and Germ. baU. 

2. * A }aiee-baas* 

3. • A tool-^oss.' 


Bat, sb. A blow, a stroke, stricken whether in labour, strife, or 

This word is at least related to O. Sw. badda^ to strike, if not directly derired from it. 
It might be due to a disused pret. of a verb correspondiDg to, if not coincident with, A. S. 
beatan^ like the old pret. h*t, of E. &fo/, which is still in conunon proT. nse. Comp. 
A. S. and Old £. 6a/, a dnb. which remains to us in the restricted sense of an instrument 
for striking a ball; frotfu. ■= staves. Matt. zxri. 47, Wydif's Vtnkm, 

* Drop it : or Ah 11 gie the' tha' bats;' leave of, or 1 11 give you a thrashing. 

' Ah hevn't strucken a 6a/ sen Marti'mas ;' I have not done any work since Martinnutt. 
* " Puir tyke I 't geU mair bats an bites ;" more blows than victuals.' Wb. Oi, 

* Tak* heed ! mebbe he 11 Uk' it a bat;* he will strike at it 

Batch, sb. A set, or association, of people, namely. 

Instead of being appropriated in Clevel. to peers and baronets, this word is used* some- 
what disparagingly, to group together any clique or set of associates, of not the best possible 
repute, perhaps. Comp. Sw. D. baksttr, the entire quantity baked at once. 

Bate, pret of bite, vb. 

Comp. Chaucer's pret bote. 

* God fen: his menace htm so sore hath smote 
With wounds invisible, incurable. 
That in his guttis carfid so and 6ol», 

That his peynis werin importable.' MoiJuts Tat*, i. 634. 

Bath, V. a. (pr. as sb. bath), i. To apply hot water in the way of 
fomentation. 2. To wash children all over. 

Comp. Sw. haddOt to foment ; Sw. D. 6ad!a, to soften by means of heat; Dan. 6adlr, to 

I. * Ah batVd him wi' yett watter, an' laid yett chissel tiv 'm, bud he nivrer git nae cue 
while moom.* 

•"How often *s your bairns baib'df" ■* Three times i*t*week. How often 's yoom?" 
" Iwery nceght." * 

Battel-door, sb. (pr. battle-deear). One portion of the former substi- 
tute for the mangle, not yet fallen into entire disuse: called also the 
Bittle. The other portion is called the Pin, or the Kolllng-pin, and 
in shape and dimensions very much resembles the roller of a small 

The Battel-door is a heavy piece of wood, with a handle, like that of a cricket-btt, at 
one end. flat on both sides and about four to five inches wide. The linen to be operated 
upon is wound round the pin and then rolled backwards and forwards on a linen-board 
under the Battel-door, subjected to whatever amount of pressure the laundress is able or 
disposed to put upon it. The proceu is not unaccompanied with noise from the dapping 
of the wood upon wood, or upon the linen rolled on the wooden pin, and it is this dapping 
noise that is, at least in part, implied in the various local legends touching Fairy linen-wiub- 
ing. At least in part — for it must not be overlooked that beating formed an important 
portion of the lavatory proceedings in days gone by, at least in &igland. Note the deicri|»- 
tion in P. Pltmgbman, vol. ii. p. 306. 


* And whan he ii way <^ thtt werk 
Than wole he som tyme 
Lribonren in Urendrye, 

And pakken hem (the matters to be washed) to^deres. 
And booken hem at his brest. 
And bttm hem cUnt 
And leggcD on longi 
And with warm water at hise eighen 
Wasshen hem after.* 

With tUs comp. Pr. Pm. * Batyl dottrt, ox waisbynge betylle ;* the note to which is, 
* Batyldor*^ betyU to bete clothes with.' PaJsgr. Ftntorium is explained in the Medulla to 
be " vutmmtmtmH cvm quo itmlurts vtrberant vtsturoi in lavando^ a battyng stafTe, or a 

Batten, sb. A sheaf or bundle composed of the straw of two sheaves 
of com bound together in one. 

I connect this word immediatdy with batit the pret. of O. N. binda, to bind. Comp. 
N. D. btrnd^ a bundle ; N. 1nnda, forming its piet. in bant or hand. 

Batten, sb. A spar of wood, of indefinite length, five or six inches 
in breadth, and two or three in thickness. 

Closely connected with baton, bataon, and with bat, a club : * Lo, Judas, oon of the 
twehre, uid with hym cam a grjete cnmpanye with swcrdis and bastis;* A. S. batL * From 
bait in the sense of a rod : perhaps first used adjectiTaUy, bai-tHt made of bats ; as smotf-m, 
made of wood.' Wedgw. 

Batter, v. a. i. To beat. a. To pelt with stones. 

These are merely modifications of the meaning of £. bai^r. 
X. * T* and diap 's getten hissen sair batttred aboot t' feeace.* 
a. * T* bairns wer baUtring t' and deeam*s decar wi' cobble-stanes.' 

Batter, v. n. i. To grow thinner from the base upwards as a wall 
does, or a railway embankment, the sides of which slope more away 
from the perpendicular as they rise in height a. To slope inwards or 
recede from the perpendicular. 

This word might seem to admit of comparison with O. N. b^tr^ having a sharp edge. 
like a knife, the sida of which are oblique or slope inwards or towards the edge ; especially 
as the word is a participial from the vb. beita^ and employed to designate the oblique or 
•k^Mng course, relatively to the wind, which a vessel hu to make in working up against 
the wind on the bow. There is, however, no countenance in the general a[^lication of the 
word for such a notion, and it is scarcely open to doubt that our batter depends rather on 
baa or abatt, to diminish, to lessen. C<nnp. Sp. btuir, to beat, beat down, lessen, remit, 

I. * The waQ batttn one foot in six ;* it is a foot thinner at six feet high dian at the 

s. * It ba$Un o* baith sides ;' it slopes inwards on both sides. 

Batter, sb. A sloping, backwards or inwards ; a recession from the 




perpendicular ; applied in case of a stone or brick wall, the sloping side 
of a railway embankment, &c. 

* T' wall tui a vut o' batttr;' is much thinner at top than at bottom. 

BatteriUnged, adj. Beaten and scratched, as one may at least 
expect to be in a battle in which a woman is engaged. 

Batterfangtng, sb. The consequences, in the shape of combined 
blows and scratches, which await the champion who engages a female 
combatant in battle. 

Bauch, adj. (pr. bauf or bofe). Lively, saucy ; of a little boy, and 
not in an offensive sense ; lusty. 

Thii U a perplexing word. All analory^ leads to identifying it with Sc. bamcb or bought 
but the HOic is diametrically opposite. Comp. Wh. GL instance— 

* ** A brave, battj lad ;" a fine, stout boy.' with 

* Without estate 
A youth though sprung from King's looks baugh and blate ;* 
or * Beauty but bounty's but haueb,' both quoted by Mr. Wedgw., under Baffii, and the 
contrast appears furcibly enough. Pfobably bqf, nequani, quoted by Ihrc, as well as led. 
b6Ji^ is the same word, and if hii supposition that the word originally meant a small boy, 
and then a lervant, and lastly a scamp, be correct, it nuy give some clue to the coimcction 
of the CI scTue. Or it may be an instance nf application analogous to that of rogtt*^ and 
cren tcamp, rateaJ, Sec. to a lively pet child ; as in ' you little rogue,* &c. 

Beacon, sb. A name applied to the highest hill on the Danby North 
Moors, and of remote imposition. 

A. S. beattn, btacn^ btcen, a sign, token. ' Cntoriut y^ ivid drg loeeoM hecoit : and bin 
fif 6i5 HtiH bfcon geutld, huta Jotus becon i^ici witgo;' literally, a generation evil and arf 
seeks A sign, and to it there be no sign given l>e-«ut Jonah's sign the prophet. The beacon- 
fire was lighted as a token or sign, of an attack or invasion, suppose ; and thence the word 
became applied to the fire itself, or that which contained or supported the fire. Cf. Pr. Pm. 
* B*€ktu, or fyrelwme. Far. Pbarut." ' Danby Beacon' — in Danby itself. ' T' Beacon* — a 
Celtic tumulus of large dininisiuns originally : and it is quite jwssible that it may have been 
the site of sacritidal fires (see Bally-bloofto) long ages before it received the Saxon epithet 

Bead-hoiise, bede-hooae, sb. (pr. bead-*us). An almshouse. See 

Beadsman, bedeman, bedesman, sb. ' A man whose business it is 
to pray for another.' Johnson. The inmate of a bead-house. 

pr. Pm. * BtdmoM. Orattir^ supplicator, exorator.' A. S. htddan (pret. 6<»rf, to pray) ; 
O. N. heidi : O. Sw. bedja. * The designation.* says Jam.. ' has originated from some rdigioat 
foundation, ui times of popery, according to which a certain number of indiridoals rcreired 
a staled donation, on condition of offering up prayers for the living.* It may be observed 
that A. S. bfad is a prayer. Hence the common meaning of the ward bead; * because one 
was dropped down the string every time a prayer was prayed, and by this means was marked 
the nuaibcr of timet it had been prayed.* Tooke. 


* Thtt carpenter seide his derotioo 
And still he sett, and bitli^ his {ffayeTe, 
Awaiting on the raine/ MilUr'$ TaU, p. 38. 

Kb the folknring passage the mention is of six thanes ' reduced in their ctrcnnutances' bj 
the Saxon oooqnests : — 

* No raocheo'S heo to horde: Nor reach they to table 
buten bned ane. But bread alone; 

no to heore drencches : Nor to their drihk, 

but water sceodies. Bat water draughts. 

Hu heo leodefS heore lif : Thus they lead their life 

inne Hne leode. Among thy peapie 

& heore bmtdm hidd^: And their btadt bid. 

Lay. II. 404. 

* To Oban Wi Mf a hed»: Atntn^eh fi. Mart. X. S. T. S. p. 99. 

* ScbeaoM vAi tdle ucvte beon cuer her itold unwurft, and beggen ase on harbt, )lf lut 
oeod is, hit Ifatenetf, and beon o9res btodtmxm, ase se beo9, leoue sustren ;' Ancr. RMt, 
p' 356: shaSM I redcon ^t) for to be ercr here reckoned unworth, and (to) beg as a harlot, 
if it need be, ooc's liring, and (to) be others* bMdman, as ye be, dear sisters. 

Beadnramsn, bede«woman, bead-Hu-wife. The same as Beada- 
man, sex being altered: or^ more strictly, the female inmate of a 
Bead-^u, or alms-house. 

/v. Pm, * Btdttoomtm. Oratriat, mpfUcatriat: 

Beaker, ab. A large glass or tumbler standing on a stem and foot 
like those of a wine-glass ; an old-fashioned tumbler or beer-glass. 

Pr.Pm, * Byhtr^ coppe. Cinbiwn* O.N. bihar; Sw. b'dgar$: Sw D. btkart; Dan, 
ba^gr, a cup, goblet, chalice; Germ, btebtr; Dut. bektr. 

Beal, V. n. i. To bellow, to low as a cow. 2. To raise the voice 
above Its usual pitch, as in singing, &c. 

/v. Pm. ■ £«//yn, or lowyn u nette. Mugio.' O. N. &</ia, baula ; O. Sw. balia, bSla ; 
Sw. boia; H. baula, btlja; Gena. bdltn i A. S. btUan ; Dan. D. 6<z/ia. Sw. D. has fr</>, 
biija^ boija^ baula, to cry at the full pitch of the voice as a child does ; as well as to 

I. * What gars yon coo bttal sikan a gait ?* 

a. * She wares maist or her tahm i' bttalm* an* sing^';* she spends most of her time in 
squalling and singing. 

Bear, bere, sb. A variety of barley, otherwise called Bigg. 

A.S. b€n, barley; N. Fris. btm^ bar, bar\ M. G. bark; O. N. barr, com; Sw. D. hvr, 
com, com intended to be ground. Of E. barlay Mr. Wedgw. says, it ' seems derived from 
W. barUys, which might be explained, bread-plant, from iMra^ bread, and J!/ys, a plant.' 

Beared, pret. of Bear. 

Beast, sb. An individual animal of the ox kind. The plural of this 
word is Beeas or Beas ; applied to cows or fatting stock collectively. 

F 2 



The first milk drawn from 

Beastlings, beealings, sb. (pr. bizlin's). 
a cow after calving. 

A. S. £«ot/, bytting, Englished In Doiw. bjr * bieitings/ Pr, Pm. * h^atnyn^t, CoUus- 
trum.' In Lteih Gl. the word 6*«i appeari, as well ai btetiin^. Hall. al*o givei htett u 
in prav. u*c, and Brock, quotes Dut. him. Possiblv betU and beestings are due lo an A.S. 
origin, and bislingi. hettlings to a Scand. form. And it is obsenrable that a word hiding is 
given by Ihre, and it conjeciuraUy referred by hioi to the word 6«/a, psKcre. 

Beafltling', beesling-pudding, sb. The pudding lo the composition 
of which the Bisslings are applied, and for which concoction, regarded 
as a great delicacy, the milk in question is much prized. 

The usual custom ii to portion the BoastlingB out among such of his neighboun as the 
owner of the cow vrishe* to shew a little kindly attention to. But, in the great majority 
of cases, the jug or other vessel containing the present is scrupulously returned unwashed. 
Not a few persons in t}iis district, and in S. Lincolnshire also, send with the present a 
special direction that the conUiniiig vessel be not washed out, as otherwise^ besides the 
general reason, * it i< uolucky/ the particular anluck of the ncwly-bom calf *i death would t>c 
siUT to befal. 

Beb, V. n. 

to soak. 

To drink, in small quantities, but for a lengthened time ; 

Comp. E. frf£, 6i&fr«r, and A. S. hehr, a cup. 

' He wad sit bebbing an' soaking fra moom an' while necght. 


Book, sb. The general name for a stream of runmng water. 

O. N. heckr; O.Sw. bath; Dan hak; N. bekk: A.S. htee: Germ, bacb: Dot. 6«*, &c. 
• Fryup Beck.' ' Goathland Beck.' Sec. The Esk, after it has received Commondale 
Beck, Danby Beck, and two or three other and smaller streams, is called * T' Gret Beck.* 

Beck-stanes, sb. Slcpping-stoncs, by means of which the foot pas- 
senger may, in the absence of a bridge, cross the beck dryshod. 

Beclamed, adj. Smeared over \i-ith dirt or mud or any equivalent of 
*dirt/ dirtied, bemired. 

Comp. A. S. beelctmeii, glaed to or together, plastered over. Cf. O. N. Hmmi, See 

BGclarted, adj. Bemired, smeared over with dirt, smirched. See 
Clarty, Clart. 

Bedfast, adj. i. Confined to one's bed by chronic ailment or in- 
firmity; bedridden, a. Confined to one's bed by sickness, or for a time 

We have also the word hoYue-&Bt, »onietimes, though rarely, varied by hono-fkal. 

1 do not think these compounds are analogous to the A. S. compounds with fatt, ' denoting 
fast, very, perfectly, effectually; as avh/aU, fast in the law. fiim. religious; mtH-ftMst, fast 
in troth, true, just; statSoi/itU, of a firm foundation, stable, firm.' Botw. The idea is 
rather of being fited or fastened in or to a place, at in the Sw. Dial, word ^i*i and our own 
/att (see TmBt), both of which signify not only incapable of further action {bimtrtitt att gara 



hnd mam Sr O Mm odmi cm: pi< r c n ted firam dc^ tint which one hu a mbdto do); but 
■bo maUe to lore ooe^s pboe of stay or rendence {bimdrad ati Umma att hem; torn » 
im homma b tm ^ rh ^ , Caas^ oar westharfltft, tnd with it Sw. D. bSr-^ut, detuned by 
want of a ftiroinabk wind; and Sw. and Dm,jord-fatt, ftst or fixed in the ctfth, of lam 
ftoQcs ; afanoat etpuTalent to oar lloor-ctona. The A. S. eqoiTalent to oar word ii htd-rida, 
htdd^fwdia, htddtwda, whence £. MHddm: in Pr. Pm. h$dtnd^mm, btJtamtr, 

Bed-happingB, sb. Bed-clothes; sheets, Uankets, and coverlet See 
Hap, Happiags. 

Bed-<took0, sb. The bedstead proper, ezclnsive of the accompani- 
ment of sacking, ftc., by aid of which it becomes capable of supporting 
the bed. 

O.N.s«aeir, O.Sw.KteK both signiiy bedstead, or rather, bed-frime. Whether bed is 
a qnhe modem prefix, or merely presents an analogy to snch compountb as O. Sw. bmgff- 
$to^ a diopiring-block, is not perfectly apparent, althongh Sw. $aiig-gtoek, O. Sw. ioatgO' 
■JUttr present me strictest analogy to Bedstook : on me other hand, Sc. Mtodi coincides 
with Soud. tiodr. The original mraning of aloi^^ or staJ^ktr was a beam pointed at Uie 
cads. Riets. 

*He'ad gettenhis 1^ ower t'AadcAwh. But he coa*d nowther gan ner stand ; an' afore 
Ah coold win tir 'im he 'ad tommled his lang-leogth o* t'fleear.' 

In one of the Wtcfactaft cases in Fork Qude Depotitioms, p. 65, the word btdttat^ 
oocnn : and in the QkMsary, die Udaioopt is defined u * one of the principal timbers in a 
bed that mni into the posts « uodn. The thin laths or spars that ran across the bed from 
one stoop to anodier were called btdstcam.' I think this is written mistakenly : the Hoopt 
are the posts, the ittodtt the timben nmning into the ttoops. What the inference may be 
irtiidi arises from the original difieroice in meaning between E. btdsUad and ClereL Bed- 
■toOka, Scand. alotk^ I must here leave ondiscossed. 

Beeagle, sb. An oddly or grotesquely dressed figure; ' a fright,' as 
used of a person ill-dressed and in bad taste : also ' a guy/ ' a scare- 

I diink this word, wMdi occors in the iMtds Gl.^ written heagU^ and in Wb. Ql.t written 
as abore, is merely hogU or 6o^iZ/, with the Qerd. pm. of long o — as in Uttan for sAmr, 
hteam for honu^ Sec. ; and that tiie sense is merely an accommodation from that of Vlay- 
bosSle See Bogglo, Bosgart. 

* A bonny hetagU;* equiralent to * What a gay t* Wb. Ql, 

Beeas, beas, sb. The collective plural of Beaat. 

Bee-bee. A word in continual use among such as have charge of 
very young children, and applied when the latter are apparently sleepy, 
or when it is time for them to be put to sleep. * Baby go bee-bee now;* 
or, ' Poor baby wants to go bee-bee.' 

HaUI. gires hi-bi^ the soothing voice of nones when lulling their little charges. 

Bee-bike, sb. See Bike. 

Beeld, sb. i. A shelter; or, rather, anything which affords a shelter 
from the wind, or from inclement weather, a. Hence a shed, a hovel, 



Also Spell Bield, 

or a mere stone wall, or walls, though without roof. 

The deriration of this word U, like its orthography, uncertain. O. N, bali uid &iS 
both signify the den of, or care inhabited by, wild beuu ; and the (omier mcuu also the 
hannt or abode of lawless men. O. Sw. biiU has a very sifnilar application, besides the 
word hoi, which, in cither tonpie, lignifici a dwelling, a homestead. 

I . ' A Vt it 's a ^y good bitld when t' wind blaws fell ;* said of a very large and bushy 
hoUy growing in the fence of a Beld. 

1. * " A bit of a bield in i field neuk i* a hovd or cattlc-ihcd, in a field comer.* Wh, Ql. 

Bee-skep, sb. A bee-hive. See Skep. 

Bee-auoken, adj. Quoted in Wh, G/. from Marshall's Torkshire, 
where it is defined as * cancerous, black and turgid ;' applied to the bark 
of the ash. 

A curious word and worthy of preservation. Possibly the derivation may be obvlons. 
* Natural history teaches,' says Grimm, * that swarms of bees settle on the sweet sap of 
the ash. and the Edda declares that a dew drips fTom the holy ash Vggdrastl, which is 
called honrydew, and kupplies niitrimrnt to the beet.' D.M. p. 659. But. recollecting the 
familiar fact that the woodpecker specially affects such trees as would be termed b6e-ffuoken« 
and that a name for the woodpcckei is bienenwolf, contracted into the A. S. foriiis Itettvuif, 
btov. b*m/; Scand. biar, biaf (Sec Grinun, D. M. p. 342); and the meaning which O. N. 
tucka, and nukm in bamt-^vckm, eventually lake — namely one involving more or less of the 
idea of wasting, mjuring, mining, or destoying — it appears at least possible that the deri- 
Tatinn of bee-sucken may not be the apparently obvious one. The rcraark that if a 
woodpecker he seen busy about an ash-trec, symptoms of disease will alwavs I* found 
at the spot or spots visited — a remark I have heard made once and again — is, in this con- 
nection, noteworthy. 

Befonded. Probably the true form of Baffounded in the Wh, GL 
See BafiTounded. 

Beggar-staff, sb. Used to imply the state or condition of beggary, 
or impoverishment ; a long staff being one of the insignia of the beggar 
when beggars were * an institution.* 

* ** They brought faim to btggar-tiaff;" to beggary or ruin.' Wh. GL Compare the 
phrajc, ' we are brought to btggtr-ttqffi,' which occurs in the Ptympttm Of rmf t m dmte, 
p. 199. Hall. Frequent reference is made in the Old English ballad poetry, and else- 
where, to this customary part of the equipment of the professional beggar. Thus in * Robin 
Hood, a Beggar, and tbe Three Squires.' Bp. Percy's J^olio MS. i. pp. 16, 17, we fend 
Robin Hood exchanging clothes «nth a beggar, and then. — 

* Now Robin he is to Nottingham bound. 
With his bags hanging down to his knee. 
His s/d/and hii coat, scarce worth a groal. 
Yet mcrrilie passed he.' 

And again : — 

* But Robin cast down his baggs of bread, 
Sf>e did he his t/afi with a face.' 

Bogging-poke. sb. The beggar's bag, or scrip, in which to put the 



scraps of f6od, ftc., given him on his rounds. Another of the equip- 
ments of the genus Beggar. See Poke. 

* ** He ooomed f tik* 0(^ wi' i' b^ging-pooak ^ wai rcdaoed to the condititMi of begging 
hit bread fipom boose to hmue.' H^. &. 

BcsUcs the extncts giffc& under Beggar-ctaff, cc»npare theie from p. 14 of the lame 

* An old pKlcfat coat the beggar had ooe. 
Which ht duly did use for to wear. 
And many a ftv about him did wag 
Which made Kobio Hood to him repair. 

Now a change, a dian^ cri*d Robin Hood, 

Thy bagt and coat give me, 
And thii mantle of mine, ile to thee resign. 

My horse and my braTerie.' 

Beholden, beha'den, pcpl. (pr. behodden). Under obligation, indebted. 

A. S. btbtaJ d an^ p. p. btUtUdm, to hold to, to incline ; the prefix ht rather intensifying 
the action. Thus * btboldtn is holden, bound, obliged.* Rich. The oU word hold* is used 
in the same sense. Thus— 

* ... To hym in spedall, 
Abone all other, I am most htiidt* 

Ffor ^ fynte (Aat God made ns) es man haldene till hym for to lufe hym with aB his 
bene.' Rd Pmu, p. 3a. 

* Ttrwa Maguttr. Mdcylle I thynk that thise prophetys 

Are holdtn to God.' T^owmi. Mysi. p. 159. 
Shak^Kic, Two Gent, of Verona, iv. 4, nses the word in an active form : — 
* She is btboldittg to thee, gentfe youth.' 

* Ah *s midde hehoddm t* ye, Ah 's seear.* 

Cf. Loosd. imtbAoddtn, unsuitable : of words ; cross, angry. 

Behint, adv. Behind. See Ahint. 

Belantered, adj. Belated, benighted. See Iiantered. 

Bolder, v.n. i. To beUow, as a bull or cow. 2. To cry or shout 
vodferou^y and continuously. 3. To cry loudly or roar, as a hurt or 
cross-tempered child. 

Comp. O. N. bvidra, to be noisy, to bellow ; Sw. buUra ; Dan. huldr*^ to roar, bluster, 
stonn, knock thunderingly ; Sw. buQtr has; Sw. D. bulUr bokk, hvUer bah*, a noisy bois- 
terous fcUow. See also B6lder. Although I quote these words as possibly closely c<m- 
nected with our word, yet with the par^l forms, £. mmtow, CI. lomder; Sw. buHra, 
O. N. buldra; O. N. spvma, Dan. sfirui*; and the many similar instances in which d takes 
the [dace of the second of two u*» or two Ts ; it is at least equally probable that belder 
is simply another form of E. MIoicr, A. S. bdlatit Genn. hdltn, O. N. hylia (pret. btildt), 
Sw. bola, &c. 

I. * What 's thae kye htldering that gate for?' 

3. * " What 's yon lad httdtrmg sae for ? " " Wheea, he 's laitin' his broother t" * 

3. * Whisht ! bairn, whisht I thoo 's btldmng like 's thah leg wur brussen.* 


Belderment, sb. A loud continuous crying or shouting, such as 
may bt: made by one child cr)'ing Joudly and purposely, or by a party of 

children at their play, and raising their voices altogether, especially in 
make-believe cr)'ing or singing. 

Belike, adv. Possibly, likely, ver>' likely. See Iiike. 

Belk, V. n. To belch ; to vent wnd from the stomach. 

Mr. Wedgwood looks upon bthbt Mi, 6o/i, or hoJu at * doubtksi ui imitAtion of the 
found.' Sec BoUc or Bouk. 

* In Ucwibe then thai syn, Goddei wirkct thai not wyrke. 
To Mk thai begyn and spew that ti irkc' Towntl. Mytt, p. 314. 
' 1 Uiall (^yn my mouth in parablcf ; I shal bolkt out hid thiogui fro cukjng of the 
worid.' Matt. xiii. 35 ; Wyd. Venion. 

Belk, sb. A belch; a single act of belching 

* He bigan Bcncdicite with a &ott, 
And his brcst knokked 
And raxed U)d rored 
And nitte at the Ia»te.* P. Ploughm. p. 100. 

Bell-house. The name of a lonely house in the parish of Danby, 
close to the line of the former CauBey, which ran across the moors from 
below Castleton to Staithes, and which is said to derive its name from 
the circumstance that the bells worn by the leading horses in the train 
were customarily suspended here diuing die night halts. 

Bell-houBe, sb. The bell-tower» church-tower, belfo'- 

The A. S. word bM$~bus occurs, but it does not seem to hare been applied exclusively, 
as our present word is ; one meaning given by Boiw. being fruvwoH, 

Belly-timber, sb. 

A. S. timbrioH a employed in a metaphorical way which is worthy of notice, and gives 
point to tlie accomntodation existing in our word — * to prepare wood for building ; to 
build with timber or wood ; the &nt building being probably of wood : hence, generally. 
to build, to erect. From this the sen»c passes to that of buUding up tb* mind; to instruct, 
to edify.' The transition of idea in BeUy'-timber is not nearly »•> startling as in the notion 
of mind-timbering. Comp. also the following. Flat. ii. 11:—* Gerdiist ok smo at/uUkomliga 
/ramkuamdtaU ord ob atpittd* ^*$ui goda gudi aifuinar Oinf% bonungt Trygguatomar 
at batu uunnafiu Otafr HaraUduom ufp rmMUDE ha/ i,ama %midt bailagrar imar um adr 
mr gi/tuiiga gnmdwdlat :* and r> it came to pais that fully accomplished was tb« word 
and saying of the good God's fast friend King Olaf Tryggrason, that his namesake Otaf 
Haraldsson built up the same fabric (literally, timb^rwd up the same smith-work) of Holy 
Faith, of which had the foundation before been happily laid. Comp. also *iifsi6rm^ 
louward blisie.* Ancr. RiwUy p. 134. 

Belly-wark, sb. (the a in woTk sounded as in iark). The stomach- 
ache, colic, gripes. See Wark. 

Food ; a supply of material for the belly or 


Belong, V. a. To be the property of, or most closely connected with. 
See example, and comp. use of Speak. 

* A coat MoHging Thomu/ 

* Wheat 'e thM twcea ladies, u' thee 7 Whah I they Mongt me — ther 's oar Janey 
and Many/ 

Ben*t» baint, ^r. beeant). Be not. 

* « T A«Mm'/seeft;" it is not so/ Wh. 01 

' Him an* me bmam*l no ways kin ;* we are not any rdations. 

Bent, sb, A kmd of short, wiry, dark-coloured grass, which forms the 
chief herbage (of the grass kind) of the moors and moor-banks. Cr. GL 
mistakenly makes it Triticum junceum. The word is loosely applied to 
any short, harsh, blue-looking grass growing in such places. 

* r<mM PaUor. Bot fnlle ylle have I ment, 

As I walk on this b«ni 

I may lyghtly repent/ Tounul. Mytt. p. loi. 

* Maria. And aUe my brethere dere, that ar on this btnl^ 

Take tent to my taylle tiUe that I hare told 
Of my dere son,' && R. 303. 

Benty, adj. Short, wiry, blue-looking ; applied to pasture herbage. 

* Nobbut pair httUy mess wir nae natur in it.' 

Be-out, prep. Without 

A.S.A#-draM. Sc. frv/, U simply the contr.fonn of our be-out. Hall. giTes&aur/«withoot, 
whidi would seem to be merely a corruption of h*<iui. 
The * Doctor/ in the CUvd. Sunrd Dane* lUeUatum^ says of bis * gret gran'mother/ — 
* Her said ef her lived t* have nahnty nabn tahms 
As mony long years as Methusalahm's, 
Ber'd niwer be b*-<mt a box o' mah pills.* 

* And ^^«onne ^oht ich gon awei, nor me luste slepen : and nolde tmttn leaae / and 
then thought I I would go away, for I longed to sleep; and I would not bt-oui leave. 
Amer. RMt, p. 338. 

* Nezst ftesche ne schal mon werien no linene clolS, bute lif hit bee of herde (See 
Bards), and of greate heorden (See Hardizig). Stamin habbe hwosc wule : and hwose 
wnl mei beon hutm* lb. 418. 

Berries, sb. Gooseberries, par excellence, 

*Gan in* pidc herrm, hoaty;* go and pidc gooseberries, dear. See BlaokbenlM 
and OnmxL'-lMirrleft. 

Berry, v. a. To thrash. 

O.N. htria, to strike, to thrash; O. Sw. baria, id.; N. btiya^ to thrash; 0. Dtn. 
hmjeba; Sw. D. bargOt to thrash newly-harvested com hastily or carelessly. Rietz collates 
A.S. baian, to strike; O. H. G. pman; Oerm. birm, buren; but I do not find the first 



in Bosw., nor the last-named in Hilpcrt. Comp. Sc. berry, to thrafh. The word U 
extinct here at to Jaily use, and only jTretervcd in a couplet connected with the * Hob* 
traditiom. See Hunp. 

An abode, fixed residence. 

The uuge in the following example from Wb. 01. i> peculiar, and justifies the iucrtion 
of this word : — 

* He has nowthcr baim not btrtb ;' he has neither family nor home ; it a roving bachelor. 
with no domestic tics of any kind, eren xuch as are implied in the pusscsston of ' roonu,' or 
lodgings. It may also imply friendless and homeless, in a sadder sense. 

Bosom, sb. (pr. bczum). A broom, whether made of Birk or long. 
Sec Wire-ling. 

A. S. htstm, h<sm, hism: Oerm., Dut. hnem; N. S. bnun. 
Pr. Pm. * B*srHt or besowme. bcsym. Scopa.' 

* As fond as a 6efom ;' absurdly foolish ; apt to commit frequent and absurd mistake*. 

Besom-bead, sh. One who, besides Fondness, or ordinar}' folly, has 

stupidity in his composition. 

Besom-headed, adj. Stupidly foolish. 
Bessy-bab, sb. One fond of childish amusements. 

Hall, gives thi» word tn the forni of B^uy-hadf which Is probably an error. 

Comp. Southern Molly-coddle : and • don't be a Bessy,' as said to a perton who inter- 
meddles wiih feminine maltcn or busincsics. The final syllabic hab is simply babe or 6<tBy : 
hence the slightly contempluoos meaning of the word in iti ordinary usage. 

' Deean't be sikan a great heny-hab ;' to a big boy playing with a little girl's doll. The 
Leed* 01. gives a furtliet imtancc of the meaning of the word- The whimperings of a spoilt 
child are of the 'bcHy-bab' ordei ; — * Coom te thee mammy, then, thou little bessy-bab. 
She docs nowt Inid spoil thuh I* 

Better, adj. The right; as applied in connection with the words 
hand, foot. 

An exceedingly interesting instance of usage. Comp. A. S. siin<& hartdj strong hand, the 
right hand, or iwilSrt band, the stronger hand ; the word stviSnr alone sometimes ugnifying 
the right hand. Bosw. Comp. also Dan. bmire, Dan. D. boger. O. N. hagre, from bagr or 
biggr, habilit, ea»y to use, or handy; Sw. bogrr; and not lets E. rigbt, straight, direct- 
whence the application to the hand which is most directly made ute of ; — Mr. Wedgw. says, 
* which it ii right to make use of.' Oamett remarks, * that the phrase right band was intro- 
duced into the Teutonic tongues at a comparatively recent period ; and that there is an 
older form than even nci'^Fr in Cvdmon. vis. fMO, which be connects with Sanscr, dahbina; 
Or. Atftoi, Zf^tTtp6n\ Lat. tUxtn- ; Lith. deszime; Goth, taihswo ; O, G. znn, zmsmi; 
U. and Gael. d>ai. whence deiud : Welsh debeu .-* in all of which words, probably, the idea of 
dexterous, handy originally to«jk precedence of that of right, as applied* to hand, fool. Sec 

Bettermy, bettermer, adj. Superior, belonging to a belter class. 

Betterm J, which is the form in current use, is no doubt a vocal corruption of beilermore, 
which, with its similar luperlaiive bettermou, finds an exact parallel in fHrtbermore, fiirtber- 
tnos/: further being the regular comparative of /or/t, as better it ofgnod. 

' She was naiu o' your commooality, but quite a ietiermy soort o body.' 


Bettermest, adj. Best of two or more ; the best. See Bettermer. 
Bettemees, sb. Amendment or improvement in respect of health, 

* A* fof ma ailment. Ah finds nae bttttrmu in it/ Wb. GV. 

BetotUed, betwatOod, adj. Bewildered, confused or confounded, 

Comp. Sw. D. btitiutad, bewildered, confused; S. jutl. betutUt: * Mm a Hn blow dett 
bituittt law ban kom :' bnt she was udly astooied when he came. Oam. Dansi* Mindtr, 
1st Ser. p. 304. CC O. Sw. tuAtta^ O.N. ^waUa^ to Ulk nonsense, play the fool in 
speech : collate also Sw. D. btlusstn, betyiia. The word obtains in Cornwall as well as in 
tfie North ; thus, ■ bitufattttd, tamed fool ; twattU^ to chatter childishly.' Spteinuns Com. 
Prw. Dial. p. 90. I am more inclined to suppose a Celtic than a Teutonic origin of the 

* *« Ah *s fairly hetwatatd and baffoonded ;* thoroughly bewildered and confused.' Wb, OL 

Beyont, prep. Beyond. 

Comp. Ayont ; as also Ahintj parallel with btbmd, 

* They gat fiiirly btytmt him in that matter.' Wb. Ol. 

Benle, v. n. To drink immoderately ; to guzzle. 

' Ctf oneertain deriration. Mr. Wedgwood thinks that it is * formed from an imitation of 
ibe sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Btxzl* was then applied to wasting in 

Bid, v.a. I, To bespeak attendance; to invite. 2. To offer money* 
as a price. 

O. N. bidda (pies, byd) ; Sw. bjuda ; O. S. biau)fa ; Sw. D. hjauda ; N. bjoda (pres. byd) ; 
Dan. bydt; M. G. biudan; A. S. be^dan ; all to invite, to bid, to offer. G. bietm^ to bid. 
offer, tender. O. N. bioda HI brullups^ to bid to a wedding (comp. * Bid to the marriage,' 
Matt. xxii. 9 ; the A. S. text baring clypia^^ and Wycl. cUpt, in the place), is strictly 
(arallel to our bid to ft biUTius. Comp. S.Jutl. * « btU By er bUden til JErvot:' the 
whole town is bidden to the Arral. It may be noted that there is a good deal of the 
imperatiTe in the bidding phrase or formula, • You are expected,' or ' You are desired to 
attend the burying' of so and so. Still, the term is used in the simple sense of inviting; as 
' Ah bad him f tea ;' ' Maist pairt 0' t' parish wur biddtn te t' tea-feast/ Note, besides the 
(net. bad or bod, the pcpl. bidden^ bodm, or boddsn; and, with the example. * Ah'd ten 
pund an' a crown boddn me tweea tahms i* t* oppen mark't .' comp. the S. Jutl. * Eg er 
bddm ftm (fire) diUr;' and also the usage in the following passage from Toumd. Myst. 
p. 177:— 

* Judas. Sir. a bargain bedt I you ; 
By it if ye wiUe.' 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark on Bid is : — * Two words are here confounded of distinct form 
in the other Teutonic languages : i. To fru/ in the obsolete sense of to pray ; in this sense 
the word is the correlative of Goth, bidjan; A. S. biddan; Germ, bitten; Icel. bidbja. 
1. To bid, in the sense of offering, bringing forwards, pressing on one's notice, and conse- 
quently ordering or requiring something to be done : Goth, bjudan, in anabjudan, favr- 
b^udan^ to command, forbid; A. S. beodan; Germ, bitten, to offer; Dut. biedtn' The two 
senses of our vb. both belong, of course, to the verbs of the second class defined in the extract. 
For an analogue to those of the other class see Beadnum. ^ 





Bidden, bodden, boden, pp. of to Bid. 

Bidder, sb. The person deputed to ' bid to a burying/ 

Comp, S. Jutl. bydsven, Funcn hyditgr, of exactly equivalent meaning. In miny or most 
casts, ill dayi hardly quite past yet. the parish clerk wat the pcnon custonurily engaged for 
this (crvicc: soradiincs the sexton, or rather, Dog-whipper. His business was to v\^\\ the 
neighbours' houses, with scarcely an exception in some instances, and fonnally bespeak their 
mttcudaoce st the funeral. 

Bide, V. a. and n. i. To wait, stay, or tarry, a. To dwell, have one's 
habitation. 3. To bear, endure, put up with. 

0. N. hida (pr. bid), to await, to stay, to be affected with sorrow, to endure : O. Sw. 
hida ; O. Dan. bidw, Dan. bit, to tarry, to await ; M. G. btidam, to look for ; A. S. bidaiit 
ahidan, gthidan, to abide, tarry, wait. 

1. * Sit ye doon, an' bidt a piece, while Ah gets it.' 
• Bid4 a wee I Ye 're gannan owcr fast by owghl/ 

a. * UTicrc doe* thee bide, noo?' where do you live? 

3 'It's bad to bid*:' said of an}'thing very painful or trying to onc*i fwtitude; ' a thorn 
in the flesh,' or bereavement, or things capable of iaitating sorely. 

• " He wcan't bidt crossing;" won't bear, or put up with, contradiction.' Wb. Gi. 

' *' He can still bidt a vast, thof he 's hoddtn a deal in hit day ;" be ii still strong, though 
he has undergone many hardshi(>s in his past life.* 2b. 

Comp. * Sx^ 8u seTie tocymende waes, oS'Sk wc o5ercs bidta' Northmmb, Oo»Pt Matt, 
w. 3. 

' Thou ihuld have hidt til thou were cald ; 
Com nar, and other drife or hald.' Towtul. Myit. p. 9. 

• 7<rYiwi Magutm; The Holy Gojt shalle in hyr lyght. 

And kepc hir madya bcdr fulle cicene, 

Whoso may bydt to se that sight 

Thay ther not drede I wenc.' Jh. p. 159. 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark, that * in O. E. the active sense of looking out for a thing waf 
much more strongly felt in the word abidt than it is now, when the signification ji nearly 
confined to the sense of continuance, endurance,' may, as the first extract of those just given 
shews, be extended to the language of the Northumbrian Version. This is even more 
apparent in Mark xv. 4,^. where the Engl. Version description of Joseph of Arimathza, — 
' which also waited for the kingdom of God.' — stands thus : ' w6e zc he Godcs ric bitUnd 

Big, adj. Strong, violent ; of the wind. 
■ Aye. it 't ■ rarry big wind.* 

Biff, V. a. To build. 

O. N. hyggia, Sw. bygga, Dan. byggt. A. S. hygg*"*- 

' He says oure temple he shalle downe bring, and in three daycs big it on hy.' 

TWrW. Hiyt/. p. ao8. 
* Stnmd ki Dmmon. Bot, Sir. I teDe ynu before had domysday oght urid. 

We munt have higgfd hctle more, (he warld is so wartd,' tb, p, 309, 


' When crtbe appone erthe hti ^^fg*d vp his bounu, 

Than ichaQe erthe for erthe mmre adurpe stourryi/ Rd. PUctt, p. 95. 
* To iiggt hem oudei, higg* hem hcdde.* GboMMr. 

* He *s iwg!w' hii-td' 1 gran' new hoos*.' 

Sw. D. higga it limply to rqiair, mend, make good. 

Bigg, sb. A variety of barley, known as ' four-rowed,' and in use in 
Geveland a3 being somewhat earlier in ripening than the six-rowed 
varieties. Also called Bere or Bear. 

O-N. hgg: O.Sw. ^ug; Sw. hjugf^; Sw.D. ftygy, hdggi Dan. hyg. A word of 
pnrdy Scand. origin, and supposed by Rietz to be possibly connected wids O. N. bua^ to 
take vcp a fixed r^dence ; ai an agrkoltarist must. 

Bigger, v. n. To grow bigger, or increase in size, as a house under 
the masons' hands. 

' " It higgtn on 't :*' the bnilding, that is, which is in process of construction.* Wh. OL 

Biggin', sb. A building. ' Properly a house larger than a cottage, 
but now generally used for a hut covered with mud or turf.' Brock. 

Bike. sb. A wild bee's nest Often Bee-bike. 

jam. qaotes Icel. hiUtar^ a hire, alrear ; and Tent. bU-boek^ bi$-huycit apiarium, alvearium, 
KiHan. ; and supposes the word connected with A. S. bycgartt O. Sw. bygga. Sec. to build. 
Rietx giTes the word byit, a pack of good-foTKiothings, a lot or host, which is evidently 
coincident with Jamieson's word in one or more of its senses ; e. g. * to skale the byke,* to 
diverse the assembly; and refers it, I think errooeously, to byHa, a bitch. 

Bile, byle, sb. A boil or carbuncle. 

Comp. O.N. bdla, b6lga: Dan. byld; Sw. h^ld, bold*; Sw. D. bid: A.S. byi; Fris. 
buU : Germ. beuU. 

Billy, sb. A comrade, a familiar acquaintance. 

* Probably alUed,* says Jam., * to S. G. and Germ. biUig, Belg. billik^ sequalis, as denoting 
those that are on a footing as to age, rank, relation, affection, or employment.' Billig, 
however, in both tongues quoted, signifies what is equitable rather than equal ; just, lawful, 
right Note Sw. D. bdling^ which means, x. a twin, 2. a window with two lights ; bUlingt' 
bam^ a twin; also 6i/, fry/, bil$, InU^ Germ. bobUy an uncle; whence boblankinder, cousins. 
Comp. also AsUona, an uncle's wife. These words may perhaps suggest a connection for 
our Billy. 

Bind, V. a. (pr. binnd; pret. bun', bund; pcpl. bund'n, bimdin). To 
bind ; to tie up the sheaves of com with Bands. 

Cf. *Hann hafiU )>ar marga numt nud ur: ttmur sMaru kortm tumir bundu tumir bant 
btitn komn, sumir biodu : * be had there many men with him ; some shore (reaped) the 
com, some bun' it, some bare it home, some lathed it (stacked or put it in the bara). 

The pronunciation of this vb. coincides closely with that of the Scand. rb. bmda^ and I 
have no doubt that in the following extract from TowrUl. liiytl. p. lai, the sound of y in 
fynd*, wyndty bthyndty byndi was precisely as in lordyngei, or coincident with the pronun- 
ciation of I m our find, behint, bind, and E. sb. wind. 


* Nunenu. And, certet» if I may any fynde, 

I shalle not leyfe oone of them behynde. 
Btrodts. No, bot boldly thou tfaaym fyHd4 
And wyth the leydc ; 
Makowne that weldys water and wynde 
The wysbe and ipede. 
Nundu*. AUe peaue, lordyngei, and hold yon ttyUe 
To I bare tayde what I wiUe/ 
For pqil, (txm btm, comp. 

* Deu$. Thi deroute prayer^ hare me bun.' lb. p. 36. 

Binder, sb. The person, usually a man, whose work it is in the 
harvest-field to tie up the sheaves. Also called the Tier. See Band, 

Bink, sb. i. A bench; a form or long seat without a back. 2. A 
long, flat slab of stone of fourteen or fifteen inches wide set benchwise near 
the house door, and used for various purposes other than only those of 
sitting on ; such as setting out the freshly scoured dairy utensOs to dry 
and air, and the like. 3. A rack, or set of shelves, for plates and dishes. 

O.Sw. bank; O.ii. b*ekr; Dvx.baidt: A.S.bmc. The absence of the « in the O. N, 
word, as in the fonner instance of brojii (O. N. brattr)^ is to be remarked here also. See 

Birk, sb. The birch-tree {Befuk alba), 

O. N. tjorh, birhii Sw. bjorh; Sw. D. btrK birk, bark, bark; Dan. birk; A. S. biret, byre*, 
btorc*; Getm. birkt; Dut btrk, &c. 

BirkB, sb. A coppice or small wood in which the growth chiefly 
consists of birches. 

Biir, sb. Forceful or rapid motion, a strong impulse. 

Hall, says, * Any rapid whirling motion. It is applied to the whizzing of any missile 
riolently thrown, as in Wickliffc, Rer. xriii.* Comp. onr Wldder or Withar and 
E. whirr. 

* And he saith to hem. Go )ee. And thei goynge out wente in to the hoggis ; and loo I 
in a great birt al the droue wente heedlynge in to the see, and thei ben dead in watris.* 
Matt. riii. 33, Wycl. Vtrs. 

* Uxor. Thei water nyghys so nere that I sit not dry. 

Into ship (the Ark) with a byr therfor wille I hy 
For drede that I drone here.* Towrul. Myit. p. 39. 

BlBen, sb. (pr. bahz'n). i. A spectacle, or sight, or show, in an invi- 
dious or offensive sense. 2. A person or object held up to contempt or 

O.N. Msii, something portentous, a prodigy; A. S. bim, bym, bytum, an example. The 
O. N. bitn^ from its accent, is clearly the origin of our word, and with the same accommo- 
dation of sense as is perceived in onr standard uses of the word numuer. The same uncer- 
tainty of orthography is noticeable in this word as in so many others : fiuon in Brock, and 


HalU harxom in Wh. Gi^ ftyn, hyt^iitg in Jam. (who appevn to hare claued together, as 
also does lUett in ▼. Buatngg^ deriratiTes from bytH and from b^^mr). BistH^ with the 1 
Icmg, is, howevtr, adopted here, as obviously suggested by the deriration. 

X. * He's a greedy bism wi'nirrer a pemiy to spare for a pair body's need.' Wb. Ol. 

* Loo' ye 1 Didst '«e irver see sike a mucky &t»fi /' 

3. * ¥niat a ** holy Umm" she be, for seear :' spoken of a tawdrily dressed female, of pos- 
nbly rather less than qneitioaable character, llie allusion may be to the tawdry finery of 
perish saints, bat much more probably points to the custom, practised within the memory 
of iiTinff men in some of oar Dales churches, of setting offendera a^iost morality, suppos^ 
CT requued to be penitoits, amyed in white sheets, on the stool of repentance during the 
boors of Dirine Service. 

BiflBhel, sb. Fr. of BusheL 

Comp. Pr. Pm. ' ByubtHU or buschelle (bysshell, otherwyse called busshell. P.). Modius, 
tibona, huudlus* 

' Mr. Morris, Gramm. Introd. to E. E. T. S. AytnbUa of Inwyt^ p. vi. writes : * In the 
wcffks of the Southern writers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries we find the words 
fat, hiU, tbm^ ttM, &c., written Just, hul^ tbun, swt, &c Our modem pronunciation coin- 
cides generally with the Northern dialects, in which this sabctitation of u for i wat unknown/ 
In the present word we hare a curious instance, not without parallel (comp. the surname 
Ridsdali as sounded, RudsdaU as written) of the substitution of 1 for «. I may add that, 
whatever the date of the introduction of the substitution of u for i into the Northern dia- 
lects, it is not unknown now. In Cleveland we say tundtr for tmder, bnaaj for Jfrittlt^ and 
in york Coat. Depot, p. i6x, note, bussbop is four times written for bishop. There is also 
one Scottish district in which almost every short i is changed into u. 

Bite, V. a. i. To partake of food, chiefly used in the pass. pcpl. 
a. To make an impression ; of a cutting instrument on some hard sub- 
stance ; e. g. a file upon hard steel, a knife or axe on case-hardened 
metal, &c. 3. To adhere by friction, in opposition to to slip ; as of 
the driving wheels of a locomotive engine upon the rails, and the like. 

Cf. O. N. inta, to cut ; Dan. bide, to cut ; of catting instrnments. The O. N. usage is 
well illustrated in the following passage from Flat. l. 358 : * Thorsteinn steighed up to the 
bedstocks and took down the sword and drew it. He stripped the bed-clothes off the 
giantess. He saw die was all corered with shaggy hair, save one little spot under the lefl 
arm ; (this) saw he that it was smooth. He thought for sure that in this spot the sword 
would bite i^parjam bita) or in jio place else. He sets the sword to this same spot and 
drives with the hilt. The sword bites so {sverdit bitr stwi) that the point stuck in the 

I. 'Ah're nirrer sae mich as bitten sen yestreen;* I have taken no food at all unce 
yesterday evening. 

3. Under this sense comp. — 

* )>a scipen bi^H on )>at sond : 
& al |»at folc code an lond.* Lay. l. 76. 

The second text reads smiten, which makes the word in the fint even more interesting. 

Under ^. comp. N. ' bit i mig' sagde lynget: * take fast hold of me,' said the ling; and 
bet sd/ast : took such fast hold. Ame, pp. 6, 7. 

Bite, sb. A piece bitten, a morsel ; anything to eat. 

O. N. biti^ a mouthful or morsel ; Dan. bid. 

* Ah hcv'n't had nowther sup nor bite sen moom.' 

* Please you, bestow a bite o* bread iv a pair aud chap.* 


Bittle, bittle and pin. See Batteldoor. 

* The bitde is a heavy wooden beUdtdon^ the ^ ts the roOer ; and with t)w Uneo wound 
round the latter, it is moved backwards and forwards on a table by hand-pressure mth tfie 
hattUdore: Wh. Gl 

A. S. byth biti, biotul ; N. S. bttd^ a beetle, hammer. Mr. Wedgw. quotes * bydt a bftt for 
washing.' Cf. E. bettl*. 

* Ant )>er je schulen iseon bonsen ham met tes deofles b«t^ :* Aner. JSnmUr, p. l88 ; and 
ye shall see bunch them with the devil's bUti*s. 

Comp. ' FerrUorium^ a battynge staff, a batyU dyr, or a bttylV Pr. Pm. note on p. 48a. 

Blaokavised, adj. Dark complexioned, tawny visaged. Comp. 
E. visage. 

Blackberries, sb. Black currants. What are called blackberries 
in South England here are Brambles, Brammles, BnunmleB, Bum- 
meUdtes, &c. 

Blaok-olooks, sb. Black-beetles. See Clocks. 

Black starved, adj. Blue with cold; thoroughly chilled, so that 
the complexion shews it by becoming leaden or blue-coloured. See 

Black to t> bone, adj. Said of a person with hollow features and a 
complexion darkened by disease. Wh, Gl. 

Bladdry, adj. Muddy, dirty. In /^<2r &/. the word 'blather' is given, 
meaning ' mud or puddle so thin that it will splash when trod upon.' 
In fact the sound of the d in Clevel. frequently passes into that of M 
hard, or ^. 

Sw. D, bladda, sb. soft wet dirt ; and vb. to splash with dirt. Comp. also ko-hladdt, 
fresh cow-droppings. 

Blae, adj. (pr. bleea). Of a livid or pale bluish colour : -also written 
bla, blaa. 

O. N. blar (bid fern, and m compounds), blue, of a dusky colour. The original 
ing of blatt as Rietz observes, seems to have been black ; thus bldftldr is a black robe or 
cloak ; bidmadr, an Ethiop, a black man ; hUdJidradr, having black feathers, &c. Sw. &U, 
Sw. D. 6/ar, bl&tr; N. bli, Dan. blaa. Comp. the A.S. form blto^ Germ. 6/av, Dut. 
blaew^ Sec. 

' " He leuks as Una 's a whetstone ;" of a person leaden-blue with cold,' Wh. Gl. 

* He 's getten his bats : his feeace 's black and Utta wi 't.' 

Blaeberry, sb. The common bilberry ( Vaccinium myrttllus), 

Comp. O. N. UdbtTt Dan. Uaabca^. 

Blaeberry-wires, sb. The small shrubs or stems on which the 
Blaeberries grow. See Wires. 
Comp, O. N. Md-bma^yngt the blaeberry-shnib. 


Blae milk or blue milk. Milk from which the cream has been 
removed after it has stood some time. The skim-milk, or sky-blue, of 
the South. 

Blair, blare, vb. i. To bellow as a cow. 3. To cry loudly or 
ndsfly as a child that is much hurt or frightened. 3. To protrude the 
tongiM as a furious animal of the oz tribe when bellowing. 

Jam. gnres Tent. Uartmt mn^re. In Ltad* Ol. it it said that * an impudent and ill* 
trained doild ** blain out" ita tongue to the patser-by' — a usage of the word identical with 
the third signification abore. Cf. with this osage, Sw. D. Hadrtit to ribrate or brandish, as 
in the example Unghuan bladrar itygmt: the snake ribrates its sting, i.e. its tongue. 
Mr. Wedgw. takes Dnt. blatnm to be contracted from bladtrtn^ and paralld with it is Sw. D. 
hladAn, to prate, chatter, make a loud talking ; other forms of which are biarra, biddart 
with a fiuther meaning, to bleat as a sheep. What blatUrm^ bladdra^ biarra are to blair or 
Uace in its first two senses, that btadra seenu to be to blare in its third sense. Indeed I 
am mndi indined to bdiere diat, notwithstanding an apparent sequence of idea in the 
aereral meanings of the word before ns, there may be in reality two separate words 
inrolred. Dean Rietx collates O. N. blaka with bladra, and supposes it connected with 
O. H. G. blajoM ot blaboM. Pr. Pm. gires * SUryngt wythe mowe nukynge. Patm/o, 
valgh ;' and * mowynge wythe the mowthe :* and in a note is added, ' I gyue him the best 
tyle I can, and the knane bleareth his tonge at me, tinr la Umgm. Palsgr.* 

Blake, adj. Of a fair, soft, yellow colour or tone, not so deep as 
that of fine bees'-waz : applied to describe the colour of fine spring butter 
or very beautiful cream. 

O.N.UcOr;*g: Sw.bUk; Sw. D. bleji: A.S. bide; Dut. bieA; Germ, bltieb 
Pr. Pm, * BUykt of colonre. PaUidw^ subalbtu.' 

* Ay : t' Occam *s to'nned gey an' Nakt, noo t' kye ha' getten te t" grass agen.' 

* As Uai» 'shutter.' 

The sense of the word in O. E. — cf. the extract from Pr, Pm. — it direrse from ours. 
Comp. JLoy.ii. 411, 

* nme stnnde he was blot: one while he was wan. 
And on henwe swiVe wac ;* and in hue exceeding pale. 
And again ; * Hire Ueo Ingon to blakum for )« grure >e grap hire,' StinU MarbereUt p. 9 ; 
her colour began to grow psUe for the terror which seized her. 

Blane, v. n. (pr. bleean). To become white, to bleach. 

O. N. bliihui, to grow or become pale or white ; Sw. bldhia ; Dan. bltgne. These words 
are deriratires from the act. rbs. blfiija^ Mika, bUge, to bleach, to make white ; and Sw. 
bUkmimg (I beliere also Dan. bltgning) is apfdied in exactly the same sense as our bUning. 
The words in hct are simply coincident, 

' Tak' they deeas oot and lay 'em on t' geru t' blHan* 

Slash, V. a. and n. i. To splash with water, clean or dirty. 2. To 
splash, as water under foot, or in puddles when trod in, and the like ; or 
from a pail or other vessel in consequence of the ill-regulated motions of 



the bearer. 3. To have to do with water, as the seaman has. 4. To 
blaze abroad a private matter by dealing with it as a subject of general 

Sw. and O. Sw. fladta ; Dan. plathht, to spbsh in or with water. Comp. the tliird mean- 
ing with the follnwing (Wtirsaae. Afinder am d* DamJtt og yordmamdene. Sic, p. 149): 
' Dt narmeit E/teriomnun qfsandann* Mtrnd,Jor bvtm Solivtt var en NtOumbdvrmUghtd, 
maatte vcdblive tdelig at fiadak* paa Si'^en :' titcnily, the descendants of luch men, for 
whom a seafaring life vix% one of nature's cravings, could not but continue to bltuh upua 
the »ea. 

I. T* bairn 's blmb'd ma' gooan a' ower ; dotty Lahtle tHUte I* 

3. • T' watter btmbes i-oi i* t' can. every step thoo tak$. It's ower fiiU by owght. bairn.' 

* He goes biasbing about, plodging and ploading ihroogh thick and thin.* Wh. Gl. 

3. * " What he has got he has btashed for :" i. e. obtained by a seafaring life.' 

Again, in the san»c stiiie; — ' •* Her man may wed blasb :** spoken of a seaman's wife, 
one of whose cWef characteristics is extraragance.' Wb, GL 

4. * She *s bin an' hlasbed it a' ower. It 's toon's talk noo.' 

Cf. 3if hit dusteff twuffe. heo vlaikcS water heron : and )if di»1 of lihte houhtes witidcff 
up to swu0e. flaskic leares on ham : Amcr. Rivflt, p. 314 — wherein vlaiken or fia%ken is almost 
surely the same word as plaaka^ pladski. 

Blaah, sb. i. Puddle-water, very liquid mud. 
or nonsensical talk. 

a. Nonsense, frivolous 

Comp. Sw. D. ptaii, puddle, liquid mud : as also £. pUtsh, and tptash. Sec Slash* vb. 

I. * There 't bin a vast o' rain through t' nccght ; t* ux)ad 's all ir a bitub.' 

a. * Wheeah 1 It 's a* blash* Nivvcr heed ;' it ii all aoiuemc ; don'i yaa mind it. 

Blash-kegged, adj. With a protuberant stomach ; dropsical. 

We have other words which more or Icsk resemble tt«gg*d:t.%. kfid^d. stuffed full. 
with food, namely ; kedgins, food grnerally ; kedse-b^y, a glutton ; oajiffy, irascible, 
'stomachy*: kegged, irritated, provoked, not able to 'stomach* a thing; — all of which 
more or less imply the sense of itomaeh^ belly. O. N. ^aggi, 5. O. Itagge, Eng. icf . all 
mean a smalt tub or cask, the leading idea in which is prubably of something closed in all 
lound : A. S. eafgtan. There is. besides, the Welsh cmtg. pelvis, to which Ihre fe«ls 
iiKlincd tn refer kagge. But without ihii, there is little difBculiy in tracing the connection 
of sense between keg, and belly or stnniach : comp. pnt-helly, pod, tub. Ace. all faintbar 
names for the stomach. And thus, our present word means simi^y wattr-htUitd^ <Jt drop* 
tical; and then, from the coincident fulness of siae, corpulent, pot-bellied. 

Blashy, adj. i. Rainy, wet; as applied to the weather. 3. Wcl, 
puddly ; as applied to the roads. 3. Weak, poor, water)*, without good- 
ness or strength. 

I . * It *s bin straange an' hloihy, all on, for a Hu noo ;' It has been very rainy weather for 
some time past. 

3. ' It 's htashy deed, gannan' alang t' rooads, sike weather.' 
3. ' Putr bloAy stuff;* of tea, or small beer. 

Blast, V. a. To blow, throw a current of air upon. 

* Blast the fire up.* 


Blate, adj. Shy, baahful, wanting boldness. 

O. N. blam^,hiaitdr! S. Q. bI6d, hUSg (ttid <^ % spirit tomewhat too prone to tinudity* 
naftet or mildnen. Dm); Sw. HU; Sw. D. Umi, 10ft, weak; Dan. hUd: Oenn. hlwU» 
wok, thamrfJM-cd, baihfiii ; Swiu Udd. 

In QloM. Rcnurki opQo Uithrv, Xojr. I. p. jaS, 

* For ne fonde we na Uflfcrr ; for we are no oowardlier 
>enDe bcoO ta Bnittei ;' dun are the Britons. 

Sir F. Madden says : ' In the A. S. Orosios this adj. is osed in the cognate sense of 
iffanMaft; and it secnu to be alUed with the Isl. UqyM, hlautr^ Sc. hlau: Comp. the use 
of die woffd in JVortfr. Ootp. Matt. ri. as : ' Oif9 6m tgo bi6 bUHt, all tOn Uehoma hiti lAt ; 
M Om tgo Mf imbiiik t Jt/U wyrcMdt biS;* and again. Luke xi. 34 : * Oif iSin $go mildt 
t hUXk \ bihmt bitS* wherein the sense is coincident with that of blod, bl»d, blautr, &c 

'He's ower Uau for owght T* lasses has t' kittle him.' 

Blather, v. a. and n. i. To talk fast and of anything that comes 
nppennost 3. To talk much nonsense. 

O. Sw. and Sw. D. bladdra, to prate, gossip, talk lond and fast ; Germ. UotfirM, hladgm, 
piamdtrm; Swiu bladtrn; Sw. fladdra; Lat. bUUtrar*. Rietz collates also D. Dial. 
Mo^ blabn; Eng. blab and brabbU. Comp. Pr. Pm. * BltAtryn, or spcke wythe-owte 
resone.' See Blather, which is essentially the same word, onlj with a more special appU* 
cation or meaning. Con^i. also BUlr. 

X. *** How cam' TOO t' bear yon, Mary?** *« Wheeah. and Jenny Deeal, she bin Uoil&srtii' 
H a' ower t' tooo." ' 

a. * His dufts lung lowse. He's alias Uatbtrmg and talking.' 

* He *t a fond iSa£€rvC chap, dut yan.' 

Blettr, V. n. To expose oneself to the wind, or to the cold wind, thence 
to cold generally. 

I flad this word in no collection with the exception of Wb. Ol. ; but I am assured by an 
intdUnt Craren woman that it is current there also. The second example is given me by 
bcr. TheassociationiswithUarv,tocrywithaIoud, blatant noise, as in theft/on of a trumpet. 
Note abo, * Bhrt signifies a roaring wind :— '* hurried headlong with the S. West blore." ' 
Pr. Pm^ note to ' Bloryyn or wepen (bleren). P/oro,y7<o.' 

* They run bltarmg about without eidier hat or bonnet.* 

' Buying oat in £e cold, bareheaded and with no hai^n^.* 

Bleb, blob, sb. i. A drop of water, or of any other and more viscid 
fluid, a. A bobble, on water or other liquid. 3. A blister, such as may 
be caused by a scald, an ill-fitting shoe, or a tool on hands unused to 

Jam. and Rich, both quote Skinner's deriration of this word from Germ. WoAw, to swell, 
puff up. Mr. Wedgwood looks upon blab as a radical syllable adopted for the purpose of 
' representing the sound made by collision of the wet lips in rapid talking,* as in Eng. 6/06, 
Dan. blabbrt, to babble, gabble; PI. D. Uabbem; G. plabbtm, id., 8cc.; and equally 
' employed to signify the sound of something wet or soft falling or striking against anything, 
and hence to designate the object making such a sound ; a lump of anything wet or soft, 
drop of liquid, bubble, &c.' 

II 2 


l.'AUtb of water.' ' Nose-Uote/ 

a. * Soap-£foA«.' 

■ T' pool 'f a' ower biobt ;* from the feUing of heavy run-drop*. 

3. * He hannles '1 tool agin he *ad bMn ir hU haands.* 

Bleok, sb. The black substance or grease at the axle-tree of a wheel ; 
blackened oil or grease at any centre of friction in machinery. 

* Blae, According to Kennett. MS. Lansd. 1033, " the greas taken off the cart-wbeek or 
ends of the axle-tree, and kept till it is dry, made up in balls, with wfaidt the Uyion nb and 
blacken their thread, is called in Yorkshire blak.*' ' Hall. * Bitk* (blecke). AtramttUtoM,* 
Pr. Pm. ; and in a note, * Horman says, " Wrytter*s ynke shuld be finer than Uatt^.** 
" Bleche for souters, atrament noyr." Palsg.' A.S. M«r, atramentnmj O.N. bUk; Sw. 
black; Vzn.blak,id. 

* Thee *s getten the^sel a* clamed wi' cart bltci, honey 1* 

Blee, sb. A tear. 

This word does not appear to have been hitherto written except in Wb, Qi. At least it 
is not in Jam., Hall., or Brockett, nor in any other collection of local words, accessible to 
vne. It is snrely connected with the extensive family of words of which hlieam^ to glitter, 
is the A. S. representative ; blieka, to glance, shine, look, the Sw. : and thus there is no real 
difference between it and bUt or Ur, complexion, colour. 

' That bride soe bright of Ww.* Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 105. 

Sw. D, bUgt meaning a glance (of Uie eye, namely ; Sw. AficA), and bearing in the pi. 
the signification of the eyes themselves, gives us. together with a singular approximatioo 
in sound, another and an analogous variation of meaning as compared with O. E. bUe and 
our own word. But perhaps the most interesting illustration is in an example given in the 
IVb. Gl. under Blink^ which is simply iUick with the * nasal inserted* (Wedgw.), and therefore 
closely related to Blee. The example in question is, * ** She never blinked a Mm for him ;** 
never shed a tear for him.* 

' '• A sau't W«;" a salt tear.* Wh. Gl. 

Blendoom, sb. (pr. blencom). Wheat and lye mixed; the seed 
having been mingled previously to sowing. 

Sw. D. blandiom, mixed rye and oats; Dan. McwdiorM, blandmgtkorM, mesUn; O.N. 
and Sw. blaada, to mingle ; Dan. Mandt ; A. S. blmtlan. Sw. D. also has the form karm- 

This is one of the multitudes of purely Scand. words which still renuin in nse in our 
district. See also Blendings. For the composition with blmd^ note — 
* The teares he for his master wept 
Were blend water and bloude.' Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 336. 

Blendings, sb. A mixture of peas and beans. 

Comp. Dan. Handing, mixture, a composition of different materials ; Sw. D. bUsMMirngt 
spring-rye and oats mixed ; and blandsOdt barley and oats mixed. Another noteworthy 
application of the word is O. N. bUndingr, a being of mixed blood ; as, e. g. bom of a TroU 
and a human female. Sw. D. bUningy the tame ; also any cross among animals. 

Blether, v. n. To cry loudly, like a fractious child. 

The same word as Blather, slightly alicred in Pr., and with this definite meaning 
attached to it. Note Blethering. %h. and pcpl. 


Btethering, sb. Loud, vulgar talking. 
BleOkering, pq)L Talking loudly ; noisy. 

* " A gret Ut^irmg chap, alUys i' lome tow-row or ithci ;** ilwayi in mow loud, angry 
iqiiabUe/ Wb, (^, 

HUnk, V. a. and n. i. To move the eye involuntarily, to wink; as 
vhen an object suddenfy comes near the eye. 2, To shew emotion or 
attest affection by some (quick) action of the eye, 3. To evade or 

Sw. bimhz, to twinkle, blink; O. N. UHa^ to ihine, twinkle ; Dan. blhth, hIiUu; A. S. 
Uieam; Germ, hlickmi N.S. hUhm; Sw. D. MOo, hltka, bliga. In O.N. augaUik, 
an instant of time, lit. tyt-hiinit E. 'twinkling of an eye'; Sw. ogonbUck or ogomblink; 
O. amgttMkk ; the rapid or glancing motion of the eye in winking or blinking is necetsanly 
inqilied. Note the nslatiTe fonns bSik, blink, as in hraU, brant, &c. Sec Blee. 

I. * T bairn *» a bauM lahtle d»p. He nivrer blimk't at t* flash nor t' thunner-crack.* 

* ** She mrrcr UmJi^t a blee (ot *m i" she never shed a tear, or shewed any sign of emotion 
at his death.* Wb. GT. 

The Lttdg Ol. example is of a woman who does not * blmk her ce* at her husband's funeral. 
3. * Nobbot he diso't blini *t ;' only, or provided he does not evade it, get out of it, escape 
direct action. 

Bliflh-blaBh, sb. Nonsense, foolish tittle-tattle. 

Blob, v, n. To bubble, to rise in bubbles ; as water in the action of 
boiling, or when anything is thrown in. See Blob. 

Blobbing, sb. The rising of air-bubbles on the surface of liquids. . 

Blood-boar, blood-sow, sb. A boar or sow of the smoother, more 
highly-bred stock of swine; in opposition to the long-haired, shaggy 
animal, of what is called the Coarse or lArge Breed. 

Blood-iron, sb. A fleam, or lancet for bleeding horses or cattle. 

Pf. Fm. * Bloodtyrym, BUdynge yryn. Fleosotomivm* 

Blood-stiok, sb. A heavyish knobbed staff or stick, used for striking 
the fleam in the operation of bleeding a horse. 

Bloody, adj. Well-bred, as to genealogy ; having good blood in its 
Veins, of different kinds of stock. See Blood-boar. Comp. Blood- 

* A dei^t fr/oo^^looking lahtle meear.* 

* A canny gilt, enew ; she cooms ov a Moody sort.* 

Blotch, V. a. To blot ; as paper, or the leaves of a book. 

Mr. Wedgw. collates Dut. plaeke, pUckt; Sax. bleeh, a blot, stain ; plaek^papier, blotting- 
paper; A. S. blacOy a discoloured spot on the skin, blatch or blotch. Comp. Sw. D. blagOt 
to smear, bedaub ; blagt, a spot or lump of wet filth : en star blage pa golUt : a great blotch 
(of wet dirt) on the floor. Illustrative of Mr. Wedgwood's remark, that * the word blot 
arises from an attempt to represent the sound of a drop of liquid or portion of something wet 



or soft failing on the ground,' blaga has the second meaning of to thrash, to ovenvhefan with 
binwt : while blakn meanft both to strike, strike so that the blows resound, and to pour down 
with rain ; da blakar torn bimlen ifort opptn : it blotches down as if the hcaren* were opca. 

Blotch-paper, sb. Blotting-paper. 

Blue-flint, sb. The local name for the whinstonc or basalt derived 
from the basaltic dike which runs across the N. Riding from out of Dur- 
ham, in a direction southerly of east. It is extensively raised in many 
places to be used as Head-metal, alike for home use and export See 
also White-flint. 

Blunder, v. a. i . To disturb water or other liquid so as to render it 
turbid or muddy. 2. To derange the works of a lock, so that it refuses 
to act 

Rich, gives the derintion of this word u ' from Uom, the pret. of A. S. Uumon, to oome 
to a stop ; and to blunder is said to be ' to act like one whose faculties halt, or come to a slop.' 
Mr. Wedgw,, however, regards the * original meaning of blunder to be to dabble in water.* 
and itself to be, * a nasal fnrtn of such words as blather, blutter, bluiter; all representing the 
agitation of liquids; and then gcneraUy idle talk. Dan. pludder, earth and water mixed 
tugelher, puddle, idle talk ; pluddre, to dabble in the mud, to puddle, llicn with the nasal, 
to blunder water, and metaphorically, blunder, confusion, trouble.' Comp. ' To ihnfilc and 
digress, so as by any means whatsoever to blunder an adversary.' Dillon, quoted by Rich, 
* Noe. I shalle make ye itille as stone begynnar of blunder t 

1 shalle bete the bak and bone, and breke allc in sunder, 

7\>vfnel. Myst. p. 30 ; 
where the blunder referred to U the confusioo ind troable occuioocd by his wife's dispa- 
tatious, mntrtirying spirit of opposition. 

I . * M oother. t' bairns ha bin an* blundered t* witter, while its a' 's thick is sots ;' ill 
a puddle together. 

3. • Tak' heed, bd, or theeH blumUr t' k>ck wi' thor lud kiyi.* 

Blur, V. a. To blot, to smear. 

Mr. Wedgw. looks upon blur and blear in the expression ' to blear one's eye* (of freqocat 
UK iu Chauco ; for insUace, Repe't Tale, 939, 

* They wenin that no man mowe thesn begylc ; 
But by my thrift yet shall I blere their eye.*) 

as identical ; and in a passare which be requotes front Rich., the expresston of * eyes blurred 
with the darkness of vices occurs. * In this tense,' he adds, ' it agrees with Bav. plerrem, 
a blotch, a diK-olourcd spot on the skin.* Still, collating Dut. blader, blaere; ader, aere, 
car of com ; Eng. slubber, slur ; he thinks tt probable that ' blur may be from bludder, 
blutber, blubber, to nuke a nnise with the mr>uih, disfigiire with crying; biuier, to bkrti 
dirty, blubber.* Hut assuming blur and blear to be. at least, diiferent forms of the same 
word, I think I would ratlier connect it with bladder, blader, blaert, which I take to be 
cognate with flerren — an idea suggested by blowre, Toumel. My»t. p. 6i, where the reference 
is to the league of blaitis and boils : — 

• For we fare wars than ever we fowre (Cared) ; 
Grete loppys over all this land they Ay ; 

And whrre thay byte thay make grete blotnt. 
And in every p4ace ourc bcsics dcde ly.' 



Here hbmn k dearly cqrifilaot to swdled or inflated ipoti or tumoort— ^ t boll breaking 
forth vith Mains v^oa man tad «poa beut ;' and its rdatiomhip most study be with iUun, 
Vaddar, rather than with ifattr, NMUbr, Umbbtr, Cf. N. S. bUddtr; Dan. Man; N. hUara ; 
O. Sw. hUedra : the origin of tht ftadly of words betng O. H. O. bU^foii, O. hlahm^ to 
inflate render turgid. Rietx. 

Wxxr, sb. X. A blot, a smear, t. The same, metaphorically; Le. the 
blot or stain left on one's character by misconduct 

I. ' Thee's getten a bba- i* tha' boik, JOaony.* 

9. ' HeU niTTer cast t' wyte on it: It has left a Mir blvr ahint it;' he will always be 
blamed for that. It has left a sad btot on his character. 

JBtorred, pcpL Stained or blemished, metaphorically. 

' He 'a getten a sairly-Uwrwrf neeam wir it.' Wh Qi, 

Btnrt, V. a. i. To speak in jerks, or bit by bit, without connection 
or coherency, a. To speak — not so much, inconsiderately, as — by con- 
straint of a sudden impulse : one, perhaps, which gathers force until it 
becomes overpowering ; as in the case of an impulsive, excitable man, or 
of one who longs to speak but is held back by considerations of timidity 
or shame, and the like. 

* Rdated to A/iiMir, Uuddir, as aplirt to ^uiHr' Wedgw ; and u Jlirt or Jltirt to 

J. ***ThenhetelIedyoQaIl?'* "Aye; he 6/w«Af it all oot. bit by bit."' 
s. * A windy chap, blurting *% tales oot, all ower t' toon.' 

* Blurt it out, man, and ha don' wi' 't ;* to a person Icmging to tell or say something, but, 
with some motive of relnctancy creating a difficulty of ^}eakiQg, which can only be over- 
come after a long struggle or by some overpowering impulse. Lndt Ol. quotes * He does 
Dowt but blurt,' of one who speaks abruptly ' without either sense or argument in what he 
sa3rs.' Perhaps it i» an accommodation of this sense — not in use here, I believe — which 
brings in the meaning given by Brock., * to cry, to make a sudden indistinct m unpleasant 

Bhisfcezy, adj. Boisterously windy. Applied when the wind is very 
high, but not amounting to a regular gale, and, instead of howling or 
roaring, comes in loud rattling blasts. 

' •• Very windy to-day, WUly. Are your corn-pikes safe?" *• Aye, 't 's hluUtry. Bat 
Ah dean't think there 's cnew t' raffle t' thack mich ;'* ' to disturb or derange the thatching 
of the stacks. 

Blntherment,. sb. Dirt of an adhesive or tmctuous description; 
mud, slime. 

A word whidi belongs to the same stodr as hluHr in Hall., * to blot, to dirty, to blubber ;* 
and hluddtr, biuthtr, in Jam., * to blot paper in writing, to disfigure any writing, to disfigure 
the &ce with weeping, See.' I do not find it in any Yorkshire collection of words except 
the Wb, GL; but it is freely current in Qcvel. 

Bodden, p. p. of to Bide, 



Boden, bodden, p. p. of to Bid. 

Bog, sb. A puffy swelling ; a tumour that yields easily to pressure, 
rising again on its removal. 

* Puir lahtle thing I It» head 's all W i bog;' of a diUd born with great difliculiy, and 
one side of whose head was, from the force necessarily employed, in a state of *oft, puffy 

Comp. * Boggytcb*, boggisshc. Twmidus.' Pr. Pm. 

Boggart, sb. A hobgoblin, a sprite. See Boggle. 

Boggle, bogle, sb. A goblin, or sprite; a malevolent being of the 

supernatural order, 

WeUh bwg, bufgwl. Conip. O.N. ptthi, an crH spirit; pttkr^ » bugbear, terrific object — 
sometimes, at least, of the supernatural order ; S. G. puke, the devil, a dzmon. Jam., 
who spells the word hogU or bogUl, gives the two meanings of the word as ' i. A spectre, 
a hobgoblin, 2, A scarecrow, a bugtwar.' Comp. our Flar-boggle. The other Glos- 
saries, generally speaking, are indeHnite in their explanations. Thus HalL gives * a ghoct, 
a goblin ;* Brock. ' a spectre or ghost ;* twtdi 01. ' a goblin, generally supposed to be of 
a sable complexion;* 2ud Wb. Qi. *a fearful object, a hobgoblin.' I believe the true 
idea of the word is that of a bugbear ; some fearful or horribte, but indefinite, object of 
terror ; a goblin frighttul to behold, and equal!}- malevolent ; to the aitiie exclusion of tlie 
senses, sprite, and ghost or spirit of a deceased person. 

Comp. * Rvggt, or buglarde, Mavna, Ductus.* Pr. Pm. Also, ' Higins, in his veisioa 
of Junius* Nomenclator, 1585, renders " Umttrtt noetumi, hobgoblins or night-walking 
Spirits, blacke bugs. Tcrriculamentum. a scarebug, a bulbcgger, a tight that fraycth and 
frighteth ** ' That the belief in Bogles or Bcggarta was once very prevalent in the 
district might be inferred, if there were no other means of knowing, from the many local 
names involving the word Boggle ; c. g. Bogglt-houu, Bogglt-ivooa^ &c. 

Boggle, V. n. To start, or shy, or swerve ; applied to a horse which 
is startled by some means and starts away from the object of alarm. 

Derived directly from the sb. Bogglo. See Wedgw, in v. 

B0U7, sb. Properly, food prepared specially for an infant's use ; milk, 
with soft bread crumbled fine or biscuit broken up and powdered, boiled 
in it. Applied also to any food similarly prepared and intended for 
children's sustenance. 

Bolden, v. n. (pr. bowden). To shew courage; or rather, perhaps^ 

to lake courage, so as to play a bold part 

This $ctm§ to be not so much an acconunodalion of seme from the archaic vb. bolJ, 
10 make bold, encourage (cf. 'to balden Hne leodeii,* Lay. i. 187; ' urc Louerd bddcS 
ham.* Amer. Rholi. p. 162) as a reflcctiTC rb. proper — I make myself bold — and, at nch. 
curious in its analngies to Northern forms. 

■ BottnUn tiv *cr, Ud ! Faint heart nivvcr wan fair laadv.* 

* He bowdmed oop te 't beeast, agin he 'd bin a man : pawky lahtle chap ! * 

Bolder, sb. A loud, resonant noise, or report. 

Sw. builra, to nuke a noise; O.N. l^ia (imp. buld$). Comp. buUtr, itiepitus, which 


is almoft ufentical with oar word, and expreues the loud sounds ffiven out under heavy 
Uows kid on a resofiant body, C<Hnp. also Germ. poUmm, to give a loud or resonant noise ; 
Dan. btddir^ noise, crash, uproar, &c. 

Bolders, boulders, sb. Rounded stones of large size, owing their 
form to the action of water. 

O. N. irflia, to loQ orer and orer ; iotfr, a globe or sphere-shaped body, as produced by 
rolling OTcr and orer ; Dan. bdd. Sw. D. gives buiUr~$tn^ a deuched mass of stone ; in 
opposition to the word kh^ptr-tttn, which is equivalent to our Oobble-Bteeaa : and also, 
as oc^;nate with it, btdUr-vrttr^ the g^obe^ower {TroUiut Europaus). 

Bolk, V. n. (pr. boak or booak). x. To retch, strain to vomit, with 
the usual sound implied. 2. To feel the sensation of being about to 

A.S. iioXnn, to belch; Fris. balijt; also sb. balc^ a belch; Pr. Pm. * Boikyn. Rudo^ 
tnclOt firnvo.' Brock, gives ' to beldi' as one of the meanings of bokt, bonk ; tlwse being in 
Act mefdy |riuuictic fonns of O. £. frott : — 

* He bigan Benedidte with a bolk.' P, PL p 100. 

* I ihal bolit out hid thingos fro* makyng of the world.' Matt. xiii. 35 ; Wyd. Vin. 
The usage in this pauage almost presents a transitional sense between to belch and to 


Boll, sb. The trunk of a tree ; that part which lies between the roots 
and the head or branches. 

0. N. bolr; S. G. M; Sw. D. 60/; exactly coincident in meaning with each other and 
with our word. 

BtiLta, sb. Narrow passages, rather than streets, between houses in 
certain Yorkshire towns, possibly arched over in places. 

The meaiung of this word is probably an accommodation of the derived sense of E. bolt 
implied in its application to an arrow, &c., — something long and narrow. Cknnpare the 
sense when the word means ' a narrow piece of stuff ;' or again, when it means * a single 
width of doth.' 

Bondsman, sb. A surety, one who gives security for another. 

* What *s thou to be surveyor, Oeorge ? An' wheea '1 tha' bon's-man^ man V 

Bonny, adj. z. Fair to look at, handsome, fine, beautiful; applied 
either to persons or things. 2. Well-pleasing, causing delight. 3. Simply 
an augmentative added to words denoting size, quality, &c. 4. Used with 
a strongly ironical sense. 

Cf. Sw. D. from/, htmntt high'^pirited, jolly : with which Dean Rietz coUatei our word. 

1. *AI what bonny daesl' *A bonny lajitle chap.' * A bonny spot.' * Bonny is, at 
bonny dis.' Wb. Ol. 

3. * Thoo 's a bonny bairn : thee 's deean weel.' 

Cf. * He laughed the bony Child to scome 

that was the bonny Lord of leame.' Percy's Fd. MS. 1. 187. 

3. * ** Ay, he *s a bonny bouk ;" he 's of a very considenble size.' Wb. Gt. 
• " How far is it to Whitby, ray man ?" " Eh I it 's a 6o«ny bit yet." * 

4. • A boni^ mess.' * Bonny deed, for seear !* * A bonny to do,* &c. 




Bonnyish, adj. Able to bear inspection ; good in qUality or fair Co 
look al. 

' " Vou have tome good sheep there, Joseph." " Ay ; ihae 'j a boNnyiii lot o' yowj." ' 

Boon, sb. A stated service rendered by the tenant to his landlord, 
without remuneration. 

Boon, V. n. To render the services implied in the sb. Boon. See 
Boon- days. 

Boon-days, sb. The days on which the tenants are bound to render 
the stated unpaid-for service, or Boon, to their tandlords. Brock, states 
that large ' quantities of land in the Northern counties arc held under 
lords of manors by customary tenure, subject to the payment of fines and 
heriois, and the performance of various dudes and services on the boon- 

S. O. Mn ; O. N. Mm ; Dan. httn ; A. S. Un. The classical word boon U rightly defined 
by Rich, is some * good or beoe6t either asked or granted.' The original meaning of each 
of the above-given etymons ii • prayer, entreaty, or request. Thciicc it passes to the thing 
prayed or requested, and thence to the »amc as obtaluciL But iu mcdiirva] wrritirtgt, says 
Ihrc, W« stands for something rendered in the way of payment or tribute, as if whal was in 
itself distasteful would be rendered less m> by the term employed to dc4cribe it. This, he 
says, was probably only the adoption of an ancient German uuge, under which payments of 
this kind were termed brdlr — * scilicet prccct crani, led qutbus contradici non posset, ttt ait 
Tacitus,' — requests there was not much optioo about declining. Tlic historian thus qttotrd 
states. Germ. cap. xt., that it was customary among the tribes occupying that country for 
each man to present to his chieftain gratuitous offerings of produce, whether arisuig from 
live-stock or land, which, though purely honorary in one sense, were still, in another scnie. 
compuUory, as meeting a case of necessity. It may be further remarked, as connecting 
these nicUixval 600/11, or quasi-gratuitous subsidies, more closely with our usage, that ill 
another place Ihre shews tliat while the word bond* originally meant one who h^d land of 
his own right (O. N. buandi, boanSt occupier ; and therefore owner or possessor), yd 
when the distinctions of r&nk implied in tilks of nobility, &c. were introduced, the bwdt 
always— what the nobles did not — paid some kind of acknowledgment, in kind or othcr> 
wise, for the land he held : and. finally, by a further change in the same direction, the OMBM 
cune to imply any occupier whatever, whether he farmed his own land or another\ whose 
tenure depended on rendering the specified acknowledgment. The ancient Gcrnun custom ; 
the mcdizral Northern usage, with its cuphuistic 6^ ; and the progressive changes o( stattu 
&c. in the bondt, but always with the 60011 to be rendered by liim prominent m the fore- 
ground, coupled with what Brock, says. — are a pertinent comment on the CIcvd. word 
before us. Comp. the LiiKolnfh. use of the words : — Boon, to repair the higliway ; boanimg, 
carriage of materials for repairing roads ; b<iOH-maiier, the surveyor of highways. 

Bore-tree, bur-tree, sb. (pr. bottr>'). The common elder (Samhucut 


The prefix in this word must necessarily be a noun, and the word itself is probably of 
Scaiid. descent. The A. S. name is tlttH or tftam; N. S. tUmm: Germ, hoiundir, bolider; 
Dan. bytd: Sw D. and N. byll, Su. ; all of these names signifying the hole-, or hoUow-irte. 
The d!rr iu the Eng. and Germ, names is tret. Sec Wcdgw. Probably, then, Bora-troe may 



be Old Danish in arigiOt from O. N. bdra, a hole, a boring. In ScotUnd, howerer, the fonns 
boiM-^rtt, btm-trm, preraO as well at bour-tnt^ bur-tm ; and for the former element lee 
Bun, which is A. S. 

Botoh, sb. A bungling or inexpert mender, a cobbler. 

To houht to TQiair in the way of adding a new piece ; a hotcb, the piece so added, pro- 
babljr proceed finon the A. S. hdt^ Mt*. Corop. O. H. G. puoxan. Germ, butzen, to patch, 
mcod. Sw. hot, b^, as wdl as the A. S. words, imi^y the idea of repair by the addition of 
new materials to the old, and the cognate vb. is used in the sense of mending, both in 
reH>cct of dodies and of nets ; boia U<edtr and bota ruei. In our instance, the invidious 
sense which iQodem usage has pat upon the word is transferred from the action and ito 
subject to the agent. Mr. Wedgwood's view of the formation of the word is different. 

* He 's nobbnt an aud botch. He 's mair lafak t* mar an t' mend.* 

Botohat, sb. A species of fermented drink made from the last drain- 
ings or washings of impure honey obtained from the wax of the combs ; 
weak hopey-beer, rather than mead. 

This wofd Appcan under almost as many different forms as Barftun : e. g. bragwort, 
hraggHf bragot, brotcbttt brotebtrt; all of which, as well as our word, by metathesis 
and ctmsequent change of sound, come from the Welsh bragodlyn, spiced wort, as it 
from brag^ malt. 

* Her mouth was swete as broMt or the meth. 
Or horde of applis layd in hay or heth.' MUltr'i TaU, I j}. 

Botherment, sb. Trouble, difficulty. 

* Fdks sez there *s boun t* be a t»t iv a bodMrmmt about thae intaks.* 

Boiik, bu% sb. The Clevel. form of E. bulk. 

* Thae tweca's about t* seeam hu^b.' 

BotUe, sb. A bimdle ; of hay, straw, Breokens, &c. A Bottle is a 
bundle wisped up ; a Batten a bound bundle. 

Pr, Pm. • Boltli* of hey. Fmi/aseiM.' * Bret, bdtel fotm. Fr. bottl, boteau^ the dimi- 
nutive of bottt, a bunch ; bottt dt foin, a wisp of hay ; Gael, boittal, boitean, a bundle of 
hay or straw.' Wedgw. * BotiU. A bondle, applied to hay, straw, and rushes.' Lin~ 
eolni. OL 

Botton, sb. The deepest portion of a valley ; that part of the dale in 
which the containing bardis rise to their full height with the most rapid 
and continuous slope. 

O. N. bolHt a bottom, a depth, and O. Sw. botlHy are similarly applied. In both branches 
of Ae language the word is employed to denote the innermost recesses of the sea : 
NorrholtM, the Gulf of Bothnia ; ^ardar-botn, a deep or inland bay. But besides this, the 
Old Northmen seem to have applied the word precisely as it is locally applied in Cleveland. 
Thus, Hald. gives doMmtn^ intima pars vallis, the innermost recesses of the dale ; i. e., says 
the Danish translation, where it is most shut in ; which is exactly descriptive of that portion 
of Danby Dale which is called Danby-Botton. Also the word before datt-botn is dal^mynni, 
the opening or mouth of a valley or dale, whitfh answers exactly to our Dale-Bnd. 

* At a little distance towards the South, lies the township of Qreenhowe, a part of which, 

I 2 


significantly caUed Greenhowe-Bottom' — written cotrectly, it would be Bottom — * is a nanow 
seclnded rale, so deeply intrenched with moantains that here (like some parts of Borrowdale 
in Cmnberland) in the depth of winter the sun never shines/ Graves, Hut. q^ CUmdamd, 


BoTU, bound, adj. Under compulsion, whether moral or otherwise 
arising. The word always implies a kind of necessity of action. 

O. N, bundimt (p. p. of binda). The phrase bundum sIo/mx, tmder constraint from &te, 
afibrds an instance of the use of the original word in a strictly analogous sense. The S. G. 
word binda, in its forenuc sense. — to give force to, or render binding — approadics the same 
usage, as also our modem technical word bound: e. g. * bound to keep the peace/ * bound 
under a penalty.* &c. 

* " Dir 'ee think at he 11 stand til it ?" " Aye, he 's from t' dee 't, noo, onnyways.** ' 

* He *s frovn t' gan ;* he is obliged to go ; has no choice abont it. Comp Tied. 

* " You Ml never do such a thing as tlut, JosejA ? " ** Ah wadn 't wivoot Ah wur boumd. 
It *s nane o' ma' ain latin'." ' 

In the following extract, Percy's Fol. MS, i. p. az8, both our present word boim, and a 
vb. cofmate with boun, ready, prepared, occur. 

* Then the king called a earle .... 
he bad buske him & bowne him : to goe on his message ; 
then that knight fuU courteouslye kneeled to the ground, 
sales, ** I am bound to goe as ye me bidd wold." ' 

■ BouOy adj. Ready, prepared, on the point of doing any given 

O. N. bdinn (p. p. of frfia, to make ready, to equip) is of continual use in precisely the 
same sense : see also albuinn, tiUmmy omnino paratns : Hald. Comp. likewise Sw. nd!r-> 
frora, fitly prepared ; farboen, ready to set out on a journey, &c. 

* Ah lays there '* boun t' be a wedd'n t' moom.' 

* It 's froun t' raan afore it 's lang/ 

* Ah 's boun for oflf a bit ;' or, * Ah 's froim off for a bit ;' I am going away for a little 

* Ah 's froiM for Cass'iton hirings ;' Castleton statute fair. 
Comp. the following extracts : — 

* Abraham. Luke thou be frowit; 

For certan, son, tfai self and I, 

We two must now wcynd fiinhe of towne 

In far country to sacrifie.' ToumeL Myst. p. 38. 

' Says, Lady, lie ryde into yonder towne 

& see wedier your friends be boumt' Percy's Fvi, MS. I . p. 76. 
* Lords and ladyes of the best, 

They busked and made them bourne' lb. p. 91. 

Bounder, sb. The impact, more or less forceful, of a weighty and 
not inelastic substance or object, on a solid surface ; of a wall, e. g., or 
a pavement, or the hard earUi. Cf. E. bounds rebound. 

* " It fell with a great bounder;^' fell heavily and rebounded.' Wb, Gl. 

Bounders, bounda, sb. i. Limits, boundaries; the line between one 
property, or manor, and another, whether defined (as by a wall, or fence, 


or water-course), or undefined, as on the moor or common, between the 
several boundary-marks, Mere-stonea, or Boimders. 2. Mere-stones or 
boundary-marks, consisting sometimes of natural objects, more usually 
of single upright stones, or piles of stones — Steean-nudu — set up on 
the boundary-line. 

Cf. A. S. pyndtm, to shut in, or encloie. Mr. Wedgw. refcn the word to the * Celtic root 
horn, hum^ a stock, bottom, root,' and collates * Bret. fm»-froMR, a boundary-^tone ; 6ofWMtii, to 
set bounds, to fix limits.* 

I. * Botmdan or limits of the said manor/ PeranA. o/Danby Manor, 1577. 

* A Tiew and perambnladon of the Hmits and bounds of Danby, &c.' Id, 1 750. 

* The names of those who rid the boundtrt* Id. 

a. * B7 the antient marks, mere-stones and bounds* Id. 

■ The 6oMufrrs, upon some certaine day, once in the year, yearly, are to be viewed and 
perused.' Id. 1577. 

Bonnd0r-marlcsy bonnder-steeanfi, bouxLder-8toui>s, sb. Upright 
stones, specially set, or other objects serving to mark the limits or 
boundaries of any manor or manors. 

* The exact distance between each boimdtr-mark and other.' Peramh. Danby, 1666. 

BoojByy bowsy. Plump, lull of flesh, Falstafif-like. Hall, says, 
' bloated by drinking.' 

Hald. gires 6iissa, a fleshy, well-fed female. Oerm. bausrback is plump-checked ; buyu 
.is, in Dutch, * a ci^ with two handles, which on account of its size is taken up and set down 
with both hands.* Comp. also bois, a hollow vessel ; Fr. buss», boss*^ a cask, and Sw. D. 
pysa, Sw. pUa, to sweD up, rise, as leavened dough does ; E. Dial, bawtin^ large, unwieldy, 
swollen ; as well as £. bon, bossy, &c. 

BoWy sb. A semicircular hoop or handle to anything ; as a basket or 
Seattle, a Bacfcstone, a pail. Also, in the pL; the hoops on which the 
tilt of a wagon or cart is supported. 

A.S. boga, a bow, an arch; O.N. bogi; Sw. bog*; Dan. but; Germ. bug. 

Bow-bridge, sb. A high-pitched, one-arched bridge, of which there 
are still several in the district, all of them ancient. 

Stratford is the last village in Essex on the great London road, and is built on the banks 
of the river Lea where it is aoued by Bow-bridge, said to have been the first arched-bowed 
bridge in England. Stowe, speaking of this bridge, says Matilda, queen to Hemy I, * caused 
two stone bridges to be build«l, of the which, one was situated over Lue at the head of the 
town of Stratford, now called Bow, because the bridge was arched like a bow. A rare jnece 
of work : for before that time the like had never been seen in England.' 

Bovdyldte, sb. A forward or impudent child: one who absurdly 
affects the air and manners of those older than himself. 

Brodc. gives as the definition of this word * a contemptuous name for a mischievous child, 
an insignificant or corpulent person.' The latter part of the definition is probably the 


original meaning of the word, from bounds in the sense of curved or arched, and liiu^ 
the belly or stomach. And from this meaning the transition in idea to that of cootcmptible, 
or of an object to be scorned or slighted, is easy. And thus probably orij^ioates the signifi- 
cation given in the definition quoted above, and also implied in our word. 

* A saucy bowdikiu lad.' Wh. Ol. 

Bowkers. An interjection, expressive of surprise. 

Brack, pret of to Breke. 

Braoken-olook, sb. A small brown-sharded beetle, often found 
about the bracken, or ferns generally. See Clook, Blaok-olook, &c. 

Brade, braid, v. a. To publish abroad, proclaim publicly and osten- 

* He brades it out everywhere that he is Mr. B's natural son ; and dK hBuXy Aaa*t Uke it.' 
Cf. * RtwsBtWlan braid ut his sweord.' Lay. iit. p. zoi. 

I have scarcely any hesitation in referring both these words to the same source, vis. 
A. S. bredan, bregdan^ to gripe, lay hold of, draw out ; O. N. brtgda. Comp. ai brtgda i 
lofi, to raise on high ; brtgda suterdi, to draw sword. The word would thus, by deriratkm, 
be connected with braid on, to resemble ; and it may be observed in passing, that the O. N. 
word admits of almost as great a variety of signification as any other of the nuny-mcauuDged 
words and phrases of the Scand. tongues. 

Brae, sb. (pr. breea). The overhanging edge or margin of a river- 
bank, arising from the greater toughness of the top soil, or sward, over 
the subsoil ; the like edge in a gully, or moor road, which is often worn 
down three or four feet below the moor-surface; rarely, the broken 
moor-edge itself. 

O. N. frrii, the brow, in a human face ; O. Sw. and Sw. D. bra, Sw. bryn has the same 
signification, and is applied, as are also Sw. D. brun^ bnmt, N. bnm, exactly as our Breeft 
is ; and in fact, the analogy or resemblance between the brow on the human visage, and 
the breta of a bank or abrupt hill-side is apparent enough. Comp. Dot. brttutot or AroKW, 
the edge ; £. brow of the faiU. 

* Loo' ye t hecar 's tahlio's nes' : jis' i' t' breea^ heear ;' look I here is a titling*s (meadow 
pipit) nest, just in the brae : a favourite site for such nests. 

Brae-ftill, adj. (pr. breeaful). Full up to the Breea, or bank-edge ; 
applied to the Beok when full up to the margin, and only not overflow- 
ing. Equivalent to ' bankfull' of Herefordshire. 

Brag, v. n. To boast, to exalt oneself in words. 

For an instance of the use of the word as an adj. note this : — 

* And syker, as I trowe, 
Weren her confessiones 
Clenly dcstrued 

Hy shoulde nought beren hem so brag, 
Ne belden so heygbe.' P. Plougbm. p. 49a. 


* He banoede hii fcrde. 
and saide )at he wolde : 
Baj^ bi-ligge 
and eke Brustowe : 
pa wan hire bnc.* 
Sir F. Madden't note upon hroe being : * This it the modem tenn brag^ the meaning of 
which was origtnaU^r the same with tbrtat. G. Douglas writes it bnik. The vb. in 
M. H. O. is brogtm, which is connected with A. S. hrtgan, broga. Sec' 
* He*t a maaster at brfxggai^. His geese '% maistUngs mtclder an* ither fo'ks swans.' 

Braid, brade, v, n. (pr. breead). To resemble, to take after. Fer- 
guson observes that in Cumberland it usually implies resemblance or 
similarity of disposition. Jamieson's definition seems to carry the same 
limitation. In Cleveland it certainly includes resemblance in feature or 
external appearance, as well as in nature or disposition. 

Comp. O. N. bngdot used with the prepositions til or a. The instances of usage given 
by Hald. are snch at to place the ori^n of our word beyond doubt : bvert a hmitinu at 
hr^da mtma tU fodr sins f — in our vernacular, * wfaeea tu 'd t' bairn breead ov wivoot 't 
be *s <Uther?' bonum bregdr tU attar: ' he breeads ov 's fore-elders/ In the same 
way the O.N. word is employed to express that derived, or * second nature,' which * use' 
is, boMd bry^dr a venju: * one's hand breeads o' use;' i.e. one gets to do that naturally 
which he does habitually. Further, bragd signifies features, lineaments ; and attar-bragd^ 
hereditary personal characteristics, family likeness. The S. Q. correlative word it 6rd, 
which it uted of a child, tAyt Ihre, who remindt one of his father ; or, as our Dalesmen tay, 
fiMithars lilasal'. Sw. Dan. brd pS, which in one district becomes br&da pi^ is exactly 
annddent with our word. 

Braid-band, sb. A corn-swathe laid outwards. 

At com is usually cut with the scythe, the severed portion, or swathe, falls against the 
nncut com, and is taken up thence by the raker, who follows the mower, and laid over on 
the Band ready for the Binder. Occasionally, however, for some reason or other, it is cut 
the other way, or from the com, and falls over in a regular band or swathe ; and when a 
field or part of a field is cut thus, it is said to * lie in braid-band.' The explanation of the 
jrfurate givoi by Jam. and Hall, is differeat ; possibly from diiference in local practice. 

Bramble, v. n. To pick blackberries. 

Brambles, sb. (pr. brammls, brumm'ls). Blackberries, the fruit of the 
bramble {Rubits /ruticostis). 

A. S. brenuU brtmbel, brtmber, a bramble; Dan. brambar; Sw. Dial, brambih; brom- 
biir. The A. S. name for the fruit was bramvyrt. With the Dan. and Sw. forms comp. 
Line, brame-berrits ; and note the Pr, Pm. forms (under Brtre) brymrruylU, bremmyllt 

Bramlings, sb. Brandlings; worms in much request for trout- 
fishing, found in old and well-fermented dung-heaps. They are of a 
bright red colour encircled with numerous yellow rings, and give forth 
a thick yellow fluid, of rather an ill savour, when touched. 




Brander, brandretb, sb. A kind of trivet, or tripod, or frame with 
crossbars set upon feet, and placed over the fire to receive pans or cook- 
ing-utensils generally. 

A. S. brandred, a gndiron; Genu, hrandrutbt. Jam. quotc» also Dan. bramdrith, and 
Teut. brander, brandroedt; and Brock., Dutch brattder. Bran*t-ring U given in Rictx, 
and explained by brand-ring ; the circular frame of the imtrumeni being kept in mind 
instead of the cro*s-bars, as in other elymuni : while Sw. hrandjrm is a gridiron. 

Among the Fincbalt Pr. Inven'.oriet^ it p. ccccxiv., the following entry occurs: — * El in 
i le Bnuidrcth empto de Bursario ponderanti zliiij. petris ferrf.' It is obvious that the article 
meant here cannot be what is understood by a Brandxeth now. The Olossarist in /V. Fineb. 
nipposes a massive grating of iron before and over the fire. May it not rather have been 
the massive bar of iron which seems, in the gigantic iiTe})laces of old. to have crossed the 
open chimney just above and in adraiice of the fire ? Such a bar remains amid the debrii 
of the great kitchen fireplace and chimney at Ludlow Castle. Cf. also ' Upon the hcrthe 
bclongcth woode or turucs, two andyrons of yron [brandeurs), a tongc, a grcdyron.' Note 
to Awndertu, Pr. Pm. In point of fact, there are probably two words coufosed in Bran- 
der and Brandreth. Cognate with the foniier are Tcul. and Dut. brander; brandeur, in 
the above extract : Sw. broHJJtm, ficc. : and with the latter A. S. brandnd, Dut bramdrotdt, 
Genn. brandrvlbe, Dan brtmdritb, a brand-rod. Sec Boiworth. 

Brander, v. a. To broil ; to cook over the bare fire, live coals or 
embers. See Brander, sb. 

0. N. brandr, live coali ; Sw. D. brannd, in the compound broHnd-itara, the equivalent 
of our Aas-card (which see); A. S. brands See. Comp. E. brand, firt^tmnd. Sec 
Our vb, is thctcfore simply lo expoic (meat) over glowing coals. 

Brand-new, bran-new, bran-span-new, brand-spander-new, adj. 

Freshly or perfectly new. 

Brand-nno ii simply new from the fire or forge. All the Tent, tongues pre*enre the 
word brtmd in some form or other, and all have the word mu>: whence Jamieson's remark, 
that our word is simply the Teutonic brnnd-ntw. Shaksp. uiei the quite equivalent form 
fo^e~ntw, still heard in some districts. Span-ntw is found as O. N. spdn-njr, from ipiinn, 
a chip. Sw. 1/^, Oerm. tpan, Daii. sfaan, all bear the same meaning ; and Sw. D. 
tpoH-noj, new as a chip, iplitttmy, preserve* the form for Sweden. Brand-ntw, therefore, 
u > word suggested by the newness of a metal implement ; span-tirw by that of something 
Cashioned out of w<iod. This is ebip-new; new from the artificer's tools: that burning- 
imp; new from the smith's forge. Brand-%p<inder-nnu is hence an unscientific, iK>t 10 say 
thundering, compound involving two dissimilar ideas. 

Brant, brent, adj. i. Steep, as applied to the side of a hill, or 
a portion of very hilly road. 2. Pompous, consequential. 

Sw. bratt, brant; O. N. braitr ; N. bralt : Dan. brat. Dire gives as an example of usage, 
m hrant backt, a steep hill : which, as has been noticed, corresponds exactly with our 
a brant bank. The interchange of n and t has also been noticed ; and the circumstance 
that the word is not of Sc. usage, and seems to have no A. S. etymon, is alio notcwonhy. 

1. ' •• A billv field this, Mr. Dale." " Aye brant encw, for seear. Anuist ower brant for 
I' pleufT." ■ 

* As bren4 *s a boos'-sahd.' 

a, * So-and-so *s as brtni as a yackeron (acorn) ;' of a pompous, stuck-np Individual. 
Cf. Dan D. bremu, 10 stick one's stomach out. ffpor dm dmg brtnttrl buw that 
Ud puffs himself out I 



Brash, sb. 1. Refuse matters, such as twigs, chips, short hedge- 
clippings, &c. 2. Rubbish, in the sense of a confused mass of refuse. 

The leading idea in this word, in almost crery instance, as iltustratcd b)- local usage in 
diitricts widely apa.r1, «ccms to be of matters that arc either brittle — twigs (Northumb., 
Durham), the small growth of a hedge, ur its clippings (Leedt) ; or tliat have been already 
broken — ' a mixture of coal-dust, chips and twigs' (Whitby). Taking this as a clue, the 
word 11 probably a derivation from A. S. bncaii (see aUo S. G. hraecka), and a near 
fciative of brtach^ broacb, dcc. O. N. brttsk, weak, frail, is aUnost exactly coincident. 
Sec Ihrc in v. BrusJt, 

Rich. c^Kcrvcs that the ' noun broehn u used in P. Ploughm. as bits of wood hrdnn or 
tflit off;' and * skewers or sharp-pointed sticks.* are still (or were, not long since) tenncd 
hrodfti in some parts of Yorkshire. The same idea of broken, or easily broken, holds good 
in the qoasi-gcological tenn broib, the folly geological term Com-braib^ and the Italian 

I. *Gan an' mak* a bleeze, bairns, wir thae hedge-clippings and brath' 

a. ' Thae taties 's a* brtub tcgither. There *s nivvcr a guid yan amangst 'cm.* 

Brafih, sb. A rising of acid or acrid liquid into ihe mouth ; a symp- 
tom depending on a disordered or overloaded state of the stomach. See 
Water-brash ; also called ' water-springs.' 

Pr. Pm. * Brahfn, or cajtyn, or spcwe. Vomo, evoma.' ' He wyll not cease fro sur- 
fettyuge tyll he be ready to parbrake.' Note, lb. ' Braitmg. Puking, reaching. Tcut. 
bra*cktn, to fomit. bragcia, nausea. This seems to be properly a secondary sense of brnrcken^ 
to break.' Jam. That is possible: and, originally. I had included this word under Broah. 
refuse ; and its meauiug as a tliird sciue to that word ; for there can be no doubt that it 
onginates in brah^ O. E. brakyn, to vomit. However, Sw. D. brdiia se, Dan. braJekt sig, 
Gcnn. neb brteberit N. S. ticb bracken, seem to justify its separation. Comp. the idiom 
in brmi unnd, brtak covtr, &c. ; and Brash, an eruption, or breaking forth on the skin ; 
alio the forms E. bnacb, Fr. brtcbe. 

Brashy, adj, i. Of inferior quality, poor, indifferent. 3. Weakly 
or delicate in constitution, liable to be frequently ailing. See Brash. 

I. ' Piiir broiby bits o' things;' applied to a sample of apples, or potatoes, small in sixe 
aiKl poor in quality. 

3. ' She 's nobbut a braiby body ; she '% maist aUa'i i' t' ane ailment or t' ither/ 

Brass, sb. Impudence, unblushingness. 

0, N. frross. insolence, forwardness. 

' He 's brau enew for owght : he 'd ex t* Queen t' cooni by, if iwer the war in '$ road ;' 
he'd tad the Queen stand on one side if she were in his way. 

BnwB, sb. I. Money in general, a. Copper money. 

1, ' Thay'vc lols o* brau: they w'oUy stinks ov it.' 

* Ah's sell'd thae kye, and getten t' bran.' 

3. ' Thee *U want a hau'p'ny back. Ah *s feared Ah *s oae brass.' 

Brassened, brazened, adj. (pr, brftz'n'd), Impudent, without 

• She '« ai brasitntd a browl as ivrer Ah ligged een on,' 



Brat, sb. i. A child's pinafore, a. The rag or patch secured to 
any part of a siieep, to save that part from tlje attacks of ' the Fly,* 

A. S. 6ra/, a cloak, a dout ; Welsh brat, a rag ; Gael, bral, an apron* cloth. 
' For n'ad »hci but a shctc 
Which that thei might wrappin beni in a night. 
And a hratu to walken tn a date tight, 
Thei wold hem k\, and iprnd it on this crafl.' 

Cbanon't ytman't Talt, p. 123. 

Bratted, adj. Covered with a slight film, as milk when beginning 
to turn sour, or slightly curdled, is. ( fFA. G/, defines the word as 

* slightly curdled.'j 

HalL gird * Brat. Filin or mm. North.' apparmily rrom Brock., who de6ne» it. ' tbt 
film on the surface of some liquids, as on boiled niilk when cotiled ;* and suggests Qcnn. 
breiltn, to spread, at a derivation. It is probably an adaptation of the setisc of Brat, sb., 
a clout, covering ; such as a pinafore, or sheep's Brat, fur imtance. 

Brattice, sb. A wooden panidon, ser\'ing, e. g.» to divide a closet 
or store-room into two parts. 

Cf. Pr. Prn. ' Bttrax, of a walle (brctaicc, brclays). Propugnacuiuni ;* and in the note, 

* Bretessc, bretcchc. brctrsque. tour de bail mobile, . . . paltMadt. Roquef.' Mr. Wedgw. 
says, * brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery, from Sc. tv^, 
O. brttt^ Dut. btrd, a plank or board, as lattice, a frame of laths, from Fr. tattt^ a lath.* In 
fomc pans of the North the high screen reaching from the wall, close to the door, from in 
outer passage some way inio the room, forming, with its back, a sort of passage, and hiTtng 
a seat atfixcd to its front by the fire-side, is called a Brattice. 

Braunging, adj. Large-featured and red-faced. 

This word appears to be used with a variation of sense according to locality. Hat), gives 
' pompous,' as its meaning. In the Leeds dialect, ' a great brawnging fellah ' is a man * with 
mas&ily set features, and a ituut, fresh, cnuutry look ; while in the U7*. Gl. it is defined as 
' brazenfaced,' and * a giet braungtng weean' is * a coarse impudent- looking woman.' Jirana 
is givai by Haldorsen as *a woman with a man's mien and ipirit.' while the O.N. vb. 
brana. and S. G. brAngas both imply impctaous motion, such as that of a bulky or massy 
body. But the probability rather is that the word is related to brawny braumyt as Uungt to 
s/iM. mttngt or mumcb to muH (mouth), &c. 

Brave, adj. Of good quality as well as appearance. 

O. Sw. bra/, good, excellent: Sw. and Dan. brav; and probably O. N. hragJ, bragga. 
See Ihre iu v. Braf, and Wedgw. in v. Brag. The two cardinaJ meanings of LaL inrfHi, and 
of Gr. 6rfa0ot meet with their exact parallel in those of the word braro. Valour was with 
all primitive nations the great virtue, bravery the peculiar excellence, approving itself to the 
eye as well as by more tangible proofs oi superiority. The Scotch brow and our brave 
ate curiuus tcminisccoces of this old-worM mode of sentiment aaJ exprcuion. 
' Mirtmda. What is 't? a spirit? 

Lord, how It looks about ! Believe me. Sir, 
It carries a brav* fomi.' Tempekf, i. 2. 
* It is ftrrrwr-Iooking beef, and it eats brnwly.' f\'b. Gt. 


■ ■* He*i getten « firoM bit o* brass for t' fann an' stock, Ah Uy ?" " Ay, hes he. But 
t* WW a Atom ^ot an' aH" ' 

***How are yoa, this morning, Thomas?" ** Bram an' weel, thank 'ee. Hoo's 

Bravely, adj. and adv. Very well, famously. 

• " Hoo is't wi' thee, man?** *' A-avd>, thank'ee." ' 

* ** He 's getting on well there, then 7" ** Aye, bravely.** * 

Bray, v. a. To beat or thrash with violence ; simply to beat or flog, 

iV. Pm. * Braxm, or stampyn in a mortere. Tero.' Cf. Sw. D. brdja, to bruise flax ; 
BtT., Swab., Swiss bneben, id. The wi»-d inrolTcs an accommodation of the sense of the 
standard word, viz. to pound or beat until the substance is reduced to powder or a pulp ; 
thenci to beat a person riolently. Mr. Wedgw. collates Sp. kregar, to work up paste, knead. 
Cf. Pr. Pm. * Brt^yyn, as bazten her pastys ;* Prov. Cat. bngar, to rub, Fr. broyer and Bret. 
bratOf to bray in a mortar. 

* ** Ah '11 bray thee tiv a mithridate ;" a milhridate being a medicinal confection of smooth 
and soft consistency.' Wb. GL 

* Be sharp, and get thee yamm, or thee 'U get tha' bade bray'd a bits. T' moodher 's 
latin* thee' 

Bread-loaf, sb. (pr. breead-leeaf). i. The loaf of bread; the mass, 
as opposed to a piece or portion. 2. A loaf of bread, as opposed to 
bread-cakes, &c. 

0. N. bratid-lti/. The corrcsponding words are found of course in the other languages of 
Tcut origin, but in actual composition only in our dialect and O. N. ; brod-kaka in Sw. D. 

Cf. ' cnse0 ^ 8as stanas Uafa gewordeno sic ;* command that these stones be made 
bread. Nortb. Oospeb, Matt. iv. 3. 

1. * Reach me here t* brttad-luaf, wilt 'ee. Ah deean't want nobbut a shahre.* 

a. * Ah couldn't get a brtead-leeaf ann3rwheres. Ah was f<Sssed to send intil Whitby 
for *t.' (A fact : the bread being required for the Holy Communion.) 

Bread-meal| sb. (pr. breSad-meal). Flour with the coarsest bran 
taken out, but still such as when made up into bread produces ' brown- 
bread.' See MeaL 

Breaks, broolcB, sb. Boils or carbuncles. 

There can be little doubt of the origin of this word in either form ; A. S. breeant 
pcpl. brocm, will supjdy both. The idea is well given in the passage, * and it shall be 
a boil breaking forth with blains.' In fact, in the ordinary use of the word, it is frequently 
associated with the word Byle. 

* He's nobbut dowly. He's had a strange vast o' thae nasty brooks an' byles aboot 'im.' 

Breolcens, burk'ns, sb. Ferns. The general name for the Fiiix 
tribe, but from its greater abundance especially applied to the common 
brakes or brackens (Pieris aquiiina). Growing as these do in great luxu- 
riance, and over spaces of many acres in extent, on our Bank-sides, 
they are carefully harvested in considerable quantities and applied as 
Htler by those who have an insufficient supply of straw for the neces- 
sities of their pig or their cow. In the autumn of 1866, when fodder 




was very scarce, twenty-seven scythes were seen at work on one hill- 
side, and numbers of the substaniial farmers had recourse to this substi- 
tute for liLter. 

O. N. hvrkm: Dan. bregn4. Sw. D. briiktn, hragen, briigt, brdknr^ hriigjen, tcenit to be 
more exclusive in its mcming than our Brackens, at it includes only the * common brakes.' 
It should be obserred alio thai by many the e and r arc transposed in Pr.. and the (ound of 
the word becomes sonKwhat guttural — berk'ns, or rather, burk'ns. Cf. O. N. bttrkni. 

Brede, breed, sb. i. Breadth, extent. 2. A breadth of cloth, silk 
or other material. 

0. N. bretdd: Sw. hredd; Sw. D. hrajd; Dan. bndti A.S. hrad, hrtd. Pr. Pmt, *Ar«Jr 
of mcsure. Laiitvdo.' 

1. • There was l' w'oll brtiU o' I* garth betwixcn hUn an* me.' 
•T' bredt o' t' road.' * T' hr*d* o' niah hand,' 

a. ' Wliyah, there's ten tfrtdes iv licr dress, if there's ym* 

Bree, brere, sb. 1. The brier or common dog-rose {J^osa cam'na). 
2. A thorn or prick from the stem of the same. 

A. S. brar, br^r. The word appears in Wicliffe's TramiJatiiM n/tbt BibU, brtris, and in 
Chaucer, brerts. much as it ruDaiiu in Clcvcl. to this day. One local name in the town- 
ship of Dantiy is Rid-brtrt, which, though written \i\ the registers as Red-hritr, is alwaya 
ftoanded as written above. 

3. * As sharp as a br$t;* applied both literally, and as implying lutoral sharpness or 

* I have oonc (a wife) to my fere 
As sharp as a ihrttlc. as rugh as a brtn.' Toumrt. MyU. p. loo. 

Broo, breeae, sb. The gadfly {(Es/rus b<n?is). 

A.S. brmta. Another A. S. form of the name of this in*cct is brimta; conip. S. G. 
brom$: Dan. 6rrmA,- Sw. and Sw. D. brems, brimt, broms: Germ, bremst, brfrw; Ac. 
Bromma, to buzz, is probably the origin of the S. G. bronu (Ihrc, Rietit), and similarly in 
the other cases. Chir Clcvcl. and N. English Bre« nr Bre«Be, with its original A. S. form 
bn'osa^ arc also most likely referriblc to some derivative from a verb nearly related to 
brimma, and due to the sound made by the wingi of the gadfly : enough of itself to set a 
herd of oxen or cows half wild. Comp. Dan. bruus, a nishing sound. The otha Clevel. 
fume for the insect in question is also refcm'ble to the noise it makes. See Bumbora. 
The eggs laid by the Breeu. when hauhed. lead to the swellings in Beaflta* backs known 
as Warbles. 

Broeam, sb. (Pr. of broom). {G^isia scoparia.) 

Breeast-boean, sb. (Pr. of breast-bone). 

The breast-bone of a goose is still employed by some of our Dalesmen as a mediam of 
prognostication for the coaiing winter. A translation of Thiclc'i notice, Ovtrtroitkt^Mtn- 
imgtr, p. II, requires only the suttstitutinn of a word or two in order to he applicable in 
Clcvel. : • From the breast-bone of a goose, eaten on Martinmas Eve (Old Style), it is pos- 
rible to ascertain what the winter is likely to be. Wlien picked it must be held up to the 
light, and the white marks then ditcemible betoken snow, the darker ones frost aikd cold 
weather. It shonld also be lenurked that the front part of the bnne foretell) the weather 
before C4iristmas, ibe hinder part the tvcather after Christiius.' See also Grimm. D. Af 


pp. 1067, 1068, where the same notuin U quoted u mentioned by several different writers 
and at pertaining to dtTers localities. Here, a mottled appearance of the bone is held to 
prognocttcate chuigeablc winter-weather, alternating snow and thaw ; a prevailing whitish- 
opaque cast mnch snow ; a dark colour severe frost ; and comparative transparency, open 
weather. The goose also most be eaten before Martinmas (New Style), though not neces- 
sarily on Martinmas E'en. It is observable that the Clevel., Germ., and Dan. signs or 
tokens all vary nuire <a less, according to the prevailing climate of the district they 
obtain in. 

Breed, sb. A brood, a Utter of young ones. 

I do not think this word is simply the English brood with the Cleveland pronunciation ; as 
it wants the peculiar accent whidi in its effect is almost to convert a monosyllabic word into 
one of two syllables, as sAMf, Utean ; teboolt scbtealf &c. It is not, however, given in 
UalL, Brock., or Wb. or Letdi Gi. ; although it is in very common use in Clevel. Cf. E. 
bntdf a kind, strain, as in the phrase ' a 6re«/ of cattle,' * fowls,* &c. 

* A gran* brttd o* pa'tridges.* Cf. Pr, Pm. ' Brtdde or hccchyd, of byrdys.' 
' Moor bods 's oane sae rank : t' brteds *% waldsh, an' nobbut a few ov' em.' 

* T* and sow *s getten a gay guid hrted o' pi^' 

Breekin*, sb. The natural division of the stem of a tree into the 
branches or forks which form the head. 

The uee ' breaks' or parts at the point in question ; which may suggest the derivation. 
Cctap, Oerm. y^chung^ Dan. brydning, as applied to express refraction ; and Pr. Pm. 
* Brtim or brekynge. Rt^ttara* See also BreekB. 

Breek-lesB, adj. Without breeches. See Breaks. 

"* Thae 's varry needful. Ah *s seear. Thae's nigh sarkless an' 6m^/«ss;" almost in a 
sute of nudity.' Wb. OL 

Breaks, sb. Breeches. 

O.a. briii {p\. brakur) ; O.Sw.brok; Sw.brackar; A.S, brde, brtBcca; N.S. frrooi; 
Dot. broek. Cf. Lat. braecot Irish hroages, Ann. brag. Ihre objects to Junius' derivation 
of the word from brecktn, to break or part, on the ground that it is not known what form 
the article of attire first named bretks (or its equivalent in other dialects) really had. 
Dr. Rietz gives his opinion that the M. Lat. word is derived from the Gallic tongue, and 
that the word is originally Celtic. Jam. gives a curious provetbial usage of the word in the 
sing., or as denoting one leg of the garment in question : * They sit full still that have a 
riven brmkt* 

Breke, v. a. The accustomed form of to Break. 

Pr. Pm, ' Srtfyn or brcston (brasten). Frango* 

Brake one's day. To. To fail in keeping an appointment, break 
one's tiyst. 

* Certis {cfi he) nothing ano]rith me 
To lene a man a noble, two or thre. 
Or what thing were in my possession 
Whan he so true is of condicion 
That in no wise he brtkin wolle his ffctiV, 
To soche a man I can nevtr sale luie.' 

Cbatton's Yeman's Tale, p. 1 34. 


Another form of Brant. 

Bride-ale, sb. The warmed, sweetened, and spiced ale; yet pre- 
sented in some villages, to a wedding party on its return from church. 

O. N. brtid-vl ; A. S. bryd-*ala, a bridc-alc, bride or marriage feast. The latter word U 
of course the oiigin of E. bridal. Ihrc, under the word 61, remarks, it U clear that thi> 
beverage hai bcco a favourite one among the ancient Scythian and Gothic nations, and 
indeed the ant qua non — whence all their more Important banquets were named bi, e.g. 
Ar/ol, Itarftxol, Kirtfgangi-^, Gra/wa-dl, &c.. or, Heir-ale, ChUds'baptixnhitU^ Motbtr'ti- 
ehurching-alt, Gravt-alt. Comp. the old word Cbttreb-ali. Our Clevel. word is re- 
markable as presenting the two constituents of bridal in a separate form, and as directing 
out from the complex tense of brud-6l the single clement connected with the liquor chiefljr 
dniok on such occasions. See under Bride-door. 

Bride-door, sb. The door of tiie house from which the bride pro- 
ceeds lo church, and at which the wedding fcsti\'ities are to be held 
afterwards ; used in the phrase ' to run for the bride-door.' 

With this word comp. Sw. D. bryllopihui, brolhpslmf. 

The aLstom in which it originates is doubtless of Northern extraction. It reappean tmdcr 
somewhat rarying fonns in many of the Northern counties, but always in such guise as in 
some way to embody the same idea. * To " run for the bride-door" is to join in the race for 
the bride's gift, run by divers of the young men of the neighbourhood, who wait near the 
church-door till the marriage ceremony is over. The prize is usually a ribbon, which is 
worn for the day hi the hat of the winner.* Wh. Gl. H*\\. simply adds to a precisely 
similar itatcmciU, that the race is run * to the bride's door,' and both might hare added tlut 
the nbboQ when won u supposed to be destined for the winner's sweetheart, actual or to be. 
In Cumbcriand, says Brock., it is usual ' for the bridegroom, attended by his friends on 
horseback, to proceed in a gallop to the house of lite bride's father. Having alighted, he 
salutes her, and then the company breakfast together. Af\a breakfast the whole pany ride 
to church together, a fiddler in attendance, and at the conclusion of the ceremony ihry all 
proceed to some neighbouring altboust where many a Howiiig bumper is drunk to the 
faealtti of the happy pair. Thus inspired they set otf full ^>eed towards the future residence 
of the bride, where a handkerchief is presented to the first who arrives. In Craven." be 
continues, ' after the service is over a ribbon is olTercd as the winner's prize, either in a foot 
or a horse race. SliouM any of the competitors, however, omit to shake hands with the 
bride, he forfeits the prise, tnough otherwise entitled to win. Whoever first reaches the 
bride's habitation is ushered into the bridal chamber, and, after having performed the cere- 
mony of turning down the bed-clothe«, he returns carrying in his hand a tankard of unrrn 
ale, to meet the bride, to whom he triumphantly offers the cup he tears, and by whom in 
return he is prescutrd with the riM»oti a» the tropliy of his victory.' From a MS. I have 
been permitted to make use of it appears that much or all of what is thus described is * stiU 
practised at St. Helen's, Auckland, and other villages in Durham: only the handkerchief is 
supposed to be a delicate substitute for the bride's garter, which used to be taken off as she 
knelt at the altar : and the practice being anticipated the garter was generally found to do 
credit to her taste and skill in needlework, and was made the chief pnze at the ensuing 
sports.* In Clevel. and the neighbouring district the hot ale (sec Hot-pot«). duly sweet- 
ened and spiced, was presented by the friends of a Ividal party at some point or points of the 
return journey from church. ' This custom u upheld in full force at Robin Hood's Bay, 
near Wliitby ; and as many u twelve Hot-pots have been brought forth and partaken of 
in the one-mile distance between the churdi and the town.' Wh. Gl. The foot-race, or, as 
it is now more oonuiwnly designated, mnnins for the ribbon, ik by rw mearu fallen 



t«to dcsoettidc in Clevd. ; indeed, it is atmoft too much to sxj it has totally snpcrKded the 
hone-race. Within twenty or twenty-five yean these races were holly contested in Danby 
by mounicd men, iwo or three of whom, logethcr with ihcir steeds, were well known for 
their many racing exploits on such occasions. The writer has met with an old and dim 
tradition that in days gone by. the race was always from the churchyard gate to the 
Brid«-door, and that the prize was not barely the bride's garter, bnt ihe added 
pririlege of uking it himself from her leg as she crossed the threshold of her home. The 
B*OAt-pot« of the Dales, no less than the potations of ate in Cumberland and Craven 
emphasized by Brockett ; the mounted cavalcade; the rapid riding (comp. brullup^ or 
hrutUaup, hasty thronging to a wedding ; hrud^m/t-reid, the bridegroom's journey with 
a momited cavalcade to the bride "s-house).-^ all point explicitly to Northern customs. 
Comp. also the follownng: — 'The most ancient mode of wooing had at least the merit of 
innpiidty : it consisted in carr) ing off the desired object by physical force. There are 
traces of the custom in a game or crremony still occ8s:onally practised on the marriage of 
a Welsh pcataat. After tnc wedding, the bridegroom mounts on horseback and takes his 
bride behind him. A certain amount of *'law" is given them, and th^n the guests mount 
aisd punue them. It is a matter of courtesy not to overtake them, but whether overtaken 
Of DOt. ihcy return wiih their purtuers to the wedding feast.* Drand's Po{>, Antiq. ii. p. 155 ; 
Nott* and Quertts, xi. 415 : AnghSaxott Homt, p. 2i. and note. To the above may be 
Added, from Jam., that to * ride the brusc or broose' is lo ride a race on horseback at 
1 wedding. ' The cnrtoni,' he say*. * is still preserved in the country. Those who are at a 
wedding, especially the younger part of the company, who arc conducting the bride from 
bet own house to the bridegroom's, often set off at full speed for the latter. Thii is called 
^ndimg lb* brut*:" he who 6rst reaches the house is said ** to unn tbi brust." * For some 
time, the author states, he thought the word bruss must be cjoscly connected with stmie 
ancient word signifying a wedding, or relation to a wedding ; but that he changed his view on 
meeting wiih the following account of a custom common in the N. of Engl, seventy or eighty 
years ago. * Four young men, wiih their horses, were waiting without : they saluted the 
bride at the church-gate, and immediately mounting, contended who should win what ihcy 
called the *' Kail ;" that is, a sniokmg prize of sf-ice-hrofb which stood ready prepared to 
rrward the victor in the race.' Query, was it iad^ or alt (yall) ? Was it * barUy-brte* or 
ordinary ' iro># ' f 

Bride-wain, sb. A waggon, loaded with household goods, to be 
conveyed from tlie bride's failier's house to the bridegroom's. 

Gown, Good speed, good speed, old GeoiTry now, and unto thee good day. 

Ah 've got a tale to tell to thee as we go on the way ; 

For Ah "m lo be tha" son-i'-law an' marry thah Uss, Margery : — 

What portion you will give to her, discover Ah pray to me. 
Gtofr* Whceah t ma dowther shall ha* hawf of a' Ah hez, except ma' grizzle meear : 

She 's have a bridtwain o' i' best : she 's have a' she s'ud. Ah dcclccar.* 

From a MS. copy of the Egton Sword Dance Inttrludt. 

' Mr. Marshall observes that formerly great parade was exhibited in connection with the 
bridewaiii. The waggons were drawn by " ten, or perhaps twenty pair " of oxen garlanded 
with ribbons, while a young woman sat at her spinning wheel in the centre of the load, and 
the friends of the parties increased ilie gifts as the procession went on.' WJ. Gt. ' In 
Cumberland,' says Mr. Brockett. * it is a custom for the friends of a newly married couple 
to assemble, upon mvitalion given, and after partaking of "cold pics, furmity and ale, to 
join in various country pastimes." The bride and bridegroom arc then placed in two 
chairs, the former holding a pewter dish on her knee, half covered with a napkin. Into 



thii dish every person prctetit makes it a point to pat lontcthing : and these ofTcrings occa- 
sionally amoanl to a coiuidcrable sum. 1 s\ippose it has obtained the lumc uf wain froiu 
a rery ancient custom, now obsolete in the North, of presenting a bride who had no great 
stock of her own, with a waggon-load oi furniture and provisions. On this occuiou the 
hofscs were decoratcti with ribbons.* In Northumberland such a waggon is styled the 
* plenishing- wain.' To this I may add that some forty or tifty years since it was the custom 
here to place one of those curious and handsome black oak cabinets or presses, not limg 
since common in the Dales, well stored with the necessary- QrAithing or Gear for a newly 
married couple, in a ^Vain, and harnessing to it several yoke of oxen gaily garlanded, to 
drive it as a part of the bridal procession to the church. Arrived there it was lifted t^ and 
carried within the church po'ch. remaining there the whole time during which the service 
was going on. It was essential that the waggon should travel along the ordinary church- 
road, and not make short cuts, or other deviations from the established route. One such 
Bridevraiiip which took its departure for the church from Danby Castle, is specially mco- 
lioncd by my informant as having h^d no less than sixteen oxen yoked to it. 

It is interesting to find traces of the same custom in Normandy, as well as in other 
districts indebted to the Danes for no small infusion of their present population. 

Brief, sb. A document carried by one who solicits pecuniary assist- 
ance, under circumstances of loss or calamity ; a begging petition. 

O. N. brAf; S. G. hnf; Dan. bm. The Brief in former days was the recognised or for- 
mal mode of seeking aisictance. whether on behalf of communities or individuals, towards 
the performance of works to which their unassisted means were inadequate. Thus, to 
mention but one instauce, the inhabitants of Scarborough, when tlic parish church had been 
partially destroyed during the siege of the castle. * were under the necessity of having r^ 
course (o a Brief, in i66o, f j Charles II, to ciuble them to rebuild it,' Hinderwcirs Scar- 
borough, p. 103. Many Briefs, duly signed by minister and churchwardens, nuy commonly 
be seen still in coarse of circulation through the country side in CleveU sometimes to help 
the bearer replace his ' tatitle coo,' 01 the hone be carried on his trade with, or the fumittiie 
or slock lost by a Bre, Sec. 

Brigg, sb. A bridge; a quasi- natural pier projecting into the sea. 

O. N. bryggiOf a bridge, a pier ; Sw. brygfa, a bridge ; Dan. bryggo, a pier ; A. S. brycg, 
brieg^ Sec. 

' But ackerd fields, an* narrow rig^. 
They've spuilcd us quite for liuildtng briggi.' Casttllo't Poem$. 
• Do boole to bruggei 
That to-brokc were.' P. Pi<mgbm. p. 139. 

Brigg, vb. To bridge ; to build a bridge over a stream, &c. 

Brigg-stane, sb. i . A stone culvert laid across a Oate-stead, or 
carried beneath a road, the upper stones, or Coverers, of which are of 
sufficient length to span the entire width of tlie water-way. 2. Each 
of tlie single stones thus employed. 

Brim, breme, v. a. and n. i. As applied to a sow; to desire the 
boar. a. As applied to the boar; to serve the sow, 

O. N. ^mi or br^me, flame. Comp. A. S. bremman^ to be hot, furious, raging, vebe* 
mcnt. Uald. gives the word Uaubrymi as signifying the 6rs1 enjoyment of coition by 


newlf married people: a use of the word hritm exactly coincident with th^t of oar local 
woid. The foUowing puuget maj serre to Ulostrate the transition of thonght and sense 
from flame, heat, to mt heat of pasnon or lust. 

' Ant q}recbe in ham sprelxs of hutes swa \vXctt thet ha forbemcffi in wilS ant )>urh ^ 
hrimt abKndelS,' StuUt Mart. p. 15 : and strike in em sparks of Inst so lither (bad) that 
they bora away inwardly, and throngh the burning go blind. 

* Then spake the turke ritb wordes thraw* 
Saith, " Come the better of your tow (two) 
though ye be hrtm* as bore." ' 
To which Bishop Percy's note is, ' Arwnf, i. e. Berce •* Mr. Fumivall's, • One of the com- 
monest phrases in early romances.' 

* I see the bull dothe bull the cow ; 
and shall I line a maiden s^ ? 
I see the bene doth brim the sow ; 
and yet there is neuer a lacke for gill.' 

Percy's Loou and Humorous Songs, p. 39. 
Note also, — * And er0e Mtnm and beren dede.' Story of Otn, and En. p. 4. See also 

Briasling, adj. Brisk, blowing freshly ; of the wind. 

Under Brttzg Mr. Wedgw. quotes Fr. frriM. a cool wind ; It. brnxa, a cold and windy 
mist or frost. And he adds, ' The origin is the imitation of a rustling noise, as by the 
Sc. hrissU, properly to crackle, then to broil, fry.* Our word then approaches the proper 
meaning of briaslt very nearly, denoting the mitigated rushing or whizzing of the wind* 
Cf. Sw. D. brisa, to rath along hastily ; bnaot id. 

* A canny Inrisding wind : 't 11 soon dry t* land.' 

Broaofa, broohe, sb. i. The spire, or steeple, of a church. 3. The 
instrument, or spindle, on which yarn used to be wound. 

The leading idea in each of the ai^lications of the word (as also in a spit, a skewer ; 
besides those abore giren) is of pointedness. Wood splintered or broken presents iiisunces 
q( such pointedness : hence the p. p. in-oetn, from brtcan, to break, is taken as the origin of 
brocb*. Bosw. quotes the Fris. word brok as meaning a fragment or broken piece. Comp. 
Fr. brocbt, a spit ; Welsh proeio, to thrust, sub ; Gael, hrog, to goad, to prick ; and also 
E. hrooeb. Pr. Pm. • Sroebe for a thacstare (see our Thack-proda) : Brocbe, or spete ; 
Bro^yn or settyn a ressel a broche ;' pierring it, i. e. with some pointed instrument, 
* Then broyled and broacbt on a buchers pricke 
The kidney came in of a holy uster.' 

Loou and Humorous PoemSy p. 43. 
' As kenspack as a cock on church broacb: Wh. QU 

Brook, sb. The badger (Meles taxus). 

Dan. brok; A. S. 6roc; Erse broe; Welsh and Cornish brodi. See Jam. in v. Broakit. 

Brook, sb. The froghopper or cuckoo-spit insect {Aphropkora spu-- 
maria); the latter popular name being due to the froth in which the 
creature envelopes itself when in the pupa-state. 

Welsh brocbt foam. 

* Ah swceats like a brock: 


Brookle, brooUe, adj. Easy to be broken, frail, brittle. 

O.Sw. brack^: Sw. braekUg; Sw. and O. Dut. broM; Q.brotWg. Comp. S. JatL 
brok, broken pieces of bread; Pr. Pm. * Brtikdol, or free* (brokjrl, brokiU). Fragilit, 
* Ay, thae pankins at is gcttcn oot in t' houcs,— they 's despot hniekU for teear/ 

Brog, V. n. To browse ; to crop the short herbage or small hedge- 
shoots, as cattle do. 

Almost certainly a frequentative from a verb signifying to break, crush, bniiK ; e. g. S. O. 
hrteeka, Sw. brdeka, A. S. brwcan, Dan. brokkt, &c. Comp. Sw. D. hrogga^ to break or 
crash, reduce to fragments or small pieces. In fact, the standard word hrowm is itself 
probably refernble to an analogous origin. Sec Wedgw. in t. Browu, and also under 
Brake, 2. ; where he collates O. E. orogt a swampy or bushy {rface ; O. Fr. hngUU, 
hrtgillt, brocl, Scc^ copse-wood, cover, brush-wood; Prov. Qeim. gtbrogt^ gtbrucbt, 
a brake, thicket. Comp. our definition. 

Broken-bodied, adj. Ruptured, afflicted with hernia. 

Comp. Dan. brok, Sw. brSek, a ruptore; A. S. brocod, afflicted with a rapture; and 
Germ, gtbrocbm ; Sw. D. hrSkUig^ hraUtUr, id. 
Cf. Pr. Pm. ' Broityu man, yn |»e cod. Htmionu* 
' He 's 6roi«»-6odiMi/ i' baith sahds.' 

ISrole, teowl, sb. i. An impudent girl; a hussy, bold and unblush- 
ing. 2. A saucy, forward child. 

Hall, gives • 6ro/, a child or brat, A. S. ;* but I know not on what ground. Our word 
seems always used in an offensive sense, and I am doubtful whether to refer it — not directly 
to E, Arourf, but— to some such origin as Dan. br»lt, to roar, to bellow (cf. O. N. braUa, 
Dan. D. hraUa, to ulk at the top of one's voice ; Germ. bruUm, Sw. vrAla ; in which case 
the idea is primarily that of one who is loud and violent in word, passing on then to the 
sense given in our definition, and in the following example ftom Wb. Gl. — ' Thoo 's a brax- 
xencd young Anomf) ; or to Welsh brmd^ a shooting out, an offshoot; in which case a 
diQd is the primary meaning. 

The word occurs twice in P. Plough, precisely in our first sense >- 

* Now mot ich soutere hys sone 
Seten to schole. 

And ich a beggeres brci 

On the book lerae.* (p. 494.) 

* I dorste have leyd my lif. 
And no lasse wedde 

He tbolde have be lorde of that lond. 
And also kyng of that kith 
His kyn for to heipe. 
The leeste bni of his blood 
A barones piere.' (p. 55<) 

Brough, broff, sb. A faint luminous ring or disk about the moon, 
technically called a * corona,' 

jam. supposes the name brovgb to have been given to this appearance ' because of its 
circular form, or resemblance to the encampments so designated ;' from O. N. and O. Sw. 


horg, A.S. horgt hmh. StiU, it may be expe<Uent to notice a word y«t cuirent is Iceland: 
* Rma-kampir, or ttonn-rings, formed about the moon.' le^and, Se. amd Sagas, Inuod. 
zui. ; and Hald. gires rota-iatigrt a circle about the sun or moon ; although bmigr can 
fcarcdy be the origin of our won^ nnleu it has pasied throagh a stage of great corruption. 
Comp. hmr in HalL, and burr in Lineoltu. Ol. 

Brov-band, sb. A leathern strap, passing across the forehead of 
the bearer, by which the Fish-oreel is suspended. 

Browl, V. n. To scold, to urge a demand in violent or abusive terms. 

* When these three women's brought to bed and after thee does browi, 
Tbon must rcfriy immediately I £iow ye not at all.' MS. Sw. Danet Tnttrlude. 
Another reading is, * and round thee thae does browL* As the person advised is ' the 
Losty Miller.* who has sednced his landlady, her daughter and her servant, each under 
a promise of marriage, the idea in the word ^nwi is apparent enough. Probably the vb. 
is derired from the sb. See preceding word. 

Brown-leemers or learners, sb. Brown or ripe nuts that separate 
or slip easily from the husk or hull. Wh. GL simply says * large fil- 
berts,' without specifying any degree of ripeness, which is insufficient. 
See Iieam. 

Brodc. suggests, not too happly, that Uamtn may be In m^rs, the ripe ones. It is 
**°*pi7 g^^"^ oi* fUpptn. Hall. says, ripe nuts which leave the husk readily are called 
brtrnm-iAiilUr*. The sense is the same. See onr Bhtirl, Sliool, or Sholl, to slip, glide, 

Bmff, adj. Full-faced and florid or fresh-looking ; hearty in look ftnd 
maimer ; loud and rather rough, or more than jolly, important, 

Comp. Sw. D. borger^ ^g* ^& fiill-grown, strong, hearty ; tyrg. bttrgt byrgr* vMLr 
sufficient, confident, self-satisfied. These words are all derivative with secondary mean- 
faigs, from S. G. borgare^ civis, one possessed of real rights and importance, therefore ; and 
borgOy to act as bail or surety. See S. G. b€rga ; O. N. biarga; A. S, b^orgait. 

BroUy, sb. i. A broil, squabble, disturbance. 2. Moderate roughness 
or motion of the sea. 

O.Sw. bryllor to disturb, create a disturbance. Bryila qt brflla is ^till used in th^ 
same sense in Sw. D. Ihre quotes as synonyms or derivatives, Arm, brdla; Eng. broil; 
Fr. hroviiltr; ItaL imbrogUart. 

Brommel-noBed, adj. Having a nose with the characteristic signs 
of intemperance, purple and granidated, like the Bramm'l or BrummX 

Brommels, brum'la. See Brambles. 

Bnmt, adj. i. Abrupt, precipitous, steep. 2. Blunt, unceremonious, 
abrupt, in manner. 

ProbaUy the same word as brant or brent ; or, if not. from S. G. 6ryn. vertex montis, 
pnecipititmi ; for comparison with which Ihre quotes O. N. brvna, to lift up, or exalt one- 
self; adding, that he looks upon bryn as denoting whatever prominently overtops other 
things near. Comp. Sw. D. brynt, a bank, or steep hill. 

3. * He 's a bit ftrviM-manneied ; but he 's not a bad sott.* 

L 2 


BroM^ «b. Pr. of E. bristle. 

Another fautaoce of the cbtnge of i into v, and u conpued vhh 9v. hant^ 9v. D. hat, 
ionte, Dan. bmtu. Dot ftonte^, alio of the tranqiontioo of r and hs vowd. Conp. A% 
Pm. • BrytiylU, or bmrtylle (bnntyll). &«fl.' 

Brnasen-heArted, adj. Broken-hearted. See Hetrt-famMen. 

Bruasen-kited, adj. Possessing a very protuberant, or swoBen-look- 

ing abdomen. See Kite. 

BnuBon-oat, adj. G>vered with blotches, or pimples, or sores. 

• He '» bmsitH-oia wi' lahtle water-blebs all ower hit body," 

Brusten, pcpl. (pr. brussen). Used adverbially ; as in 

• •• liruMMm-hig;" exceedingly ctoot or corpulent* Wh. Gi. 

' " Brwum-brecadways ;" about as broad as long, for excess of bt.' Jh, 

Brusten-up, adj. Reduced to small pieces, pulverised, as bread by 
satiated children; clods by frost, or the roller and harrows; crockeiy- 
ware by a fall, &c. 

Buoh, butoh, V. n. To act as a butcher; carry on the trade of 
a butcher. 

Mr. Peacock gives the vb. hutch as in nse in N. Loosdile. It teems M be nniply 
derived from the sb., formerly spelt hoebourt, huebtr. 

Buokheads, sb. The live stems or stumps of a thorn hedge after 
the branching heads have been cut off, leaving the stumps to shoot forth 

The word is probably due to, or expressive of, the idea of shooting forth frona the bead 
int(i many branches, as the boms of the buck do. And from the noon is taken the vcrt> 
huek-head, to top. See Hall. 

Budge, V. a. and n. i. To move or be moved, as a naO in a wall, 
or a screw in its socket (or female) or in a piece of wood. a. To 
lower or abate (in a demand, or price asked). 

E. buftg* is usually connected immediately with F. hougtr. Looking to the sense our 
word lakes, 1 am disposed to collate O. N. bjuga, huga^ to master, get the t»etter of; 
the primary meaning of the word being to bend, to make to bow. Comp. Dan. htigtft 
hugt, S. Jut. D. httge, hagge^ to bend, to sway. Comp. also the O. N. phrases, aika 
einum a hug: in fugam pcUere; almost literally, to make him budge; tnguw h^ mit 
iva a bug vtit, s/m {>ii .* no one has ever made me budge as you have. 

1 . * Ah caaii't hudge 'X a hair-breed : it 's stiff as a stithy ;' of any object fixed in another. 

• It 's gran'est drag at ivver Ah seen : 't weeant hudgt for now't ;' of a Coleman's Culti- 
vator, which pasted steadily on in its work at the same level, however hard the groond. 

2. * Price Is fowcr pun', an* he weeant hudge a hau'pny.' 

Buer, buver, sb. A gnat. 

This word is probably derived from the same root as the Germ, pfttfir, to pipe, to 
wlii7/. Comp. S. Juil. pibe, founded pif. K<A, p. Ii8. In some Sw. districts also, fif 


becoBies pht, Tbns dw nunc would mean the pip^. Piping U a north-country word 
for * the noise made bj bees preparatory to swarming/ Hall. ; a peculiarly sharp buzzing ; 
and the word is certainly ray apj^icable to the sound emitted by the gnat. 

Bnghf sb. (pr. bufe or beeuf)- A bough. Compare the pronundation 
of ploaSh, eneoifh. 

Doobtleis this form or pnmnnctation of bougb i$ presenred in the following stanza :^- 
* But Rolnn he walkes in the grecne fibnest 
as merry as bird on baghe. 
But he that feitches good Robin's head 

heele find him game enoughe.* Percy's Fol, MS. i. p. 19. 

Bull, V. a. and n. i. To serve a cow, as a bull does. 2. To desire 
the bull, as a cow does ; to shew symptoms of such desire. See quota- 
tion under Briin. 

BoBaoe, sb. The vnld plum, or 'wild bullace' of botanical works 
(Pnmuf tnsititza)'. 'fruit globular, austere, black with blue bloom.' 
Neither to be confounded with the sloe, nor with the ordinary fruit 
known as Bullaoe, which is green, with a partial russet tinge when ripe. 

Pr. Pm. * Boltu tre. P*pulu$' Also ' A btdas tre. Ptptdu*.' CtUb. Angl. 
The word is no doubt due to the same origin as bull (Pzpai), bvllit, haUt &c., and simply 
txpTt m re of the q)heiical shape of the fruit. 

Bnll-danoe, sb. The festivities or merry-makings of the country 
people on occasion of * Cattle Shows,' or Agricultural Exhibidons. Wh. GL 

BnU-fooeB, sb. (pr. bull-feeaces). The turfy hair-grass (Aira ccBspi' 
fosa); called also, as it appears from Hall., 'Bull-fronts' and *Bulls- 
fordiead': probably from some supposed resemblance between the 
manner of its tufty growth and that of the hair on the bull's forehead. 

BnUook, v.a. i. To bully, to address another with violendy abusive 
language. 2. To use loud unmeasm-ed tones and terms in speaking. 

I. ' Noo, thoo lap oop t Ah' wean't bide nae mair o' thah hullockitC* 
3. ' I should like him better without all that bullocking* Wh. Gl. 

BuUooldxLg, adj. Loud-tongued ; overbearing, imperious in word. 

BiillB, sb. The crossbeams of the harrow in which the teeth or 
tines are inserted. 

J}«/, pi. btUler, kaltUs de traer paa harvtn hvori tandenu indsatta : bul, pi. bulltr, 
the name by which arc called the beanu of the harrows in which the teeth are set ; Jutl. 
and Sjselland. Molb. Dan. D. Diet. Comp. Sw. D. bol, a plank ; slao'bol, the runners 
of a sledge, the gunwale of a boat, its planking. I do not find this word in Hall., or in 
any of the Yorkshire Glossaries, though it is common throughout a wide district in the 
North and East Ridings; nor yet in Jam. It presents one more instance such as Segg, 
flan, peen, skare on, &c., of the singular illustration thrown by the Scand. dialects 
on our Yorkshire forms of the Northumbrian dialect. 


Bull-seg, sb. A bull castrated after having arrived at full maturity. 

See Segg. None of the derivatioiu hitherto proposed for this word his been the leul 
satisfactory. Probably the lufTix *tg refer* to the alteration which has been made iu the 
beast's power or spirit, nr both. And in this connection we may rkote, not only the Crar. 
words ug-hfad^ a blockhead ; ug-kiit, an over-grown and greedy youth — one, therefore, 
who i« proTcrbially neither active, nor sharp ot bright; A. S. t£*ae. p>ger. lary. slow; 
O. N. uigia, animal tardum et lentum ; but also the fact that with ueg or urg. a boar 
castrated after arriving at maturity, Molb. couples atg or sig, a lazy, iodolcnt drawlcr. 

BuU-spink, sb. The chaffinch {Fringilia cakhs), 

7*he word s^nk occurs in the Sw. names of birds in several insiances. Thus gtd^Mpini, 
the greater tom-tit ; and Pennant quntes goi-spink as applied in Faun. Sufc. to the yellow- 
hammer. See Oold-splnk. It is worthy of notice, that bo-jinc is the Sw. name of the 
chafhnch, or Bpink : the prefix fro possibly answering to our bull. The name spizLk seemi 
to be applied, with tome preAx or qualifying word, to the mountain-finch, goldfinch, 
yellow-hammer, and chafHnch, in the north of England. 

Bull-8tang, sb. The dragon-fly. 

Hull, here, is, it is likely, expressive uf size or power (sec Rich.); as also that ^ang 
implies the supposed power of the insect in question to sting, to inflict a venom-tainted 
puncture. See Flying-ether and stang. Comp. also the name given by the fisher- 
buys to the wccvcr, viE. Stang-flah. 

Bum, bumble, v. n. {i)r. bumm'l). To hum or buzz, like the 
humble-bee, or hke a top. 

O. N. frwTTi/a ; Pr, Pm, ' Bombom as been (frirm/nyi or humhym). Bombizo, homhilo :' Sw. D. 
bumid, bumbla, to give a dull sound like an empty cask ; Germ. homm*n or frvmnuvi, 
bommdn, bummeln, to give a dull reverberating sound, to buxs. Jam. quotes also Duu 
hommtn, lo resound. * Bumhlar i tvHHunni' is a phrase given by Hald. Comp. Teul. 
bomm^t, a drone ; the name taken from the sound, doubtless. 

Bum, bumm'l, sb. The humming or buzzing noise emitted by the 

bee, drone, or top. 

Bumble-barfan, sb. A horse-collar made of reeds or rushes, as 
distinguished from a leather Barfem. }Mt. Gi. 

Hall, gives buinblei as signifying nuhcs in Lincolnshire, which explains the first part of 
the word ; for the other, see Bar&un. 

Bumble-bee, sb. (pr. bumm'1-bee). The general name for the va- 
rieties of ihe humble-bee family. Comp. the name quoted by Brock, for 
the same insects — ' bumbler ;' and also the name ' bum-clock,' as applied 
10 the beetle, which makes a loud humming noise in its evening flight, 

* The bum-dodc hummed wi* laxy drone.* Bums, 

Bumble-kitos, bummel-kites, sb. Common blackberries. See 

It is not all plain sailing suggesting a derivation for tliis word. Brock, gives il as a 
Durham word ; Hall, qmnes it ; and it appears in Wb. Gl. It is also found in the Lstd* 
Gl. : but there in a totally different sense — that of an unluckily clumiy penoii. A child. 



Ysj fome awkwardnot or carclcttnesa, upiels a table covered with crockery, and it at once 
greeted a» a * bumbU-kiU.' Kit« in Clevet. u&ually means betty, while bumble or 
bmnmel imports a bu/ziiig or huniming sound. But, then, bumhle-foot means a thick 
foot; bumhlt-iiaff, a thick staff: so that it is possible that in Bununel-klte there may 
be a refcfcnce to the foroi of the fmil, bellying or bulging all round. The simpler 
explanation is. that it refers to the effect produced, by eatinji; theni in sufHcient quantities, 
in the noouch of the cater ; namely, do little rambling, or buzamUnK. 

Btunbore, sb. The gad-fly (CEstrus dovis). See Bree. 

The prefix is the same as in bxuninel-bee, bum-clock. See Bum, bumiu'L The latter 
part of the word ii doubtless due to the piercing or boring process passed through when the 
ioMct's eggs are deposited, or, at least, to the perforation in the iktn in the WftrbloB. See 
Burtree, Bor'etreo. 

Bimch, V. a. To kick or strike with the foot or knee; (never applied 
to an animal). 

Pr. Pm. ' Bnncbon. Tundo, trudo.' Comp. H. Germ, pocbtn, L. Germ. 6ocinm, Dutch 
htukm, S. Jutl. br,%t, S. G. boha, hanka, Dan. banke, Welsh yshong. Possibly the Celtic may 
be the more direct source of our word. The t iu the Jutl. dialect has a somewhat guttural 
sound. Kok. Dantkt Folk-$p. S. J. p. 65. 

* He bynehtd me wir hit foot.' 

' Decan't thee coom na furdcr. or Ah 'U bnnch * addressed to a clegyman at the font in 
a Dale's church, by a juvenile candidate (!) for * Christening.' 

Bunch-clot, sb. An uncomplimentary name for a farm-labourer or 
his master, nearly equivalent to the south-country ' clod-hopiwr.' See 

BunB, bunnons. sb. The dry hollow stems of the cow-parsnep or 
bogweed {HtracUum sphondyliutn), and other like plants. 

A. S. bunt, a cane, reed, pipe. Jam. gives both hunvmnd and bunnertt as synonyms of 
the cow-parsnep. The 6rst is identical with our Bunnona, and the second is simply bun* 
or bunt-wnrt. The Sw. names of this and like plants at least suggest a comparison of 
them with out names and their A. S. original; viz. bjurn-Jtoka, the cow-parsnep, bjorn- 
ioka, the wild angelica {A. syivtstri*). Sw. D. names fur the last named plant are bjtn-ttut^ 
bjom-pipa, both uieaning bear-pipe or tube ; aiid for the former we meet with bjorn-ram, 
or bears-paw. It may be a matter of enquiry whether there is any real connection 
between A. S. buru and the prefix in all these words. 

Burden, v. a. (pr. bodden). 
too much work for given pay. 

I. To oppress, in the way of imposing 
2, To charge wth or impute to. 

1. • T highway nuaster boddtn'd t' men over sair wi' t' flints ; raaist part iv em had 
brakken mair *n tweea hund'cd ower mich fur a leead.' 

3. • Ah boddtn'd her hearily wi* 't (pregnancy) ; but the fteead me out she wara't* 

Burden-band, sb. A hay-band made of hemp; used to bind bundles 
of hay for conveyance by hand from one place to another ; as from the 
stack to the Byre, at foddering time. Comp. ' Bum-rope, a rope for 
carrj'ing a burden.' Hall, 



Bum, sb. A brook, a stream of water. 

A. S. burm, hyma ; Gad. Wrw. A word very little used in thU district. ' A hum' sayi 
Brock. * winds slowly along meadows, and originates from small tprings ; white a btek is 
formed by water collected in the sides of mounuins, and proceeds with a rapid stream, 
though never applied to riven thai become estuaries ;' a statement which is perhaps hardly 
borne out by facts. Strictly, the diffcTcnce is simply one of language ; and O. Sw. bntnM, 
O. N. bnmnr, &c^ are more sigtiiiicant (as Jam. remarks) of a well-head, or the water of 
it, than of tlie same water iu rapid motion away from the source. Comp. Rietz on Sw. D. 

Bumt-wino, sb. A preparation of port wine, sweetened and spiced, 
offered lo the guests at a funeral entertainment. Sec ArvaL 

Burr, sb. The stone or other obstacle placed behind the wheel of 
any vehicle going up hill, for the purpose of preventing its recession 
while the horse or horses stop for rest and wind. Properly the wooden 
cylinder or barrel-shaped object lAith which some waggons are furnished, 
and which Ls so arranged, by means of a spindle and chains, as always to 
roll in rear of the hind wheel 

Cf. Pr. Pm. ' Brrwbe. scrcle (burrowe). Orhievlus ;* which in the notes Mr. Way con- 
nects with Norf. burr, our Brough, adopting Jamicson's derivation, and adding that, 
probably, ' burr of a laocc, the projecting circular ring that protected the hand ; and also 
the burr o( » stag's horn, or projecting rim by which it is surrounded close to the head,' 
may Iw: referred to the same derivation: t. e to A. S. beorg, munimentum. Mr. Wcdgw., 
however, with more reason, cormccts the word burr turned m the note under mention — and 
our word is, 1 thiak. certainly coincident with it — as alto burr^ the flower-bud of hops, with 
Fr. bourgtCH, boutjon ; O. E. buriom, bourion, burjoum ; Engl, biirgton, the young bod or 
putting forth of a vine, a pimple on the face. Pr. Pm. form of the verb is burgyn, or 
hurryn, and the Lit. definition is gtrmino, /rondo, gemmo. The idea in JVtrrr = Broti^, 
is simply that of a ring or aimular disk, which applies but badly in the case of our present 

BuiT, V. a. To block or stop the wheel of a waggon or cart, when 
going up hill, by placing a stone or other sufficient object behind it, so 
as to prevent its going back. See Burr, sb. 

Burst, V. a. (pr. host), i. To break up into small fragments, lo pul- 
verise. 3. To break. 3. To bruise or crush one*s members badly. 

O. K. brata; Sw, and Sw. D. britta; Dan. brisit, to break, be broken, into fragmcnti 
And with a crash. Sec Hald. Comp. A. S. btntan^ Germ. briiStn, to bunt or be burit. 
The signification and the conjugation equally correspond with those of the ScAod. vcrt>s :^ — • 

Sw. andSw. D. britta: brast: brvtfi; broMte, brdsti^ hvuii. 

Dan. bhtie, braif, brv$f*n. 

O. N. brts/a, brast, brosHfi. 

Clcvcl. D. burn (pr. boit), brast, btirtt (pr. bou), brusttn (pr. brooutm). 

Comp. * BeaieS (w ant bin//1S ^ as his ibohle >rel.' Hali Mtid. p. 31. 

' With mighty mads they the bones to brnt* Knighft Tah, 2613. 



Him gunith neithir, for to get his life, 
VcNnit npward, ne downward laxatife ; 
AS is to bontin thilke regioun. 
Nature hath there no dominacionn.' lb. 3757. 
The knight stoode in the middle, and fought, 
tha,t It was great loy to see. 

till hit collaine brand brake in his hand, 

and his millaine knife biprtt on hts knee. 

and thai the danish axe bunt in his hand iint, 

that a sur weapon he thought shold be.' 

Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 69. 
I. * Oan thou an' boMt thae clots i' t' &r intak'.' 

* Aj, it wnr a noble pankin (cinerary nm). 'T 'war a shamm te bost it all i' bits.' 
a. * Thoo ni get thah head bnusm, ef thee deean't tak' heed.* 
3. * He 's getten his foot sairly brtustn wir* a wheel gannan ower it.' 
CC ' The ncighbouris alle, both small and grete. 
In ronne for to gawrin on this man. 
That in a swoune lay both pale and wan. 
For with that M he brostm hath his arme.' Miller's Tale, 718. 

BnrthiBtley sb. The spear, or spear-headed, thistle {Cntcus lanceo- 

CcHnp. Sw. D. bolm-tiutl; where the prefix bolm is expressive of ma^tude. It is ques- 
tionable whether the syllable frw originates in the idea of the resemblance betwem the 
blosHHn-head of the thistle and the ' bur* of the burdock (Dan. borre, O. Sw. borre, hard' 
borrt; Sw. kard-borrar, Sw. D. bwrar), or whether it is due to an equivalent to the bolm, 
bH, bol of the Swedish, and our £. bull. 

BouOc, sb. A low bush or tuft of a growing plant ; a single or de- 
tached growth, or Biuh, of a plant. 
Sw. bmke, a shrub ; O. N. bu$ir ; Dan. butk. 
> A Ling-^tu;^.' * SeaTe-6va,' &c. 

Butt, sb. The halibut {Hifipoglossus vulgaris). 

Pr. Pm, • But, fysche. Peettn: In a note Mr. Way adds, • Yarrell, in his Hi$t. of Br. 
FiibtM, obscrres that the flounder is called at Yarmouth a butt, which is a Northern term ; 
the name is likewise given by Pennant, but does not occur in the Glossaries of Northern 
dialect.' The tenn ii quite common in this district, applied as in the definition ; not to 
the flounder. 

Batter-BOot, butter-sootoh, sb. A superior kind of toffee or hard- 
bake, more butter being said to be used in its composition. 

Bozsnaokingy busknaoking, pcpl. Gossipping, tatding. 

ProbaUy a pedlar compound of two words of much the same signification. Hall, gives 
' fas, a report or mmoux,' and the phrase * buzzed about' is a common one. To knaok 
is to talk in an affected way, and may have had a l«s restricted meaning once. 

■ She 's in ao' oot f toon thruff, buzinacking aboot.' Wb. Gl. 

By-gang, sb. A by-way, by-road. See Gang. 

A compound precisely umilar to the Dan. bi'timt, leisure time ; bi-aarsag^ subordinate 
cause ; birwam, by-name, ftc. 


By muoh ; equivalent to ' by a good deal ;' as, — 

* There 's nit encogh B7 mUb* 

By now; equivalent to ' by this time;' as, — 

' Ah lay lie 11 be there by mam* 

Cf. * 1 1e get mf horse betimes in the mom, 

hy it be Dreak of day.' Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 4X. 
* I hold heri a grote she lykyt me not weyQe 
Be we pirte.* Tommel. Myst. p. 148. 

By-pasty adj. Bygone, passed by ; used in reference to past time. 

* At all times hypaxi: Wh, QL 

By the time; eqoivaliht to 'past or beyond the time;' fixed, 
namely; as, — 

« They V a Ung way fry iftc'r A^lh.' 

Byre, sb. The building, or house, in which the cows are tied up, or 
kept ; commonly, Cow-byT#. 

Oxnp. S. Q. bur ; O. N. frwr or bfr, &c, and its applicatioas : — S. Q. wefkbtir, a sleepcng- 
placc (' boz-bed' of North Britain)! faHAmr^ store-chamber; pmgfhi4mr, moiaat% apart- 
ments ; Dan. fiigU-bur^ tnrd-cagc, Ac, in all of which the use of the heMiaadmmi, which 
is implied in frttr is qualified by tlM pr«fiz. Collate Oow-bTTO wiik JmgU-btir, 

Cabi^jeen, sb. A cloak With a hood to it ; as worn by females many 
years ago. A corruption of Capuchin. 

Comp. also Sw. D. kalnaa, a furred hood for winter wear, with lappets to &1I down orcr 
the fiice and ears ; Dan. iabuds^ N. St ktAinu4food. 

Caddie, sb. Confusion, disarray, disorder : applied when the furni- 
ture, &c., of a room, or the house, are, or have been, undergoing the 
process of cleaning, and are not yet put back into their usual order. 

Comp. Welsh cad, striTtng, battle, tumult ; as also E. eoil with Gad eoUiad, stir, more. 
ment, noise; and it with goi/, boiling, ftmie, battle, fury. See Wedgw. 

Cadge, V. a. and n. i. To pick up and convey something portable; 
as com to the mill, parcels to their destination, &c. 3. To go about on 
such an errand as may furnish something to be carried : hence, to beg, 
to play the part of a * dinner-hunter.' 

This word is coincident with Sc. caeh*^ eaieb, codgt^ whidi bear the sense ■ to tosa, to 
drive, to shog.* Cf. Pr. Pm. ' Cacbyn away. Ahigo.* Jam. says, * the origin certainly is 
Tent. — katsen, httsen (cursare, curntart^ dtscvrrvrv, to run, or cause to ran about). 
Cf. Rouchi auber, Fr. cbmter, to hunt, ' from the 6rst of whidi we have E. eaieb' Wedgw. 


Stfll. HtMonen's rerb Uagga, to move as oi» cioei when carrying a burden, may pouibly 
suggest another dexiration. See Oad«er. 

* & aOe (>at) swypped an-sirol]ed of ^ sworde kene 
|>ay wer eaggtd ud kajt pn capelcs al bare 
& broody brojt to Babyloyn.' £. B. AUit. Po*mt, B. 1254. 
Id Sir Oaw. amd Or, Ki^, it is applied to going heavily, when the heaviness is that of the 
s|arit and not of a burden ; 1. 1792 : — 

• " pat is a worde," qno^ )>at wyjt, " ^at worst is of allc ; 
Bot I am swared for so^e, that sore me Hnkkej ; 
Kisse me now comly, and I shal each he}>en 
I nuy bot monme vpon molde, as may bat mucb louyes.** * 
I. * Ah aims he 's cadging for t' miller at Deeal-end.* 

3. * He niwer diz nowght t* addle 's meat : he nobbut cadgn aboot Ira spot t* spot, an* 
pQces oop ow^t he can.' 

Cadger, sb. x. A person employed by a miller to collect the bags of 
com (sec Baldiigs) set aside, weekly or oftener, by the several fanners 
in the country side, and to convey them to the mill, retiiming the flour 
on a subsequent cadging visit, a. Any person who habitually picks 
up matters — not over honestly, perhaps — and conveys them to another. 

1. 'What's thoo yan o* Willie M.'s eadgersT' said to one among some servants who 
were supposed to carry things, porloined from their master's house, to the W. M. in 

a. * Remember many years bygane. 

When he that ruled us right was slain ; 

Respect to Quality was lost. 

Tinkers and Coblers ruled the rost : 

The Nobles were the Commons' Cadgert, 

The Gentry but the Soldiers' Badgers.' jDCO^er. Dis. p. 36. 

Cal^ 8b. (pr. cauff). Chaff. 

A. S. MqA etf; Oerm. kaff; Dutch An/ &c. 

Cutty, adj. Worthless, mean. 

Caff-hearted, adj. Unprincipled ; of a mean, worthless disposition. 

Caggy, adj. Hi-tempered, ready to quarrel. 

Cf. Sw. D. iagg, a man of an evil disposition. It may be open to question if kagg^ in 
its tnm, be not a provincial form of karg, and through it derived from O. N. kargr, 

Calil. Pr. of Kyle. 

Caingy, adj. Peevish, ill-conditioned, snappish. 

Comp^ Sw. D. kangt, Hng". ^^^tr^ all with meanings more or less approximating to 
ours ; e. g. full of fun, wild, pert, petulant. Hall, gives cangt, to whine ; as well as eaitig^, 
a crabbed fellow. 

* As caitigy and cankery as an ill^lep'd cur.' Wb, Gl. 

M 2 



r Cake, v. n. To cackle, as geese do. The word is applied also to 
the uneasy -sounding cry uttered by a hen which wants to sit 

O. N. qvaita, Dan, iiK^te, to cackle as ge««. quack as duckt. do; alto, Sw. D. kaaiia, 
iiUa, kdkd; Norw. kokkt; N. S. kaitn: all mcauing to emit a high-pitched cry. 

Cake-oouplng, sb. An interchange of social visits, at which such 
refreshments as cake are consumed; tea-visits, &c. See Coup. 

Calf-bed. sb. The matrix of a cow. Comp. Foai-bed, &c. 

Call, V. a. I, To summon or cry to. 2. To scold, abuse, apply 
opprobrious and angr)* language to any one. 

Ill its firtt or ordinary Kiue this rb. is used with the prep, on or qf subjoined, as in the 
folkywing sentence : — ' Upon which, this informer cn/rf on her nustcr's daughter, who eaid 
0/ other people out of the roome below.' york Castli Dtf'OiitioHM^ p. 302. A woman with 
lier child in her armt. and seeing hrr husband out of the window, wQuld say to it« * Lookatcc, 
there 's daddj I Coil ov him, hoacy t call ov him t' 

Call of, call on. See under CalL 

Caller, adj. i. Fresh; of fish. 2. Cool, fresh, refreshing; of the 

Pr. Pm. ' Caivur as sanioon, or o^yr fysshe.' • Palsgr. renders it " cahitr of sanran, 
rscimw de tauhnon." This term appears to denote the stale of the lish freshly taken, when 
its substance appears interspersed with white flakes Ukc curd.' lb. note. 

Callet, V. n. To scold, to rail angrily. 

* They aaap and ealiU lOce a cooplc of cor dogs.' Wh. GL 

CaUet, sb. A scold, a railing, foul-mouthed, or impertinenl female. 

Wcdgw. gives * Callet, a prostitute,* adducing ' Gael, cailt, a girl, hussey, quean, strumpet. 
Kr. cailteile, fcmnic fnvole ct babiilardc.' It would be too much to say that OallOi does 
not mean prostitute in any case; for no doubt it Aoti, Still 1 think that a stotmjr, or at 
least loud, use of the tongue is th« leading idea in the word ; and unchastity not thought of 
in nine cases out of ten when the word is applied. Chaucer's eapiession. * A calat of leade 
deinemiiig,' sufhcietitly proves that lewdness was not the distinctive quality of a OftUat tn 
his time; and Shaksperc's * A callet of boundlessc tongue,' Winter'i Talt, Act H. Scene 3. 
is a telling description of a scold, and could scarcely have been intended to imply the grosser 
accuution : a remark which is equ.iUy valid touching btjth the passages in Henry III 
^ParU II and IIH. wherein the word occurs. Brock, gives • CalUt. to scnid ; calhtimg, saucy, 
gossiping ; a calUtmg housewife, a rcguhr scold.* Cr. Gl. gives ' CalUt, to rail ; enUettn, 
pert, saucy, gossiping ;' aud Wb. Gl. ' CalUt, to rail, to chide.' See also example to vb. CaJlet. 
The Fin. word kallotiaa, aUA voce ploro, ululo, seems to me much more nearly ^lied to 
our word than the Fr. word for quail (sec Wedgw.), or the words ralli. ealotr, which are 
merely designations of head-dresses. In fad. the wtwd ii most hkely a derivative from the 
same source which furnished uur call with its peculiar sense (to scold, to abuse), which is 
itself aiialngnu* to O, N. knilt, derision, mockery. 

Callety, oalletlng. adj. Scolding, quarrelsome, saucy. 


CalUng, 8b. Abuse, vituperation, a scolding. 

Calm, adj. (pr. cau'm). Mild, in contradisdnction to frosty or sharp. 

* " WdQ. I think H is lofteiiing a link, James.*' " Ay, Ah thinlcs it 't a btt eai^nur ;** ' 
ipokcn on a perfectly ttiU day, when a thaw appeared to be commencing after the coa- 
tinnaiice of a Stonn, or fit of serere weather, with snow, ksting ten or fifteen days. 

CSftlven-oov, sb. A cow which has not long since had a calf. 

Comp. Sir. D. kah4o, and Dan. ioMku, both with the same signification. 

Cam, sb. A ridge or long earthen mound ; a hedge-bank. 

O.N. ktimbr; Sv. kam; Dan. kam, ftc. Ihre'i remark is, *Saxones de vertice aggeris 
adUbere aolent ;* while the Dan. use is exactly equivalent to ours : kammm paa tn dige, or 
dj f Ann s. Cf. dikes comb: Om. and Ex. p. 73. 

. Cam, V. n. To form a bank, as for the purposes of enclosure ; to 
throw up a Cam. 

* It*s te nae gnid takkan yon bit o'moor in: why there's nae sods te earn wir;* the 
ioQ is to very poor, no sward hu ever formed. 

Cambrel, oambrll, sb. A somewhat crooked piece of wood, with 
three or four notches at each end, employed by butchers to keep the 
hind legs of a slaughtered animal apart, and at the same time to form 
a means of suspension. Spelt also oammereU, caumerill, gambrel, 

Wedgw. quotes Welsh camprtn, crooked stick, as the origin to which our word is due, 
and which sometimes is met with in the form eambrm. Comp. Ir, and Gael, cam ; Bret. 
htmm ; Fr. eambri, arched or crooked ; and also'cofn-, camow', or etanbtr-noud, crooked 
or hooked-nosed ; eanibrS or cammvrd, the hough of a hone ; eatiUteritig, of a ship's 
deck, Ac. 

* Soon crooks the tree 
That good canurii will be.' 

Oundtn't Remains, Proverbi; QU to Finch. Priory. 

* " As crooked as a gtmmtrU ;** of a deformed person.' Wb. Ol. 

Can, sb. A tin vessel or utensil, the particular use of which is desig- 
nated by a prefix. 

Molbedi explains Dan. iond* by * a drinkiDg-«up or vessel fashioned with lid, handle and 
lip ;* and then adds — * any other vessel which has some resemblance in form to a hmdt ; 
as vamd-hmdt^ water-can ; malkt'handet milk-can, &c. ; with which comp, our UUk-oao, 
W«t«r-oaii» a watering-pot, &c. 

Canker, sb. Rust; oxidisation on any metal, but especially iron. 

* Canker,* says Rich., * is canetr differently written. It is applied to anything that eats 
gnaws, corrodes, consumes ;' and is certainly singularly descriptive of the operati(m of rust 
or oxidisation upon iron. 

Canker, v. n. To rust, or corrode. 



Gankored, To be, v. p. To be rusted, or corroded. 

Cankered, cankery, adj. Cross, sour-tempered, out of humour. 

Sec Canker, sb. The tnuuition of idem from thr fretting effect of nut upon metAl, to 
the fretted condition of one*s temper, U both natunl and graphic. 

* Said they, '* wee had neuer >uch a cankered carle. 

Were ncucr in our conipanie." ' Percy "i Fol. MS. u 48. 

Canny, adj. i. Knowing, skilful, clever, a. Prudent, cautious, 
handy. 3. Well-suited, possessing evident or admitted advantages, 

This is 2 word of very frequent and varied application, wHch it is difficult to convey by 
dint of definition. Jam. alleges eighteen different tenses. I believe, however, the Uirc« 
given above may prove sufficiently incluiivc Brockctt't remark it, * It refers M well to 
the beauty of form, as of ixunners and morals ; but most particularly if used 10 describe 
those mild and affectionate dispositions which render persons agreeable in the domestic 
relatious/ But there are two words, sufficiently distinct in themselves, yet confoonded 
together, which must t>e noted before these remarks can become fully apposite; namely, 
oonny and oanny. The fomicr of these I take to be a near relative of the Danish kjmm, 
pretty. &c. ; but our present word to be analogoui to S. G. kunnog, Sw. htnmg^ Sw. D. 
konnu, O.N. Jhfnnugr, Old Oerm. kunnig, l>an. ItynHig; and through them to the several 
verbs whence they aie derived, O. Sw. and O.N. kuttaa^ Sw. D. kunna, &c. : in most, if 
not all of which, the idea of power as complementary to thxt of knowledge sceim to be 
involved. It is worthy of remark, that o&nny seems to be a word of comparatively 
recent growtli : it is not met with in Hampole or Touintl, Mytt., nor yet in Early Englith 
Allit. Po€ms, or in Gatv. and tbt Gr. Kny^: uid the earliest authority qnnted by Jam. only 
dates from 1715. Conandly, however, which is no doubt allied, occurs in Toumd, MyU, 
' Mervellc, nicthyiik, have 1, 
Where ever this bame has bene 
That carps thus conamOy' (p. 160). 

1 . ' A canny skeely man.' 

* As canny a workman as iwer Ah icc.* 

* A canny lasft at 't worth a better tfioi ;* a higher or better place or sitiution. 
3. ' A canny chap with horses.' 

* A canny au'd carle ; yan wunna get t* blin* sahd o' he.* 

* Gan canny, man I gan canny;' cautiously or gently. 
' A canny spot ;' of one's residence or farm. 

* A canny convenient house.' 

* Ah wish Ah 'd bin still at canny Vttton* (Aylon). Margery Moorpoot, 

Cannily, adv. Knowingly, cleverly; cautiously, moderately, gently; 
handsomely, suitably, fittingly. See, under Canny, the quotation from 
TiTttmcL Mysi. 

Cannyiah, adj. ' Canny' in a slightly modified sense. 

' A eannyish bit o* ground ;' c g. a fair^sized garden or farm. 
' She btow't him a can$tyiih lot o' gear :' of property. 

Canting, sb 

* Cant,' says Rich., ' It. inaantart . Ft. meant or mcflM/. An outrope oc oolcry of goods 

A S.T.1C by auction. 

' It. intantar* . Ft. meant or incnnt. 


(Cotgnre). From cantartt to procUim (a public tale), to sell.' Comp * borse-cbAnter/ 
a shuper who criei np the merits of a bad horse to the taking in of the unwary. 

Canty, adj. lively, cheerful, brisk. 

* This word,* says Jam., * is more modem than cant, and evidently is a derivative from 
it.* Kok, hoirarer, gives the Jutland ez[n%ssion kanit seg, to turn oneself in one's bed, 
as a first stq> in approach to convalescence ; and thence, he adds, kanter, fresh, brisk, hale, 
hearty after recovery from sickness >Bihw/cs, to be set up ou end; the metaphor being 
idendcaJ with th&t in Engl. * set up again.* Our word is nearly related to this Jutl. idiom 
and its general usage, implying a reference to some infiuimce naturally opposed to the qiiati- 
tics qiccified : such as age, trouble endured, sickness or privation endured. 

* She 's a etaUy an'd deeam for her years ' Wh. Gl. 

(In Norfolk, to cant is to set a thing up on edge. Note to Pr. Pm. p. 60.) 

Cap, v.a. To surpass or excel; to do that which cannot be sur- 
passed ; to astonish by some feat done or statement made. 

O. N. hppa^ contendere, certare ; S. O. and O. N. kappj certamen ; &c. The JuU. word 
ki^pi is a champion, one who strives successfully, outdoes his competitors ; and, like the 
other Scand words quoted or referred to, replaces an m with the first of its two p't (Kokt 
p. S4), which coimects our word with keznp, to strive for the mastery (which see) : only, 
in cap the mastery is suppcned to be obuined. The parallel forms ktppiy kempt^ occur side 
by side in the two texts, Lay^ ii. 4x3. 

' That caps owght that ivver Ah. beared ;' beats, or goes beyond. 

* Weel, Ah 's fairly capped ;* amazed, astonished. 

Cape-fltanea, oaping-atanes, sb. The several stones of which the 
Csping, as a whole, is composed. 

Capizig, sb. The uppermost or last course of stones in a wall, 
usually dressed to an angle, or perhaps in some cases merely rounded over. 

A. S. M^, eatppt; N. Sax. kop; Germ, kopf, * the prominent or uppermost part of a thing, 
top." Hi^icrt. Sw. Dial, k&pa^ the leathern pad forming the back or top portion in a set of 
hameu, affords a curious coincidence with our word. 

* Heo bits ikest sone adon, as ^ leste ston is from H tures eoppe ;' the coping of the 
tower. Anar. Riwlt, p. 228, 

Cap-nebbing, sb. The peak or front of a cap which projects 
forward. See ITeb. 

Capper, sb. One that is super-eminent, or easily superior to others 
of the kind ; of both persons and things. 

Caps, sb. That which cannot be outdone or surpassed ; occurring 
in the common schoolboy phrase, to set one his caps ; i. e. to propose 
some feat which he cannot hope to equal, much less to go beyond. 

In Chaacer*s description of the Mannciple, at the close, there is this line (Bell's CbauetTt 
i. loi):— 

* And jrit this maunciple sette hem alle her capp0 ;' 
to which is appended the note, * To set a man*s cap is to cheat him ;* the gist of the whole 
description, notwithstanding, being to shew the eminent superiority of the man described. 
Among his * moo than thries ten maystres,* * that were of lawe expert and curious/ 


* tber wer a doseyn in an home, 

Worthi to be sti'wardes of rent and lond 

Of any lord that » in £ngelond« 

To make him lyve by his propre good. 

In honour dettdes, but if he were wood ; 

And able for to helpen al a schire 

In any caas that mighte falle or faappe ; 

And yit this maunciple stftt h«m alU her eappti* 

codd set tham their ospa, ikilfnl and experienced as they were, in re^>ect of bnuness 

In the Mitter's Talt, the gist of which is to describe 

* How that a clarke hath set a wrightis capp* 
the meaning is * got the better of him/ by imposition, namely. 

Cap-Boreed, sb. The border or edging of a woman's cap. See 

Car, oarr, sb. A flat marshy piece of land under natmal herbage, 
usually lying at or near the foot of a bank, and, in that sense, low : not 
necessarily low otherwise. Generally used in the plural 

O. N. ktr, iidrr ; S. G. karr ; N. k;trr ; Dan. kar. Of the latter word Mon». says, * it is 
originally a Norse word, and is commonly used to express a tract distingnished by deptii 
of soil and burdened with accumulated water ; moM, on the other hand, mii^3ring a wider 
tract, whether wet or dty, possibly overgrown with scrub or trees, and more or las senrice- 
able for pasture. 

Car, oarr, sb. A small wood, or grove, of alders. Usually Alder- 
oar ; and, of course, growing on boggy soil. 

N. kjerrtt a small wood, or grove, especially of trees of small size; u cl^M^ftm^ alder- 
car, isttrijtm^ osier-ground. Current in Helgeland and North Trondhjem district. Aaten. 

Carberriea, sb. Gooseberries. 

This is the Northern equivalent of the German sAioM-AMrts prickle-plant, tod ^ 
first element due to the same root as goru = prickle-plant ; A. S. gatt O. N. jw-, a jarcUn, 
a pointed missile ; N. gar, garrt, a point, sharp piece of grass or heath. Wedgw. also 
quotes Fin. hurtt a borer; and A.S. fu^-, naw, nuf-^ or nafo-gar, an auger or wimble; 
to which add, Sw. Dial, gtrt^ a point; or pointed piece ; Old Germ, gir^ ktr^ a pcanted 
missile ; Sansc. cara^ caru, an arrow. The English gor*^ both vb. and sb., are very near 
relations ; while, as Teut. analogues of sb. gort^ and its sense, may be quoted Sw. D. 
gtrt or g*ra^ Dan. D. gare^ M. H G. girt, gur, Sw. gtrt^ g*rm, gairm. 

The latter words sapply the explanation of gttir in the * Jew's Daughter * and * Yoong 
Johnstone' ballads (Bell's Early Bailads, pp. 190, 173): 

* And she has ta'en out a Uttle penknife 

Hanging low down by her gtur ; 
She has twined the young thing of his life, 
A word he never spake mair.' 

* But young Johnstone had a wee penknife 

Hung low down by his gaarj 


Comp. Sw. D. sonlo^ff*, MkS r tt g trt, shirt- or smock-lappct, or * tails ;' snd in the 
O. Dan. TnnsUtwn of the Bible, 1550, Hag. li. 13, 'If any one bear holy flesh in the 
skjrt of hU garment, and with his skin do touch bread, &c./ it stands * Om nogm beer 
htOi^ kdd i am kjartd gtre^ oe rordt nden nut utrnnu gtre, brod^ &c,* In Luther's Bible. 
also» the words are, * m scoms kltuUs gtrm' Molb. Ikauk. GUmar, 

(ted-up, V. a. To sweep up and make neat or tidy ; applied to the 
fire-side, and consisting in the process of removing or shovelling up the 
fidlen ashes. 

8L O. kara, to cxXkcU to sweep together. Ihre gives an example of the use of this word 
which kares no doubt as to the correctness of our derivation : kara eld under grytan^ to 
gather together the scattered coals under the pot. Sw. D. brannd-kan^ brannd-tkra^ means 
ibit oreo^nke for withdrawing the hot coals or embers from the oven. Comp. our Asa-oaard. 

CarkiBg, adj. i. Anxious, apprehensive, discontented, a. Careful, 

It would almost seem that there are two vocables instead of only one — one of Germ., 
die other of Northern affinities— here : A. S. earc, care ; eearig, careful, anxious ; O. Sax. 
mod-charagf sorrowful, for the first definition ; and for die second, O. N. Itttrgr, energetic, 
pij^JiieBded, graqring; Dan. hurig^ grasping, niggardly; Sw. D. karg^ (i) industrious, 
(3) keen, (3} greedy; which latter word Rietz connects with the vb. hara^ to collect or 
tweq> together, to scrape up : a phrase, by the way, often used of greedy money-^therers. 
Wcdgw. also adduces W. carcus^ solicitous ; Fin. karkds, greedy ; words which help to shew 
that our flff^^Hng is a word of very wide relationships. 

Cf. ' Christ bad them be both simple and slie 

And earke not for no cattell.' Plowman** TaU, p. 180. 

Carl, sb. A country fellow, a clownish person : often with the idea 
of age associated. 

O. N., Sw., Dan., M. G., kari; Germ, keri; A. S. carl, a male, man, married man, old 
matt, serrant man, Sk. : the idea of a male human being being the leading one. Wb, Gl. 
states that carl is a term ofiten * meeringly applied to both old men and old women.* Comp. 
Pr. Pm. * CarUt or eberit^ bondeman. or woman ;* as also the parallel forms in the extract 
following, which occur repeatedly in the same page : — 

* Whan these kynges herde the wordes of the j^ll thei be-heelde the oon the tother, and 
than thei seiden. What deuell who hath tolde this cbtrUV Merl. p. 168. 

CarlingB, sb. Grey peas steeped all night in water and fried the 
next day in fat or butter. 

They are eatoi on the Fourth Sunday in Lent, which is called Carlizig Bundsy, the other 
Sundays in Lent having also their own peculiar designations, preserved in the old rhyme, — 
* Tid, mid, miserS, 
Carlmg, palm, and paste^gg day.* 
The custom is still so far retained that bags of grey peas, specially provided to meet the 
demand, may be seen in the country shops as the day draws on. It is difficult to come to 
any conclusion with respect to the origin of this word. It is certain that the Fifth Sunday 
in Lent was called ' Care- or Carr^unday ' from a remote time. Ihre quotes Karusunnu- 
dag as the name of the Sunday in question, and gives one explanation of the name thus : — 
* Lundius derives it from kara or tiara, fluid pitch or tar, with which folks are wont to 
daub their doors in the sign of the cross.' Another authority — * Vetus interpres Evangeli* 
omm' — is then quoted, who sutes that this Sunday has its name from the charges {karo- 
mtdomyn) and purposed proceedings against Jesus Christ framed by the Jews, as recorded 



in the Oospcl of thu dty. and which they brought to full effect in His dcath-pauton on 
Good Friday. 

Again. Hofpinian states that the Gennait lunies Kamvwhen and Karrfrtytag, for 
Pastion Week anil Good Friday, depend upon the German word karr, wluch signifies a line 
or prnalty Tor an offence committed, or rather a satisfaction or atonement in lieu of such 
pciiahy. Besides these three suggestioiii as to the [wssible meaning of cor* ot carr in 
the name in question, Ihre adds, and in reference to Marshall's statement, that * Carr- or 
Care-Sunday' was not unknown lo the English, that he does not fed certain the word 
should not be referred to some other iiource, such as gara, preparation, or karot grief, 
concern. Yet again : a word cbara Jn ttie sense of ftralia is adduced from SchiUcf's 
7%*untnii, and having reference to ' crimina et scelcra, quv, pauain languinis irrogantia, 
cfhciebant ut homines malefici novft ponipa morli duccrcntur.* From aII of which \\k 
suggestions of an origin fur care or carr only one thing is apparent, and that is. that 
the said origin is utterly obscure and uncertain. Next, it would seem thai the Fifth 
Sunday in Lent was sometimes called ' Carle Sunday.* as well as * Care- or Carr-Sonday.' 
aiKl eventually, at least, ' Carling Sunday ;* and the question is, whether the Sunday so 
called took its name from the Carllngs. or the Oarlings took theirs from the Sunday. 
In the first place, there is no evidence and no analogy to connect carling with can or carr, 
whichever of the significations abtivc adduced be selected : all analogy is against such a 
connection. The eridcnce on the other side is scanty and not very consistent, In the old 
Scottish song, * Fy I let us all to the BriJdcl,' quoted in Sir H. Ellis* BrantTi Antitpuiist, 
and by jam., where mention is made of ' Carlings both sodden and ra,* it is apparent thai 
grey peas are called carlings before they are cooked. The Lecdt Gl., however, nukes x 
vb. of carl : a vb. which describes the processes that go to make up the cooking. It ^ves 

* Carlcd peas ; grey peas, tteepcd all night in water and fried the following day with butler. 
Often a sulistitule for garden peas.' The prubability seems to be, that Carlinc* is an old 
popular name for grey peas, perhaps in reference to their old-fashioned homeliness : and in 
ihe like spirit to that which in North Britain calls the last handful of com cut In a late 
harvest the earlimt; and, in Sweden, a dish of potatoes peeled before they arc boiled, 
kdrringa-bagg : harrmga being nictdy another form of kdlliMg, and that of karling or 
ktFrtitig, the original of Scot, carlint. The contiection of peas, as a viand, with the Fifth 
Sunday in Lent is another matter ; like that of pancakes with Shrore Tuesday, nr cross- 
bum with Good Friday : but being so connected. Car^umday might ea^ly pau into 
CfjrlimgSunday. and then the verb rnW be mistakenly coined from the noun. 

Carry, sb. A kind of waggon with solid floor but unplanlced sides; 
these being, usually, only rails. Used for carting stone, wood, &c., and 
also in hay and harvest-time. 

O. N. ktrra ; S. G. kirra ; Dan. eorrv, &:c., a car or rude carriage. 

Casings, cassons, sb. The droppings or dung of animals dried for 

fuel. Also written cazzona. 

O. N. ko$, a little heap : kaui. to pile in a heap ; S. G. kau, congeries, acerras : iaprimis. 
ligtraruni virgultoniroquc ; Sw. D. km, it-as/, a small hop of dried cattlc-druppings, used by 
poor people in districts where wood is scarce, for burning Hence also, Sw. D. and Dan. 
ko-^ast, cow-droppings. Molb., however, simply detinet ko-ia*e, as the round or dtsk4ifce 
heaps in which cowdung falh. Probably Rtetz is the more accurate. 

The Pr. Pm. word is canard, explained by * Netci donge : P. caien ;* and the note, 

* ** Catiiigs, stcrms siccum junicntorum, quod paupcret agri Lincolnicnsis ad utum foci colli- 
gunt ; a Tent, koth, limus, q. d. cothingt," Skinner.' The derivation is mistaken : but the 
further remark that * it is still the usage in the ncigltbouthood of Lyun to anploy cow-dung 
for fuel * t» worth noticing. 


Oaamit kenen, (Pr. of oasten, p. p. of to oast), i. Thrown down ; 
03 applied to an animal, a horse or bullock, e. g., which has fallen,- or 
been thrown, and is unable to rise again, a. Added up ; of an account 
or bill, for instance. 

Caaaen-bearted, oaaBon-hearted, adj. Out of heart, dispirited, 
cast down; as being without energy, spirit, or hope. 

Poiiibly, aumn-itarUd, with nearly the sen»e of doum-caum^ or down-b*arttd. Still, 
Acre is abnndftnt rode energy in the metaf^or eaxzon-htartid^ possessing a heart with no 
mofe pln^ or pith than a dot of dried dung, to make it a probable word. 

Cast, sb. A twist, a distortion or deflection from linear directness. 

A meaning which has resulted, no doubt, from many adaptation! and transitions of seme 
m Ae wOTd as at first used. At an early period to eiut was used in the sense of to wntrimt 
dtmtt fiam; as in these lines from E. E. AUit. Potnu^ p. 81, 1. 143 : — 
* Salamon sete him leuen ^ere and a sy)»e more. 
With aOe ^ syeoce )at sende )>c soaerayn lorde, 
For to compas and luu to haf hem clene wrojt.' 
And Oarti sb. in Um same way meant a derice, stratagem, wile or trick : 
Caaxp, * And comaimd^ me to ^t cortays, your comlych fere 

^at bns hor kny^t wyth bor heU han koyntly bigyled.* 

Oaw. and Or* Eh. 2411. 
•lw>r * This is a good gyse and a far east; 

Yet a woman aryse helpys at the last.' Towrul, Mysi. p. 107. 
Comp. also Sw. D. koMt, a trick, a deceit. 

At line 3376 of Sir Oawayn the word appears in, it would seem, a very similar meaning 

* JVmne he ka^t to >e knot, and >e htsi lawsej :* 
i. e. tilt twist, or interfolding of the knot, with which a certain girdle was fastened. 

Cast, V. a. I. To lay aside for a season, as warm or winter clothing 
when sonuner weather comes ; or entirely, as clothes that are worn out, 
a crutch which has been used during temporary lameness, &c. 2. To be 
sick, to vomit. 

Pr, Pm, * COMtyHt or brakyn (as man owt the stomack). Vomo, evomo.' 
I. * . . . . Never think to east a clout 

Until the month of May be out.* Wb. Ol. 

Cast, To be, v. p. To be warped, or have got a twist, or deflection 
from straightness. 

Cast up, V. a. and n. i. To mention a matter, in the way of re- 
proach or upbraiding, to another. 2. To happen, befall, turn up. 

Cat-oollop, sb. Cat's meat ; more particularly applied to that which 
consists of parts of the inside of other animals. See CoUop, 

Ctet-gaUowB, sb. The two uprights, with a cross-stick, set up by 
boys to jump over; jiunping-bars. 

N 2 



Cat-hBWflj sb. The fruit of the hawthorn [MtspUui oxyacanthus). 

The prefix of cat in ihis and lome following words may be comp. to the like prefix fn 
KTcral Sw. Prov. namrs of planti: e.g. kaaa-stm^a, cat-booti, the primroftc; katt-bailar, 
cat-balls, gcuiii Hvale : hatt-hlokhor^ cat-belU, campanula, &c. 

CattijugB, sb. Hips; the fruit of the Cat-whin or dog-rose, 
Cat-Bwerril, sb. The common squirrel [Sciurus vulgaris), 
Cat'fl-wholpB, sb. Kittens, tlie young of the cat. See Kltllns. 

Cat-trail, sb. The great white Valerian ( Vakri'atta officinaiis) ; or, 

rather, the root of it. 

' The root, particularly when the plant grows in dry places, hat a very peculiar dkagtee- 
able odotir, and affords a medicine of consilkiable value. Cats are so fond of it as to be 
almost intoxicated by it into outrageous playfulocu.* lahtaloat't Botany of B0indk^m- 

Comp. Sw. D. hatlt-Uka, a name for the same plant. 

Cat-whin. sb. (pr. catchin). The dog-rose {Rosa cam'na); or perhaps, 
as generally applied, any of the varieties of the common wild or hedge- 
rose : Marshall says, the Burnet rose {Upsa spinosissima), 

Cauff. Pr. of Caff, for Chaff. 

Cauff-riddling, sb. A practice, in some instances still observed, of 
riddliug tluIT on St. Mark's Eve, with the view of deriving auguries or 
]>rosagcs of ihe approach of death to persons connected with the 
riddlers, whether by family or vicinit}', or possibly to tlie fiddlers 

The Hiddle is fnied with chaff, the scene of operations being the bam Boor with 
both bam<doors set wide open ; the hour is midnight ot )ust before, and each person of the 
party takes tlie riddle in succession and riddles the ct-ntenis. Should no appearance pre- 
sent itself durini; the action, death is not imminent to thr person opctiting, nr to his friends. 
But, on the other band, the appearance of a funeral procession, or even of persons simply 
bearing a cuflii], it a certain augury of death, either \o the thra ridiUer himself, or aoine one 
near to him. Sec Aaa-riddliug, Hark«-een. 

Causey, causeway, sb. i. A narrow paved path or trackway; often 
leading directly across the moors, a. A flagged path by the side of ihe 
road ; for the use of foot passengers. 

The first are the relics of ihc horse- or bridle-roads which, almoit into the present 
century, were the only means of getting into or out of the ' Dales.* Many of these hare 
been worn out and never replaced, nr have been taken up. and others arc nearly or quite 
overgrown by the ling and other moor-heibage, so that it is only by the revelations afforded 
by a moor-imck. or a moor-current in wet weather, that their position and general direction 
can be ascertained. In the ume way. the houses of call to accommodate the trains of 
loaded horses and their drivers, which used to traverse these wild roads, have, in aevrral 
Instances, disappeared ; while others only preserve any memorial of their fonncr purpose in 
Mtmc disiincuve appclUtion. which tu the present generation ha* lost its signjhcai>ce. 
See Fumier-mui'a Oiktuay, BoU*house. These tnuHy\ are prolably of ttrj ptax 


utiqiiity: becaiue, while they of oeceuity tend, on other tide of the Esk. to the sites of» 
if not to the ictually eKiiting. sin^e-aiched, high-pitched, narrow, picturesque Bow- 
bridgefly aO of which date back to the commencement of the fourteenth century or earlier, 
and which, it is TCfy erident, were only reared in anticipation of horse>traffic ; still by the 
aide of each of these tnidges there yet exists a ford, or "Wsth (often regularly pared or 
floored with slabs of stone evcn^ set), together with a set of Beok-ctOttM : both of them 
concomitants which snrdy testify to a regular passage of the river at those q>ots at times 
anterior to the omstroctioo of the bridges, and therefore to settled means of crossing the 
cou n tr y to the spots in question. Cf. * There was a causeway at Lynn leading to Gaywood, 
on which was situated die Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, and among the benefactors to 
the Hospital of St. John Baptist occurs Ufketel, "flius sanctimomali$ dt SetringtSt" who 
grants ** tatmn ttrram in Lituu mptr caUetam" Mon. Ang. ri. 648/ Note to Coimw- 

WQT* xV. JtIS, 

CesSy sb. Rates, laid and levied for parish purposes. 

* Cess, a tax. For s«ss fn»n asuK^ but spelt with a c from the influence of the Latin missa, 
the rating of Roman citizens according to their property. Fr. mmmt, to rate, assess, tax, 
value.* Wedgw. The different kinds of rate are distinguished as 

Ohnroh-oeM, sb., the church-rate ; 

Ooimt7-oeM, sb^ the county-^ate ; 

Hi^way-ooHi sb., the rate for the maintenance of the roads ; and 

Poor-OMH^ sb., the poor-rate. 

Cens, V. a. To rate ; to apportion the relative payments to be made 
by many persons to a common fund. 

Ceas-getherery sb. The collector of any of these rates. 

ChafiC^ V. a. i. To banter, to address playfully-provoking language 
to another. 2. To use intentionally irritating, or higUy provoking terms, 
likely to lead to resentment ; to quarrel outright. 

KAf, insnltns ludicrus ; hdfa^ ludicre insultare ; Hald. Wedgw. also alleges Dut. kefftti^ 
to jrap, to bark; also to prattle, to chatter; Wall, ebaftter^ to babble; Germ, haff, idle 
words, impertinence. Comp. O. N, kafa uppa, provocare ; Sw. D. 6pp-haftig^ Sv^aftig, 
fauolent, impertinent, * chaffy.* 

Chaff-bone, sb. Jaw-bone. 

Chaffisr, v. n. To interchange testy or irritating remarks, to use 
mutually provoking language. The word implies something short of 
a serious quarrel. 

Pt. Pm. ' CbaffhryH. Ntgocior, nure<ar* 

* fro galaad men wilS chafart 
Sag he 'Sor kumen wiS spices ware.* Qtn. and Ex. p. 56. 
Both vb. and sb. are very common in O. E. See the etymons under Chap, Chapman. 
The idea in our word is of the altercation which often accompanies bargain-making, the 
irae sense of the word being allowed to drop com[detely out. 

Chaff-fSoUen, adj. (pr. chaff-fawn). Chop-fallen, dispirited, dejected. 

Cha£%, chafte, sb. The jaws. 

O.ti.kjafir^kjaptr; S.G.imft; Vzvk.hjaft; Sw.hdft. The Danes appear to make 
a distinction between itjttft and kjtrvt : thui, «n kjafi bar to kjavtr, one mouth hath two 
jaws. Also, the rulgar use of the word ii like that of our Chap, in the seiue of penoa; 
aieg en ^afi, never a soul or per&oa. 

* Poor au'd joscy 's getten hii cha/tt tied up ; L e. is dead.' Wb. GL 

Chambor, sb. (pr. chaumer). An upper room: i. In a house; a 
bed-room. 2, In a stable or other building; a loft: as, for instance, 
'Hay-chamber,' 'Apple-chamber,' &c. 

Wcdgw. quotes Fr. cbamhre, besides Lat. and Greek etymons. The word appears, how- 
CTer, in all the Teui. tongues, and could scarcely come to us in the North vi4 cither Lat. or 
Fr.. especially if it be, as is reasonably assumed, nearly allied to Celtic camm or cam, O. N. 
k<ontr$. S. G. kammar, Sw. kammert, Dan. kammer, &c. The ordinary meaning, more- 
over, is that of a small room-space, or chamber, off, or subsidiary to, a Urge apartment. 
Thus in the Knlencc. ' en ttor stve mtd ti kammir vtd tidtn* the relation of ■ chamber' to 
'apartment* is shewn. Molb. quotes t)ie following sentence: ' Enhver Out og ttkvtrt 
kamtrur rr ti vareist' (room or apartment), ' mtn m ttu4 fr et itarrt xterdtt ; W kammtr er 
tt mindrt. Man siger baade paa o^ i et kamm^ ; men altid htn i en tlue.' Comp. * Let 
us make a little chamber, I pray thee, on the wall :' a Kings iv. 10. Coinp. also Dan. bo^- 
kammer. ffige-k., spiM>Jt^ krvd-b., &c. The idea in our use of Ohamber is exactly coind- 
dent with that in the Danish usage. 

Chanoe-baim, sb. An illegitimate child. See Come-by-chance. 

Changed, adj. i. Having begun to turn sour; of milk. 2. Having 
begun to shew symptoms of approaching, or commencing, decompo- 
sition ; of a dead body, or meat. 3. Somewhat intoxicated. 

This if rather a curious instance of adaptation of sense, in the case of a sundard word. 

Chap, V. a. To knock, rap. 

* Chap. Chip. Chop. These are forms baring a common origin io the attempt to 
represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies, or the cracking of tMic, the 
thinner vowel / being used to represent the high note of a crack, while the broader voweU 
a and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of hard bodies. Sc ebaf, to 
itrike. as to chap handi, to ebap ai a door. — Jam.* Wedgw. To me it wonld appear pro- 
bable that there may be a strong affinity between our word Ohap and the Dan iiappe, to 
strike, to drive with a stick : of course with a free use of the stick understood. This is 
a derivative frum the sb. kjep, z staff, stick, switch ; and this from O. N. ktppr, Sw. biipp, 
Comp S. Q. kappla at kippia, badllo os obturare; and Oire suggests that M. 6. haupatkom^ 
to inflict strokes, may belong to the same root. 

Chap, sb, A customer or purchaser ; or, more generally, a dealer. 

O. N. kaupi: Sw. kopare; Dan. k;9btr ; Sw. D. kdpe, a buyer, purchaser. 

* Ah ha'e some bacon to sell. Canst 'ce ftimd me a chap for 'L.* tVh. GL 

Chap, sb. Any male person : of very various application. 

O. N. kittftr; Sw. lei//; Dan. kjafi. Sec. Comp. Dan. ikke em kjafl, ukxcx a soul or per- 
son ; Sw. D. bvt^ dveliga kii/i : bvor tvigt ka/t, every individual soul ; ba Jdmm int 'h kafi 
b*yfit ' he fotuid nobody at home. It is scarcely necessary to notice that, allowing for the 


or&ury intoditage of j^ and/, B.ii«^ month, jaw, the cored ondeijaw of t pi|, Scand. 
kjafty with its ClereL analogue OhAfl or Ohaft coincide. precisely. Comp. eq>ecially, the 
S. JutL. form l^^ft, Dnder-jaw, in opporitioa to JUimAm, upper-jaw. 

Chi^ittaii, sb. X. A dealer ; one who enacts the part of a merchant, 
but in small matters only; one who bays and sells indiscriminately; 
a pedlar or hawker, a. A distinctive nune applied to horses of the 
Qeveland breed. 

0,fJ. kaiipmtuir; S.Q. iofmm; Sw.D. kobman; Dul iMmomf ; A.S. ceapmtms 
Qam, hamfmam, ftc. 

* Ant, nis he fol eb*pmom ^, bwon he wule bnggtm hors o'Ser cum, |if he nole biholden 
bot M heaued one?' Atur. RiwU^ p. 308. 

* Full many a dranght of wine had he ydraw, 
Fro Bnrdeux ward while that the Cbaprnm slept.' 

Pral, Cant, TaU$; TTit Shifmwn, 

Obar, V. a. To chide, to use querulous language to an offender; 
also, ' to bark at' Wh, GL 

O.'N.k^ara; S.O. il<era; O.Dan. Jhsr«; Dan. I«r«; Sw.D. karate ftc, to complain, 
to be qoenilous, &c See Ohnxr. In Pr. Pm. we have * CUncbytt a-jen (in wraw s{»che) 
or cbaneiTn a-jen for prowde heart. Ohgarrio,' and the iu>te, ' CbaveryH may be hens the 
same at eharyn, or ^ryiuro^^, which occurs prerioiuly.' But for the Latin eiqdanation by 
uUOt there could be Uttle doubt 

ChasB, sb. (Pr. of chase). Haste, hurry. 

CShaas, v. a. To follow, walk after a person or thing. 

* Ah's bin eboMtin' t* harras roaist o* t' daay;' been busy harrowing the land. 

CbatB, chatts, sb. Cones of the fir-tree. 

S. G. hat*, strobilus ; Sw. taU-kotttt pine-cone ; gran4toUit ^mice-fir-cone ; Sw. D. hotti, 
the same. See Wedgw. in rr. Cbatg, Cbit, huteul of the meaning given above, Marshall 
gives, * Keys of the uh and maple ; also the catkins of the hazle.* 

Ghaody-bag, sb. The stomach of an animal ; that part into which 
the various food-matters are received for the purposes of digestion. 

There may be some doubt as to the origin of tfafs word. Jam. quotes jaudit^ in his 
SupfUmtmtt as having for its primary meaning the stomach of a hog : its derived meaning 
beut^ a sort of pnd^ng or luggis made in such sttHuach, and then, a pudding generally. 
Halt quotes ebandron^ chaldrons^ cbaun^'OH, cbawdtenut forms which do not harmonise too 
well with the etymons alleged by Jam., viz. C. B., * gwaedogen^ omasum, a fat tripe ; Ann. 
guadtCf a pudding ; guadtgtn kig mmuit a haggis.' 

Ohavel, ohaTle, v. a. To chew slowly and imperfectly, as a person 
does whose teeth are gone ; to mumble. 

A. S. CHtfi; Semi-Sax. cbtuiU; Dan. kiavt^ the mouth, jaws, or cheeks ; A. S. etovtUt to 
chew. Fr<Hn the motion of the jaws, or ebawU$t a word used in the account. Early Eng. 
AUii. Poems, C. 1. 368, of Jonah's reception into the whale's betly— 


* And Hwe in at hit Kote with-ontoi ^ret more. 
As mote m at a mmuter dor, so mnkcl wem bis ^bawiti.' 

Comp. * C3tav^-bem$ or duwl-bone.' Pr. Pm. ; and alio Dan. kfavU, Sw. D. ktifia, to 
tcaHAt revile, &c., both descriptiTe of the motum of the jaws in the act desif^ted. 

Cheep, V. n. To cry as a young chicken does ; or as a young grouse 
or partridge. Applied also to the notes of other young birds, or to any 
sound resembling these notes. 

Sw. D. Uft to pqie or squeak ; of chickens and birds in general. Comp. O. N. kiypa, to 
cry as a te»\ does, or as children ; * Lith. aypti, to cheep like a chicken, or squeak like 
a mouse.' Wedgw. 

' Nu hi (a pair of lorers) cbippi^ and cussep 
And make> togadare muchel blisse.* Flmiy and Blawuhtfiur, p. 66. 

Oheeper, sb. A young partridge or grouse, before it has attained its 
growth and powers of flight, and whose cry of alarm is acuter than that 
of the full-grown bird. The ' squeaker' of S. England. 

Cheese-oake grasB, sb. The common bird*s-foot trefoil (Lotus car- 

Gheese-lop. See Eealip. Other forms are Cheelip, Oheslop- 

Ohet» sb. Pap, soft food prepared for infants. 

I hare met with this word only in Wb. Ol. If a word of more than local coinage, or if 
it hare more than a merely modem existence, it may be allied to Sw. D. kdta^ «dAi, to 
mince, cut fine with a knife or the like, in reference to the finely ccHwninuted state of the 
solid ingredients of the prqwred food designated. 

Child-bed, sb. The matrix or womb in a woman. 

Childer, sb. Children. The still-preserved plural of child. Comp. 
brether, old pi. of brother. 

* Eiau. Wdcome, brother, to kyn and kythe, 

Thi wife and ebUdrt that comes the with.' Towiid. Mytt. p. 48. 
* His awen diosen ehildyrt* Rd. Puca, p. 31. 

Chimpings, sb. Grits, oatmeal of a coarse description or only 
roughly ground. 

Prolnbly nearly allied to Ohninp, a lump or knobby piece cut off a larger. Comp. 
Sw. D. himpa, to cut smaller lumps from a larger ; htrnpingt the pieces cut. 

Chip, V. n. To crack or begin to break : i. As the hands or Ups do 
in cold weather or when imperfectly dried. 2. As the egg-shell does 
when the hatching-stage is just begun. 

There is probably a rery near connection between this word and our ObM^, to knock or 
rap : the one, that is, the crack, being the result of the other, that is, the blow. Comp. Tent. 


idfpmt cndere, icere ; and Dot. kippen^ lame meaning, and aUo, to bateb. This it Jamie- 
son's riev ; Wedgwood's being that chip is one of those words which depend upon sound for 
tbeii oripn. 

Chip Up ; ohipi»ed up. To be^ v, n. and p. To trip or be tripped 
up, as by die foot catching against a stone, or other obstacle, in walking 
or ninning. 

See To Cl^p. The idea here also would seem to be that of striking, and with a short, 
shaip contact. But the occurrence of such a phrase as the following — mafSr kipti f6tum 
wtdrn BdHii ma at banrnfeU^ the man tripped Bardr up so that he fell, leads us at once to 
O. N. bippa^ which is explained by Hald. by raptare. Sw D. kippa^ besides the meaning, 
to totter, to be unsteady, also has those of, to slip one's shoes on hastily and imperfectly ; 
and, to go slip-shod. And the adj. kipped means to be unsteady, ready to fall. In these 
w<nds again, the fint idea seems to be of hasty contact, as in the act of snatching, catching 
op hastily. 

Chisel, ohiBsel, sb. Bran ; the coarser portions of the husk of the 
wheat-grain, dressed out after grinding. 

A. S. etoadf eeosl; Dut. kesel; Germ kits, gravel, coarse sand, sand. A transference of 
sense to the coarse parts of the rougher matters resulting from grinding gives our word. 
Cf. * In Norfolk, chizzly signifies dry and harsh under the teeth, which Forby derives from 
Teut. bituU, gluma. The Lot. Engl, Voeab. Harl. MS. looa, f. 147, gives among " perti- 
ntneia pittrinit Camti^frum, Anglici chycelle," ' Pr. Pm. note to * Ciystl, or grauel.' 

Chitterlings, sb. The small entrails. 

CcHnp. ioteUnt intestina, quoted by Ihre as current * apud Silesios ;* Qerm. kuttel, Belg. 
tebyUrUng (quoted in Cr. GL), Wcdgw. makes ' cbitler^ to chirp or twitter, then to shiver/ 
the origin of the word. Ihre refers it to the same root as Sw. kott^ O. N. hjott &c., flesh. 
Cf. * Let us hare trypis. chitterlyngis, and tryllybubbys (see TroUebobs) ynough,' 
Pr. Pm. note to Ci^^lyngi. 

Cholter-headed, adj. Thick-headed, stupid, dull of apprehension : 
another form of ' jolter-headed.' 

Wedjir. thinks that *Joult'bead, or jolter-btad comes from the notion of wagging the 
head to and Iro. and not from the idea of thickness.* Possibly ; but still from the notion 
of the head being moved or jolted, scarcely 'wagged,' about on account of its great weight, 
size, or disproportion ; as in the case of an idiot's head, which is often of abnormal size, lies 
over on one shoulder, and. if moved at all, is moved with a sort of jolt, or uneasy roll or 

Chop, V. n. To cut or break in abruptly upon the course of man or 
animal ; to cut across one. 

* C3fOp ayontl' — to a sheep dog = run ahead of and across the flock. * Cbop amelll* run 
in amidst the flock. 

Chow, V. a. To chew. A mere vocal change of the standard word, 
as in the Pr. yow, = (i) ewe ; or (2) you. 




Chucky, sb. A chicken, a hen. Of most frequent use, in the plural, 
in speaking to children, or by children themselves. 

PiobiUy due to the note or maDoer of calling domestic fowb. Comp. 
' And with that word he flew dowtie from the b«nie. 
For it was day. and eke (he hennit all. 
And with a cbuekt he gan hem for to call.' JVomif'i Priet^t TaU, p.l7l> 

Ohimter, v. n. To murmur, to complain or be qtierulous; to mutter 
or continue speaking half inaudibly, like one not disposed to give up 
a dispute. 

Hall, giret ehut$d$r and ehvnner a» other forms of this word; and according to CV. Gt. 
' Mr. Wjlbraham refer* the latter word to A. S. ceonian^ obmurmunirc.* But that word 
Kcnift only to be a mistake or mttprint for cnrian ; and if otherwUc, though ebumner may 
be a TDcal rariation of cb^tndtr or cbunter, the convcrM is not true. It is at least not 
Unpoisiblc that as the Dan. kjavit is a derivative from kja-ft or kj<gve, and cxpretsive of the 
motion of the parts in question in the act implied in iyttvit (tee OhSTOl) : and as 
O. N, bjnpttt means to work the jaws, and Jutl. hjabM (the exact equivalent, in scose, of our 
clutvel^i the unic, in point of action, su ohlintor inav originallj have been a derivative 
huin Sw. or S. O. kwd. or some of iu etymons, and have been used to imply the iDotion of 
ibc lower iaw observable in a muttering, discun!aited person's action. 

Church-priest, sb. A clergyman of the Church of England: in 
contradistinction to the R. C. priest, or the travelling preachers of the 

Churlish, adj. (pr. chollos*). i. Ill-natured, ungenial; of persons. 
2. Ungenial, cold, rough, bleak; of the weather, or wind. 3. Cheerless, 
rugged ; of a look out, or a piece of bad rough road. 

A. S. ceorlir, ctcrliv, churlish, in the sense uf belonging to or cbaractenstic of the 
do>^uish or comnton^illy, as distinguished from tlie gentle or wcU-born : * Chtrlycht. 
cborlyicbf, carlyichf.' Pr. Pm. Our ohurlUh affords a curious instance uf transition of 
sense in a word, the original meaning of which is stricity limited to human beings or what 
bcluugi to ihcni. Comp. Sw. D. kar(l\sJttr, distasteful, disgusting. 

I. * *' To be dour and ehoiloi;" to look dismal and act illHiaturedly.* Wh. Gl. 

J. * ** A shill cboltos wind :** a cold pining wind.' Ih. 

Also ; * Certain nicilicinct. at valuic sulutiutis, arc dccuicd " cold and cboUw," * /h. 

3. ' " A bad tboilus road ;" a piec^ of stony, uneven turnpike.' /b. 

Churr, v. n. To emit a murmuring sound as partridges do when 
undisturbed in iheir haunts and collected in the covey; to chide or 
chatter in symphony, but with low» not shrill notes, as sparrows going 
to roost in a winter's evening, starlings or fieldfares when sitting to- 
gether in companies ; to make a whirring sound as the night-jar in its 
noctiunal flight. 

O. N. kurra, kmra, knvrra, (o murmur, make a low, whirring noise ; Sw. D. Krro, korra ,- 
O. Sw. korra; O. D, ku-rr^ ; N. Ktrra, to coo or murmur as a dove; Swab, kurren. 
Cf. A.S. etoriam, urian, to murmur, complain. EiK^bvrr. at i name for the fem<ow1 



or oigbt-jar oeedi no comment, Coanccted with our word arc charm, a hum, low mor* 
jDuring notte. Hall. * Charm of birds' in Milton's line; tbemu,-^' I cherme as b)Tdc» do 
■whan they nuke a noysc i great nomber togythcr.* Palsgr. (quoted by Hall.) A. S. cynn, 
noise, shout. &c. Sec Char. 

Ginder-hillB, sb. Deposits of scoriae, or slag from ancient iron- 
furnaces, often of considerable extent, and of ver)' frequent occurrence in 
most parts of Cleveland. 

Bof w. quotes W. undw. forge-cinders : Soma, explains A. 5. xmdlfr by ' «inderi. droM, the 
^jcumme of metal tried by the fire ;' and Out. siiuUl is slag, scoria; all ot which are prt>- 
l»bly allied radically to O. N. andr, Qcrm. anitr, &c., the scoriz or red4iot sparks which 
fly off from heated iron under the blow* of the smith's hammer; as well at to Lat. cinis. 
C^omp. Pr. Pm. 'Cyndyroi ►e sm^'thys fyre. Casuma. Cocbirvn.' It wtjuld appear that 
the deposits of slag referred to in the definition are of remote antiquity, and that the name 
Ctnder-hilla has been attached to them time out of mind. From a docuiiicnt yet extant 
it is known that tlie Rosedalc Stone was wrought in King John's time; but I have met 
with no similar testimony as to the time down to which the Cleveland iron continued to b« 
trrooght. Id the township of Danby alone there still cjtlst more than sixteen accumulatioiu 
of the sUg in question; but no traces whatever of any source trom which the ore cnuld 
lure been obtained : and in many instances the poiition of the Clnder-tama is such that 
the stone must have been brought to these furnaces, from which they are the residuum, 
from some considerable distance. It would sccin probable that, as wood must have supplied 
the source of heat for smelting, and as this eutire district, from the earliest historical time 
downwards till a century or to since, abounded with wood, the ore must have been brought 
ftooi aEu, on mule- or horse-back, and smelted on the spots where we 6nd the deposits of 
■hg; as is well known was the case in Nottinghamshire and elsewhere. One of these lites, 
laiKW thirty or forty years since, yet presented traces of the ancient furnace arrangement : 
tows of small conical-shaped pits tn (he vicinity of the Ciuder-hUl were still traceal-lc. 
As in operation in times certainly very remote, there is at least a possibility that they were 
in operattoi) contemponneousty with or before tlic Danish occupation, and that the name 
Cinder-hill may hav« been one (^ purely Northern origin. 

Clag, V. n. To stick to, or adhere, as any viscid substance does to 
that which it touches ; or as wet ^ass to a mowing-machine, interfering 
with its action. Used also metaphorically. 

O. N. hltggi, a mats so pressed together ai to be characterised by coherency : thence the 
idea of tenaciousness ot viscidity which is expressed by Dan. kl<tg or IcUg. viscid, sticky, 
tenacious; and klttge or kltggt, to be heavy or viscid, as bread: as. brmdtt Hegger, the 
bread is heary; or heary and tenadous. u foU. Comp. also A. S. elag, clay; Dan. hlag^ 
the same. 

* Van can't dig it, nae kin' o' form ; t' clagt te t' speeid sae.' 

* Lahtle on ctagi tiv its mammy.' 

Claggy, adj. Sticky, glutinous, adhesive ,* dirty or muddy. 

' Oesput claggy walking, for seear : 'frost 's mecad it owcr mucky fur owght.' 

Claggum, sb. Any viscid or glutinous substance in mass ; specially 
applied to treacle lollipops, or Ooodies made of treacle and sugar 
boiled together. 

O 3 



Clam, V. a. i. To pinch, compress, force together, 2. To castrate 
by aid of compression. 3. v. n. and p. To suffer from the pinching 

effects of hunger, to star\'e. 

O.N. klrmma, co-arctarc ; S. G. klamnta, primere, itringcre ; Sw. Dial, lldmma; D»n. 
klemfw; M\d. Germ. Itlimmen : Germ. kUmmfn. Kictz ob5«pr« that 'in all probability 
there must have once been extant in O. English a strong vb.. climati, clam, cUmnun or 
etummen.' Possibly our existing vb.. generally cuncnt in one or more of its scruet 
throughout tlic North, is the only vb. ever in use, no instance of its occurreiKe being 
quoted as a South English word; although the A.S. sb. r/am, dom, bondage or bonds, 
constraint, exists. 

I. * " What 's wrong with your hand, mun?'* '* Gelten my fingers clamm'd i'l' wee."* 

3. ' Ah 's flirtings clammed (or cltmmed) for wiui o' meat.' 

Clam, sb. i. Moisture, especially viscid moisture. 2. Any soft adhe- 
sive substance. 

A. S. clam, ' what is clammy : mud, cUy. a poultice or j^Utcr.* BofW. 

Clam, V. n. and p. To stick or adhere to, as one's shirt to one's 
back when hot, or moistened paper to a waD ; to slick together as 
one's tongue and palate do wth thirst. 

This rb. probably depends upon the sb. clam, and it, no doubt, upon A.S. /am, loam* 

• My mouth and throat arc jest clamnud up.' 

Clame, v. a. i. To smear or daub over. 3. To smear or daub over 
with some unctuous or adhesive matter. 3. To make to slick lipon, or 
cause to adhere. 

O.N. and N. kUima; Sw. D. Uema. klhima: A. S. clctmrm; Old Germ. iUimjan^ Bu,; 
to smear, besmear, daub. In reference to definition 5. it may be observed that the word is 
applied to making a paper, or t)ie like, stick (to a wall or door, say) by means of tacks, u 
well as by the use of paste or other glutinous, or unctuous matter. Sec example. 
I. ' What 's I'u clarmng \' walls fur, thatten a way, wiv thiih nasty mucky hands ?' 
a. * Whah, bairn, thce's getlen t' butter a' clamed ower thah feeace. an' t* treeacle ower 
tha" cleeas.' 

• Dcean't clamt that brecad ue thick.' 

5. * See thee, gan and elame thae posters oop 0' t' big yen.* 

• Tell Willy Uogwhipper to clrm that notiih up o* kirk deear;* put it np with Ucki. 

Clammy, adj. Stickily moist, somewhat adlicsive. 

Cf. Pr. Pm. ' Clam', or clrpnmta (gleymous). G/h/imosus, vtscosw.* 

ClamouTsome, clammersome, adj. Noisily urgent, greedy, rapa- 

Comp. O. Dan. idammtr, wrangling, litigation ; and, for form, the words lovesome, 

labotiTftomfl. loueaome. &c. 

Clampers, sb, z . Fangs or claws, on any metal instrument or object 
t. Metaphorically, of an animal ; the 5ngers. 

O. N. klampi. a buckle or brooch, also 1 rice, ktiimhrur ; N. ildmhr ; Dan. J^onam or 


Uammar, i rice, a thing to hold fast with. Comp. also Dut. Uampm, to book things 
together, to hold tight ; iUm-, or klamp-vogel, a bird of prey. 

2. * If I had mj damptr* on him be should feel the weight of my neif.* Wb. Gl. 

Clan, sb. A considerable number, a great many; always with some 
bond of connection, however slight, supposed. 

OadL datm, children, descendants ; of one common ancestor, namely. 
* " A doM o* bainu ;" a troop or crowd of children.' IVb. Gl. 

Clap, V. a. and n. i. To apply a blow, gently, but also quickly or 
smartly. 2. To use any action in which quick application of hand 
or other member, or material instrument, is characteristic. 3. To pro- 
duce the sound which results from such quick action or application. 
4. To squat, assume a sitting or crouching posture quickly, which may 
be maintained for any length of time. 

0. N. klappa, to stroke or pat, to strike, to smite ; S. O. and Sw. D. klappa ; A. S. clap- 
pioM. Ibre's ronark on the rb. is that it implies * a motion or action of the hand, whether 
for the purpose of patting or caressing, or of inflicting a blow.' As to the sense in defini- 
tion 3, Wedgw. observes that the word itself * is an imitation of the sound made by the 
collision of hard flat things ;* an obsenration which is, perhaps, hardly borne out by 
the facts, as neither of the Northern words quoted above seems to imply the sound pro- 
duced as well as the action producing it. The sense in question proceeds naturally from the 
other, as in many similar cases, jbioor, crack. Sec. 

a. * Clap ho'd, mun ;' catch hold quickly. 

* T* cau'd clapped til her breeost, an' she went off intiv a wearing.' 

4. * Ah seen t' partridge run t' length o* this busk, an' then it clapped;* or squatted. 

Clapperclaw, v. a. i. To assail, or use violence, but with the open 
hand in opposition to the closed fist, the nails being employed as well 
as the hand proper. 3. To abuse, scold, vituperate. 

Perhaps the word might be properly written — as it is certainly sounded — clapper-clore^ 
from O. N. and Sw. D. mora, to scratch with the nails. Still we have clawt vb. in Toumel. 
MyU. p. 149. 

* Then the skalp shalle I clefc I lyst thou be clawdV 
and Pr. Pm. * Gauiyn, or cratchyn. ScaJpo:* with which comp. O. N. A/<ea, Sw. kla. 

Clart, V. a. To daub, smear, make dirty. See Clarty. 

* T* bairn's bin an* getten his feeace darted* 

* Tak* heed, mun ! Thoo 'U dart tha' new beeak.' 

Clart, sb. i. A spot; either of dirt or other substance that adheres. 
2. Insincerity, outside show, flattery. 

1. *Loo' thee! there's a gret d<wt o' snow o* tha' neb;' a great snow-flake on your 

3. * It 's an dart ;' not to be depended on, as mere profession, or compliment ; what is 
on the surface only, and not in the substance. 

Clarted over. Flattered up, propitiated by smooth and compli- 
mentary language. 



Clarty, adj. i. Unctuous, sticky; the idea being always of moist 
substances that are apt to stick. 2. Dirty, with the implied sense that 
the object or person qualified by the adj. would be likely to make dirty 
by contact 

Jam. in r. Clatty (with the wine signif.cation, and no doubt the same word, cttcntiaDy), 
quoiet S. Q. kladd, filth, cotitamiuatiDg dirt, with the phrue, iladda tig ntd — iii the Clevcl. 
Tcmacular, ' to muck one's self tip.* Ue aU(> noticci S. G. lort, filth, ordure, aiid O. N. Itir^ 
which, boides its primary meaning of clay, signi6es mirt, JUtby mud. There can b« 
scarcely any doubt that the Utter word is the origin of s/nrr, dairy, dart, dalhtry, or doit- 
day, all words of tike meaning, and more or Ic&t in nsc in Line, and ancient Northiunbria. 
as also of gfair, glaur, aiiJ glairy, meaning dirt, filth, a muddy puddle, und mucky. And 
just aa the addition of i in the former case, of g in the latter, forms the derivative in quct- 
tion, 10— even if clarty be not identical with ^rJnrY— a prefixed k wonld give our pm u H 

I. * AhVe bin amangst t' honey, an* ma' handi are jest that elarty wiv it.* 

* T' puddcn* '* sair and clarty' 

* \\*% gi'en agcn a bit. an' t' rooad 's gencn varry clarty.' 
3. * A clarty husiy ;' a dirty, tlanly sTut. 

* Clarty deed :' doings or circumstances such and so dirty, that tome of the dirt may be 
expected to stick to any one concerned. 

Clash, V. a. and n. 1. To clap, or shut suddenly with a banjj, as 
a loose door does. 3. To cause a door to shut suddenly and with noise. 
3. To throw down, or cause anything lo fall, so as to make a noise. 

Comp. Dan. kladdt, sb. ; and klaittkg, v. n. 

I. • Whah. there's street dcear elothut agco. Whcca'i left it k>w»e?* 
I. * Nay, marry. lt*a yon neer-du-weel JOahny, cladrin 't fur jpoort,* 
Comp. * With kene clobbej of ^at ck>s ^ay c/a/j on he wowej.* 

£. Eng. Allit. Poims. B. 839. 

Clash, sb. 1. A blow or bruise, the result of a fall or any intended 
violence, a. The noise of such a blow or fall, or of a loose door, &c. 
3. Common talk or gossip ; in the pi., news. 

I. * " Thou'a getten a tair clash, Thomas." *' Aye, Ah hei. Ah's dinged ma ibackle 
oot ;*• diilocaled my wrist.' 

3. • It was lang I* clasb o' t' country lide.' 

Clash, sb. A large or considerable quantity or number. 

Welsh elasg, a heap or collection ; eiasgv, to aggregate, ootlect. 
' A clash o' good things.* Wh. GL 

* " doihn o' brass ;** loU of money.* Ih. 

Clashing, sb. A shaking or jolting, as in a roughly moving convey- 
ance ; the application of a blow, or the striking of one object or substance 
against another. 

Clat, V. n. To talk fast, with but little meaning ; to chatter or prate. 

Mr. Wedgwood's remark on the word datttr is. that it is • from the imitation of the 
sound of a knock by the *ylUble clat, equivalent to clack or cla^.' The present word seona 


to be umptj a nlgar abbreviitioo of etaUtr, fa its sense of loud, empty talk, and to supply 
the rah answering to sodi a noun. Comp. Sw. D. Uidra, to prattle, as a child does ; and 
obierre that we have * elat or elatt/ as synonymous with * clafpt or clakkt of a mylle' io 

datter, v. a. x. To beat so as to make a rattfing noise, a. To beat 
or chastise. 

Jam. quotes Teot. kUltgmy fragorem edere, retonare, coocrepare. Coo^ also the A. S^ 
sb. datnptg^ anything which makes a clattering, a rattle. Bosw. Both these words testify 
to the fonner presence in the Northern languages of others formed from the same origin, 
and in wbkh our present word also took its rise. We meet with it and its deriratires in 
Early En^ish writers in sense I ; and also, more frequently, in the sense of &lUng noiaUy, 
ot coming down with a crash or rattling sound For itutance, in sense x ; 

■ So harde sautes to the cite were jeren. 
That the komli kemeles were to-cfo/vrwl with engines.* 

Wai.amdO* Wtrw. X03. 

In the other sense, this, 5om the account of the Fox-hunt in Sit Gau/ayHt and descrip- 
tire of the * crash' when ^e fox was viewed by the pack : — 

* When aHe j^ mute hade faym met, menged to-geder. 
Such a sorje at ^t syjt ^y sette on his hede. 

As aOc |>e damberande dyfifes hade tiainrtd on hq)es.' (L 1730.) 

* Sodomas schal ful sodenly syok into grounde. 
And )>e grounde of Oomorre gorde in-to helle. 
And Tche-a koste of ^is kyth cltUtr upon hepes.* 

Early Eng, AUit, Potm, B. 910. 

™^» ' per as elatirandt fro >e crest )>e colde borne rennes, 

and henged heje ouer his hede in hard ysse-ikkles.' 

Sir Gauf. and Or. Kn. 731. 

Clatter, sb. i. A blow accompanied \>y resonance or rattling sound, 
from a fall or otherwise. 3. Noise or din; hence chattering talk, loud 
and idle gossip. 

* Caypbas. Weynde fiirthe in the wenyande 

And hold still thy clatter.* Tounul. Myst. p. 357. 
Cf. ' And the women that her herde speke held her for a fool and untrewe, and elatertd 
h abonte.* Meri. p. I a. 

* Every one crieth and elattntb what him likitb.' Chaucer's Tale of Melibceus^ p. 149. 

curat, V. a. To scratch with one's nails. 

Cf. * HweSer ^e cat of helle elaurede {daeloe, dahte, in other texts) euer towarde hire.* 
Antr. Riuie, p. lOa. Cr. Gl. gives f/a»e^f= scratched, clawed ; a word exactly coincident 
in form with Jamieson's ' clattebt = ioztched, laid hold of eagerly and suddenly;' both, as if 
from some verb the present of which is lost. It is observable that O. N. kid, hUai, liaja, 
to claw, to scratch, makes its tmperf. kl6^ and h^ Elegit in the pret., and so furnishes a 
word very like ours in form and sound, whOe the formation of a new verb frxnn the piet. of 
an older one is not by any means an unprecedented proceeding. 


Clavrer, sb. A rabble; a numerous and not very orderly assem- 

Possibly the same word as caUtver, which is given by Ferguson as meaning tAitrfp0rota 
conduct, the vb. signifying A) make a riot^ and which are referred by him to O. N. gidiijl, 
light-headedness, dissoluteness ; ^dl/ra, to make a riot. To me it would seem, however, 
more likely to be allied to £. cleave, Dut. kltvtrig, sticky ; of. also Germ. ktebeH, Sw. D. 
klebbigt 8cc. ; and descriptive of the assemblage, or quasi-cohesion, of the individuals who 
collectively constitute the OlBTrer. 

• aawers o' folk at your tail.' Wb. GU 

Clswer, V. n. To climb, as one does a hill; or as a child does on to 
its father's or mother's knees.; S.Q^kli/wa; Dan Havre; Sw. D. klaiva, to climb, scramble up, using 
both hands and feet. Sec Molb. in v. Ktawe, The Dan. use is * a/ klavre <^ i et tra^ to 
davver up into a tree. 

Cled, adj. Clad, clothed. 

O. N. Uaddr, dad, dothed ; Dan. ki<ede, to dothe ; E. clad. Sec, 

• They wur beeath weel fed and weel cled.' Wh. Gl. 

* ffor ^ire knaues ware cledde in dethyng fiill dene.* R^. Pucet, p. 93. 
* Some dowde, for sothe, that stame has cUd 
From us away/ Townd. Myst, p. 181. 
' A lyttcr redy eled: lb. p. 133. 

Cleeas, sb. Clothes, garments. 

* If thou gif me mete and foode 
And close to body.' Toumel. My$t. p. 46. 
The same form occurs again at p. aga, and our present word is just to that form what 
our iteean, b«eaa. Sec are to stoM, bone. Sec. 

Cleg, sb. The common horse-fly (Hoematopoia pluvialis), 

O. N. kleggi; N. hlegg; Sw. D. hl^g, kldgge. I give O. N. kleggi on the authority of 
Rietz. The idea is that of sticking, adhesion ; and certainly no other insect sticks 10 close 
and so tight to the animal it attaclu as docs the Oles. 

Cleik, sb. A hook, fixed in a shaft and intended to catch things 
up with. 

The proper spelling of this word probably would be Oleeak, as the Clevet form of the 
word cloke; as in Ancr. RiwUj p. loa. 'And drouh al ut bet bodi efter mid cloket of 
crokede and of kene vondungcs.' Geik is properly a Sc. form. Comp. our Ollek, and 
HaUiweU's cMe, 

Cleik-hookB, sb. Four hooks of three inches in the bend, set back 
to back, affixed to a rope and used as * drags,' or to feel for and attach 
themselves to things at the bottom of a pool or other water. 


Olem, V. n. and p. To suffer from the effects of hunger. Another 
form of Clam (which see). 

* there company wu cUmnud: ind much cold did suffer ; 
water was a worthy drinke : win it who might/ 

Percy's Fdio MS. i. p. 22$, 
Cf. * Et this whan the hnngreth. 

Or whan thoo etomust for cold 

Or clyngest for drie.' P. Plough, p. 376. 

Glep, V. a. To call, name, designate. 

A. S. eiypian, eUopian ; Out. ilapptn, to speak, call, say. An older and firequent use of 
the word seems to hare been to cry aloud to or for a person or thing ; u in Pr. Pm. CUpyn 
oiott, CUp€ to nute. 

CoD^). also ' t^ere he knela and call^, and eltpn after help.* 

E. Eng. AUit. Patm, B. 1345. 
And, * And he ryches hym to ryse, and rapes h3rm sone, 

CUptt to his chamberlayn, choses his wede, 
hoyei forth, ouen he watj bouo, blyt>ely to masse.' 

Sir Oauf. and Or. Kn. 1310. 

Glep, sb. Name, description, kind or species. 

From olep, to name or designate : a transition of sense similar to that exemplified in 
* description/ 'species/ our word mak', and the like. 
* It was of a queerish eUp.' Wb, Ql. 

Cletoh, sb. I. A brood of young birds, especially domestic birds. 
2. A collection, set, or party of persons. 

O.N. kUkja^ to sit, as a bird; to hatch; Sw. kldeka; Dan. kltBhhe, id. The vb. itself 
appears to have been in use in Yorkshire in former days, and in its full sense of to rear or 
foster young, equivalent to the Dan. kiakke 0/ ; at kl<ekkt tt lam op : to foster a lamb, the 
mother of which is dead. 

Comp. ■ Thou art best on thi wax that ever was eUhyt* Towml. Myst. p. 31 1. 

Cleugh, sb. (pr. cleuf). A narrow rocky glen, or ravine. 

Cf. O. N. kleyf, fissura mpium, Hald. ; Sw. D. kldv, a breach, gap, chasm, hole or den in 
the rocks ; A. S. elougb, a cleft of a rock. Cf. Pr. Pm. clyf, and Sc. eltucb. 

Click, V, a. and n. i. To snatch, to seize quickly. 2. To shrivel up 
or contract in folds, as leather or parchment under a hot iron. 

There seems to be some little uncerutnty as to the origin of this word. Wedgw. would 
refer it to an attempt to imitate sound, and together with Mr. Morris (GI. to E. Engl. AUit, 
Poems) quotes Sw. or O. Sw. klimcia, kldnga, to snatch, seize, as allied. These verbs are, 
it would seem, more closely connected with our Olinoh; and the JuU. expression klaik* 
vtdf to stick tight to, to hold fast by, corresponds more nearly to our CUok, especially 
when we find it occurring in the phrase, oliok ho'd, more frequently than in any other single 
allocution. In E. Eng. AUit. Poems the word occurs in the sense of take = get, acquire, 
become possessed of; but more fiequently in the sense of taking or rather catching up, 
more or less of quickneu seeming to be implied in the action spoken of: thus Abraham, 



after desiring his wife to be * cof ind quyk tt >is one)' in her preparation of food for hit 
ingetic vicitors, and ' saying to hU lervaunt ^it he htt se^ faste/ hiimetf, 
' To be bare-heued bailee^ h^-ni thennc, 
dtchri to a clene clohe and kcftc; on H grene.* (B. <$|l.) 
Agsin, of Lot it is said, at 1. 857, that, — 

* He went forthe at be wyket and waft hit hjrm after, 
pat a ciyket hit c/rji dos hjiii byhynde.' 

In the lines,— 

* and whyle Jut wat^ cUty clot in his bert 

)>cre wat} no men npon molde of oiyjt as hym sdvcn,' 
the sense is evidently the paHive of the Jutl. word given above ; ri«. held fist. 
In Townd. Myit. p. 574, last line but one, 

* Fro dcdc you cUht In doke/ 
the sense is ieir.e, match, lay grasp upon, which is coincident with ours. 

CUckuin fair, ' It was got at Clickum fair ;' Wh. Gi. = purlobed, 
stolen, taken wihout acknowledgment. 

Clinoh, V. a. i. To clutch or g^asp with the hand. 2. To meet M'iA, 
or come upon a person suddenly, so as to arrest him in his course. 

S. G. klixnga, to seiic or grasp with the hand ; Mdneka, to »natch. seize. Comp. Dan, 
timkt, to fasten together the parts of a broken plate, &c. by nieaiu of iclimkwr^ o» flattened 

a. ' I just tlinchtd him at the comer.' Wh, Gl, 

Clip, V. a. To hold close together, to compress. 

C^.kUpa, to s<iueeze, gripe, compress, catch; Sw. D. Idipa or klif : fi.Hip*; 9mm 

Cf. • Power hem failleth 

To clucche Of to cUwr, 
To etippe or 10 holde.* P. Ptoughm. p. 359. 
* Sommc sayde ihcy lovyd a luity man 
That in theyr armys can tlyfp thcni and ky&se them than.' 

Perey't Fol. MS. i. p. I09, note. 

Clip, V. a. To cut short off; to shear, of sheep. 

O. N., S. G., Sw. D.. N. Mippa ; Dan. klipp^ ; A. S. tlypan, Dan. of klippt baarH, to cvt 
the hair; at irlippe /aar, to chp, or shear, $hccp. Pr. Pm. ' CJyppyn. Tomdto.' 

Clip, sb. A short piece cut off; e. g. a pattern of cloth or calico. 

Corop. Dan. ktip, a cnt made with a pair of scissors ; O. N. itliffa, a piece cut off. 

Clipping, sb. The act, or occasion, of a general clipping of any 
farmers flock (see Sheep-clipping), in which his neighbours arc in- 
vited to assist, and which terminates in an entertainment : the farmer, 
in his turn, holding himself ready to return the same office to those 
who have been his assistanlij. The same system holds good with 
respect to the Pig-killing about Christmas. 



Clipping-time, sb. The time or season for shearing sheep. See 

* Lpban ferde lo aimen kcp. 
In cUpping-timi lo hisc scp.* Stury of Gffi. and Exodus, p. 50. 

Cloam, dome, v. a. (sometimes pr. claum). i. To clutch, with both 
hands at once : or, simply to clutch or seize with decided grasp. 2, To 
pull or make tugging efforts, with both hands engaged, as in pulling 
a sack, or the like, along ; to pull about rudely or roughly. 

I hare link heiKation In referrmg this word lo O. N. kiombntr, a vi« ; that which grasps 
firmly, hold* in a tight dutch ; N. klAmbr, Sw. klamma, Dan. khmnur, &c. themselves 
derivatives frotn verbs signifying to grup tight, compress, squeeze. 

Clock, sb. A general name for a beetle ; for instance, Black-clock, 
the common black-beetle, Water-clock, the water-beetle iDyiiscus 
marginaiis) ; and Lady-clock, the lady-bird {CoccintUa septcm-pututata). 

Haid. gives bruHH-iluica, comraoiU)' but incorrectly written bruH-blulika. as the name of 
the Dytiicut. The word is, tlicreforc, an cxict equiviilCTit to our 'Water-clock. But 1 
ttieet with no other instaticc in a Scand. tongue, in which the word WiiAn, or klukha. which 
must be the origip of our present word, occun. Garnelt, however, PbiL Euoys, p. 68, 
speaks of it as * a genuine Uerntanic word, and of remote antiquity, as is shewn by the 
ancient glou pubifshed by Geibert — " cbuleich, scarabizuf." It appears from Schniclki 
that iruitcJk was the Bar. appellation for the scaralsrtti stfrcorarius, tate in the seventeenth 
century.* He al»o names the insects called Braoken-olock, uiiUow-cIock, Sec. 

Clock, V, a To cluck as a hen docs. 

Sw. D. kiokka, klaJtJta, kitjika : Dan. kluliln : N. S. klukien ; A. S. ciocean ; Lat glocire, 

' Sdy Capytl, oure hen. both to and fro 
She kakyU. 
Bot begjm she lo crok. 
To groyne or lo elok. 
Wo is bym of our cok. 

For he is in the shckyls.' TWfW. MyU. p. 99. 

Clock-Boves, olock-aives, sb. The sharp-fiowcrcd rush (Jurtcus 
acutijfurus). Described as the black-headed bulrush in Wh. GL from 
Marshall, but mistakenly. (Other plants may be included imder this 
name, but 1 am not able to ascertain.) 

Aascn quotes l/wU, as applied to grass and plauU, and meaning soft, flexible, yielding (as 
opposed to rigid, hard or harsh). This is the character of the leaves of the Olock-seave ; 
and the existence of the distinctive local name Wire-rush, given in \Vh. 01. as synonymous 
with * the scaves of the moors and wastes,' and really denoting the so-named ' hard-rush' of 
the bounisu {Jmuus giaucut), might be sufficient to decide the origin of the prefix in 
Glock-a«ftves, were it not that Rictz gives kiak, kla)t^ kluk, a word also applied to plants 
or vegetation ; as hlak tiid, aJnr, luxuriant corn, or condiclds : klok idd^ klok ttui, klvAt bam ; 
d>e word in the two Utter instances Implying wdl-gruwn, vigorous. He also gives klak, 
kiag, synonymous with N. MoU. connecting it with O. N. klokkr, flexible, yielding. It is 

P 2 




oot clear, however, that the two words, given by Rictz as separate, irc tmcooncctctl. 
There is ccruinly no incon&istciKy between the meaiiings ; luxuriant growth is apt to yield 
soft herbage ; and besides that, the special application of the N. ftnd Sv. D. words teemi 
suHiciait to do more than hint a relaiioiuhip. 

Clod-clag8, sb. See Clow-claga. 

Clodder, cludder, cluther, v. n. To collect in a close group, as 
chickens round ihe hen; to be closely packed, as people in a sniall 
room ; to cluster together. 

Gamett. Estays. p. 165. quotes Welsh dvdgr, heap, pile; eludtiriaw, to gather in a heap. 
as the nrigin (if this word. There may be aha a rtlationship between boili aiid ihr O. N^ 
N., S. G. i/or, Sw, D. ifr/o/r, the iruUi idea in which probably may be uf coDcrction, or 
agglutination. Camp. Dutch hlottwrm^ coagularc : and ' eiwttwred blood' is an expression 
met with in Holland's writings, as well as elsewhere ; c. g. * CioUryn, as blodc, or other lyke. 
Coaguh' Pr. Pm. 

* " They were all clulhered up ;*' of a ntunber of people collecting in a room comparatively 
only imali' Wb. Gl. 

Cloddy, adj. Thick and short ; full-fleshed. 

O. N. kitit is the pumniel of a sword, and, generally, a rouiidcd lump ; that in which the 
idea of length gires way to that of thickness. Dan. klod, klodt. Hods, all have the tame 
charaacrtstic kind of application. Hence our oloddy. 

Clog, sb. A log, block of wood. Sec Hag-clog, Yule-clog. 

Coinp. Dan. klods, Sw. klofs, a block, log, clog : also Germ, ihtz^ hach-elon, a chopping* 
block. Uak-cIos. Sw. D. idakk, a lump. L. Gertn. Hah, come nearer still to our form, and 
to Pr. Pm. • Cloggt. Trvncvs.' 

Clogged, adj. Suffering under oppression of the breathing-tubes; 
wheezy, asthmatica). See Closed. 

Cloggy, clogging, adj. Causing satiety or its consequent loathing ; 
heavy, indigestible. 

Clogs, sb. Ancle-shoes of thick leather, with wooden soles strength- 
ened with iron at Lhe heels and edges. 

* From c/o|^ in the sense of a block or clumsy piece of wood.' Wedgw. Comp. Germ. 
khiz-^ebui, a dog or wooden fhoe. Dan. Irlods. 

Cf. * His luddokvs thai lowkc like walk-myUie cloggu.' Twmd. Myst. p. 31}, 

Closed, adj. Experiencing much difficulty in breathing, as in pneu- 
monic affections. 

I do not fitiJ this word in any of the north-country Qlossaries, not tn Hall. It is, bov- 
ercr. together with ClOBing, of extremely freqnent occurrence in this district. 

' " How Is Willy T. to-day?" " Desper't* wir cloud, an' like to loae his wind tceght oot, 

a* uhm» *■ ' 

Cloee-neived, adj. Niggardly, stingy, parsimoniou&. See Neif. 


dosing, sb. I. A difficulty of breathing, produced by cold or 
pneumonic affection, a. The producing cause itself; pneumonia, 
bronchitis, &c 

I. * "What U the matter with your baby, mistreu?** "Why, it's a c/owi*; it*i getten 
a sair cow^d an' Ah *i free'tn'd o* lossing 't." * 

a. * T aoM nun *s getten a cUmn* on 'im, an* it 'II hie te gan hard wir *iin/ 

doty sb. A clod, lump of earth. 

A. S. dud; N. S. tlool^ See, * A eiottg, ctspitt oeearium. A clottynge malle. oeetuo- 
rmm.* Catb. Ang., qooted in note to CfoflUr, Pr. Pm. * Ane clot of heai totlSc.' Aner, 
RimU, p. X40. 

* That conyd clott of Cainys kyn 

Forsoth wai I.* Toumtl. AfyU. p. 338. 

the reference bong to * a lothly tompe of fieshly syn,' as Judas describes himsdf as having 
been in his mother's womb. 

dot-bur, sb. The burdock (Arctium it^pa). 

* CUu-huTt in Chaucer and Pr. Pm. elottt sometimes spelt inconectly clod-bur ; A. S. elaUf 
Germ. cUttt, a bur that sticks to clothes.* Popular Names of Br. Plants, p. 49. 

doth, To draw the. To remove the cloth when the meal, during 
which it has been spread, is done. 

* So she etc tylle mete was done, 
TyUe they drew clothes, and had wasshen, 
As is the gyse and maner.' 
Sir Gaufttn and Dame Ragndl, quoted in Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 1 15. 

door, sb. A lump or bump ; an unevenness ; the swelling occa- 
sioned by a blow. 

Perhaps transposed from Su. O. kullrat decidere cum iropetu, says Jam. Hall, quotes 
* Barren CSowris,' from Lydgate, as an iiutance of the sense, * hollow ground, or a field,' 
and gives the word as A. N. I believe that in Lydgate as well as in the North, the idea 
implied in dour is that of wupcmuti. Hald. gives A/ur, coarse, rough, unfinished, uneven, 
as a word which, in its metaphorical sense, implied a servant or slave, from the contrast of 
such an one's clownish, or boorish behaviour with that of a free-bom gentleman. Super- 
ficial roughness, whether of conduct or manner, or such as may be left by a bad clumsy 
workman, or by a lack of pains in removing unevennesses, seems to be the radical sense of 
the word, and it is more than probable that our word is the same, scarcely altered in either 
sound or spelling. 

doat, sb. A blow, or stroke, as applied to some limited area or 

Jam., under this word, quotes Teut. A/oAm, pulsare, pultare ; but under the word dutter- 
CM* he gives Teut. klotcrm, Jtieuteren, tuditare, pultare, pulsare crebro ictu, in which the 
affinity seems even closer than in Uotwt. 



Clout, sb. I. A cloth of limited size. 2. A patch or piece put over 
a ragged place. 3. A rag. 

Garnett girw Welsh clwt, patch ; clytiaw, to pitch, as words which * spp«flr to be of CHttc 
origin,* Pbil. Essays, pp. j6i, iCi. Ihre gives klvt in our third tcrue, a rag; lUeging aIw 
A. S. ciut, clioi in its sentc o( a scam u the uri^ii of our Kiigl. Wow/, to patch : adding that 
from this the coajcciurc is a reasonable one, that the aiicicnt and original signification of 
clu/ oiiist have bccii a scrap or segment of materia] apptied to the repair o4 worn garments. 
Certainty, besides A. S. clu/, * a little cloth or clout.' (Bosw.) we hare Sw. D. Uu/, 
O. N. kititr, N. klut, Dan. Hud, in the senses of— a portion of mateiial. or a pan of the 
dicii, as sloth in E. ntck'clofh, &c. ' Gowtr of clotlie, (cloute or Mggc.)' Pr. Pm. 
1. Cf. Chaucer's ' An herin tlaut to wrappe nie in,' Pardontr" i TaU^ p. 135. 

' In clmtftii he was woudeuc.' Rd. Pieces, p. 41, 
3. * Vor ft lute ciut mei lodlichen swuffe a machel ihol peche;* for a little clout (patch) 
may very lolhly impair a niicklc whole. Amcr. Riv^g, p. 356. 
3. * Thou wald nowthir in purpurc nc byse 

Be lappedc, nc in nan oher clothes of pryce, 
Bot in vile clowties for to coiicr thi body.* Rel. PuMt, p. 63. 
' And when she of this bill hath talcin hedc 
She rent it all to eloutU,' Marcbaun/'t Tale, p. 71. 

Clout, V. a. 1. To patch, to mend a hole or ragged place, in a 
garment or the like^ by the apposition of a patch, or piece of fresh 

Pr. Pm. ' CSoutiyn. utrvio' The word was anciently employed to express what wu rigid, 
as well as what was pliable. like leather or cloth. Thus ' " A elmote of >Tne. tntita ftrrta, 
tt cettra uhi plate." Catb. Ang. In Norfolk the terms e!tat aitd ehut signify an iron plate 
with which a shoe is sueiigthened. A.S. dm, dul, lamina.' Note to * Oowtt of a schoo.* 
Pr. Pm. 

' C/xor. Yci, Noe. go clomti thi shnoe« the better wtUe thai last.' Toumtt, Mytt. p. 39. 

And in Antr. RiwU, p. 356, where directions are giren to the recluses to be very careful 
of what they say, on rumour, touching a sister, the writer proceeds, ' Caofe the person wt/o 
bears the message to repeat it often in the manner &he is going to report it, that she may 
not report it othcrwiie, *' ne nc clutu luumore ^erto." * 

Clout, V. a. To Strike, to inflict a blow or blows on any given part 
(see preceding word); no doubt from the idea of applying a blow as 
one claps on a patch. 

' Cloyt his heead for 'im.' * Goul him weel.* 

Cloweu, p. p. of to Cleave. Stuck together by means of some glu- 
tinous substance ; in a state of cohesion. 

Comp. Sw. D. kltUfbtd^ cohering, adhesive : Udjtd, sad, heavy, doughy ; of bread, Stc 

Clow, V. n. To work laboriously, to labour or strive at anything 
with much exertion. 

Cf. Sw. hluddra, N. and Sw. D. hlatra, to toil, to work with trouble and pains, to labour 
tediously and wearisomely, or to poor purpose. It may, however, be noted that the 
Sw. D. word Uor, to make slow or laborious progress, by cumbinatiou with maw ~ myra, 


an tut, takes the rignificatloo of a laborioas penon who labours peneveringly like an aiit, 
onljr Tcr; gentljr or ddiberatdj ; a snue which corresponds rather more nearly to that of 

dow-olagged, adj. Having their own dung adhering to their hinder 
parts, dried and clotted : said of sheep and cattle. 

This word may be derived from O. N. Kq^, femonun intercapedo, or fork ; which word 
HalL defines ' as the lower half of the body/ adding that * the haunch of a deer was called 
\Jbrk:* this, with «f<^. furnishes our word. Cf. Pr, Pm. * Qjiff", eljfit Sisswa, rima :' and 
in the note, Clifi « lajmirebntrt. Walter le Biblesworth. 

Clow-olags, sb. Dried masses of dung adhering to the wool, or the 
hair, on the hinder parts of a sheep, or other animal. Another form of 
the word is Clod-olagB. 

Gloir-olaah, sb. Disturbance, or confusion; such as occurs when 
a house is turned inside out in the process of the spring * cleaning.' 
See Glow, Glower. 

dower, sb. One who works or labours at his occupation toilingly 
or heardly. 

• M 

A cfosMT at a trencher ;" a hearty feeder.' 

A dower eftcr pdf ;" a striver after money.' Wh. 01. 

Clay, sb. Nausea, inclination to vomit, or the sensation of it. 

O. N. Uia, to feel sick : Mia, nansea ; kHu lakningar, emetics. Comp. Sw. D. klo^ 
risings frmh the stomach, heartburn ; found also in composition, as vattm-klo — answering 
to oor Water-braah ; Cr. GL vHUttr-taum* ; HalliweU's water-springs or VKUtrspringt — 
and drownms-i/o, the regurgitation after drinking brandy. The idea involved in this is 
probably the origin of the expression ' as drank as cloy.* See Cloy, v. a. 

Cloy, V. a. To glut, satiate to the pitch of repletion, or rejection 
of more. 

In the expression 'as drunk as cloy' (see Wh. Gl. in v.), is not our veih the word 
employed? This would surely be a preferable explanation to, *as drunk as Chloe,* which 
has b«m suggested by some. See Cloy, sb. 

Clubster, sb. The stoat {Musiela ermtnea). 

Called club-iail in Line, and elsewhere — A. S. sttori, Fris. stert^ Dan. stiert, Sw. st;€rt. See, 
a tail — a name which leaves the origin of our word not at all doubtful. The merest com- 
parisfH) of the short stiff tail of the animal named, with, e. g., the flexible one of the rat, 
is a sufficient illustration of the appositeness of the name. 

Clodder, oluther, sb. A cluster, close group ; a large quantity, or 
iRMs of anything, gathered together. See Clodder. 

• " A fare dutber of money :" a great sum.' Wb. Ql. 



Clue, sb. Thread, string, colton, worsted, wound, whether into a baU, 
or upon a bobbin or card. 

Wcdgw. says ' the origin of thit word seems to be a form of the same clau with Welsh 
eloh, 1 lump: Russ. dub', a baJl, pellet; Lat. f^lobvs, x ball or sphere. The b readily pusc$ 
through ti into a w or u.' Comp. Dut. klamo, khuwe, a ball of yam ; Sw. D. IfJavte, klamte. 
ktovse; D»n. D. Itlaus: all with the same meaning. RJctz seems to refer these words to 
the vb. Ikliova^ to cleave, to separate, as their stem-word. Possibly, however, Pr. Pm. ' CTotv- 
ehyn, or clowe. clewc. Glomus, giobta,* indicates a guttural as the origin of the vt or v. 

Clxun, olumb, adj. Tenacious, viscid, sodden, doughy, sticking 
loughly together ; of heavy or clayey soil when trampled upon in a wel 
state ; of heavy, ill-baked bread. See Clung. 

Comp. N. Fri«. Hum, damp, sodden ; Sw. D. klam, apjdird to snow when moist enough 
to be compressed into a compact mass ; Dan. and N, Sax. klam ; O. N. krmnr, id. 

Clung, adj. i . Heavy, tenacious ; as clayey soils become after satu- 
ration with wet, especially if trampled or otherwise kneaded while in that 
slate, a. Very lough, tenacious, unyielding; of extremely close-grained 

A.S. etitigOM seems rather to express the toughening or stiffening process which is the 
result of gradual drying of thingi which have been wet. as in the case of the Sussex phnuc, 
o cittng bat, for a clung nick. Wedgw. Cf. ' Whan thou elyngtu for drie.* P. Ploigbm. 
p. 376. On the othrr hand, the idea of drying or withering is wanting in the Scand. forms 
of the word, and simple adhesion or coherence seems la be involved : as in Sw. kitinga, to 
cling, stick to, adhere ; Sw. D. Itliing-horrt, the bur-dock — literally, cling-hur ; and in Dan. 
hlyngt, a cluster, or knot ; hlyngtn, recipr. v., to collect or cluster together. This approxi- 
mates more to the idea of tenacious cohesion, which is the characteristic of our word. 

Clxinter. v. n. To walk or tread heavily, so as to make a noise with 
the feet, 

Comp. Dan. hlutttti, awkward, lump-like, or in a lumping way, from kluni, a block, x 
lump, which, there it little reason to doubt, suggests the original of our word. Wcdgw. 
quotes Dut. klunttt and klunt m the same sense as the Dan. words. 

Clunter, sb. Confusion, disarray, disorder. 

Sec CTlunter. v. n. The idea may be due to that of awkwardness or dnmsiacH. 

Coal-coop, coal-coup, sb. A coal-scuttle. 

Comp. O. N. hitpa. a circular vessel or pail ; Sw. D. huba. a round or oblong basket with 
two ears or handles ; piirt-kuba, a potato-coop ; also, Sw. D. and N. kuptt^ and Sw. D. kyfa, 
gryn-itypa \ with similar or analogous significations. Comp. A.u-ooup. See Ootxp. 

Cobble, oobble-stean, sb. A roundish stone of moderate size, such 
as may be used for ordinary paving. 

Wedgw. says, * from the sound of pebbles rolling on the beach.' Comp., however, 
N. kvppel, a cobble-stone ; while Sw. D. has both i'obh, a lesser rock, nicb as is not quite 
covered by the water, and kobbel, a Men or boundary-stone. The latter may probably 
be a derivative from, if not a form o(, O.N. kvmbl, a pile, a Buck; while the fanacr, 
as probably, is nearly related to 00b in our Oob-«tOQa, cob-nut; cob * head; and to 
cop, a mouud, the top or summit. See. See Hall. The idea seems to be that o( a rounded. 


ap>itabding lor&ce, like that of the opper portion of the human head, and the word itself 
to be refetrible to A. S. cop, eopp, the top. oilmen ; Fris. and L. Germ, hopj the same ; and 
the like. Wedgw., however, takes eob as meaning * a blow, and thence, as usual, a lump 
or thick mass of anything,' referring the word to W. cofr, eabio. Comp. Pr, Pm. 

* Oobj^Utims, or cherystone. PttriUa^ lapU ctrasmus, ciramu$' 

Cobble, V. a. I. To throw stones at, pelt with stones or dirt. 2. To 
pave with Cobbles or rounded stones. 

Cobble-tree, sb. A swingle-tree; the bar to the ends of which the 
traces of a draught-horse are attached before the plough or in double 
harness. Comp. Stretcher. 

This may be simply mupU-trtt; Dan. koUt : as wieingle^et^ from Dan. svingel. 

Gobbling, sb. A stoning or pelting with Cobbles and such like 

Cobby, adj. Brisk, lively, hearty ; in good health. 

Comp. Sw. D. hopugur, rigorous, lively : a word applied to the sea when the waves move 
briskly and with consequent sound. 

Coble, sb. A kind of boat peculiar to the north-east coast, in use 
among the fishermen and pilots, with sharp bows, flat, sloping stem, and 
without a keel; used also as a pleasure-boat at the various watering- 
places on the said coast. 

Welsh etubalt a boat. From this source, perhaps, the A. S. word euopU, a coble, small 
ship, naricula (Bosw.), originally proceeded. 

* And^alH of stag in lytlum scipe t in cuopit:' and when he ascended into a little ship 
or coble. Nortbumb. GosptU^ Matt viii. aS. 

Cob-stones, sb. Stones of a size to be thrown, or which may be 
applied to paving purposes. Sec Cobble, sb. 

Cook-light, sb. (pr. cock-leeght). Day-dawn, the hour of * cock- 
crow,' when the first gleams of light shew themselves. 
Comp, * The cock, that horiloge is of thorpes Ute,' Assembly ofFotdes^ iv, 104. 

* The image,' it is said in the note, * brings before us the little remote village, or thorpe, 
and the hinds called up in the early morning by the crowing of the cock, their only boro- 
hgt or dock.* 

Cookly, adj. Unsteady on its basis; easily moved or overthrown; 
wavering. Brock, gives the form * cogly.' 

The origin of this word is probably the same as that of Dan, ivgUt and Geim. h/gelf 
a ball ; hug^^ to roll ; O. N. iogla, id. ; and the idea is that of a standing body, but staniU 
ing on an unsteady basis, as a globular one would be. Wedgw. derives the word from 

* eockf a rapid movement,' which he connects with Du. kokeUn, to juggle, * from the rapid 
movements of a juggler's tricks.' 

Cock o' t' midden, sb. One able and disposed to assert his supre- 


Cook-shut, sb. The uWlight hour at the close of the day. Comp. 

Cod, sb. 1. A bag« of leather, as in Fireood; natural, as in the 
scrotum, a. A pod; the shell or outer envelope of peas, beans, &c. 

A. S. ecdd, a big, lack. cod. Comp. Welsh rod. cm/, the same : Bret. h6d* god, a 
pocket; O.N. koddi, a ciubion; i.e. a bag with ^»ccial contents; Sw. hudde, a ca&hion, 
but also the bau; containing it; a pod. Collate pod with Dan. pudi, a pillow, ai well as 
e<yd with O. N. Itoddi, Sw. htddt. Wedgw. ii of uplnioti that there is a near coonectioci 
between the words in qnesdon. as in Gael, piod or c^orfsKngliih clod or dof. 

Cf. Pr. Pm. * Coddi, of frutc. or pesccodde. Sitiqua.' 

* O belie I O womlK I And O stinking cod 

Fuliillcd of dong and of comipdoun 1* Pardottir^i Tali, p. 134. 
In the following extract, Tawn^. Mytt, p. 84, 

• For even or for od I have mekylle teiic. 
As bevy as a tod I grete with niyn ecnc. 
When I nap on tny cod, for care that has bene. 

And torow,' — 
the sense of the word is pillow, bolster. Cf. ' I lerricale cum eotSter contexta.' Pr. Fincb. 
clr, * Oodd, a pillow or cushiou.* Brockett. 

Coif, sb. A woman's cap or head-dress, of a style which used to be 
worn in days gone by. 

O. N. fwr/, a hood, a covering for the bead. Comp. O. N. kd{/r, a ipecies of female 
head-gear. Hald. Allied to bu/a, Sw. bu/va, Dan. bve, A. S. bufi. The S. Q. form of our 
word is bwi/; Sw. D. bviv. Sec Ihre and Uosworth. Co^ffi seems to have been the name 
for the head-covcriug of the tonsured clergy. Note to Cappc, Pr. Pm. Also, note to 
Coy/e — ' A coyfe, pilliuf, piUcoius. PiUius cstjuvtmtim, pertgrinumqu* galtrum* 

Collar, sb. The leathern Hoad-stall, or halter by which the horse is 
secured to its stall in the stable. See Head-stall. 

Collier, sb. The swift or deviling (Cypselus apus), 

CoUop, sb. A sliced piece of meat or bacon. Used also fij^ratively 
to express, according to the connection, tlte ideas of costliness, distaste- 
fulness, &c. 

Ihre quotes the word kollopt, dices of meat, well beaten and softened before cooldng, as 
conunou to the O. Sw. and English tongues. * Fruiii clop or eoJp, represeittiag the sound 
of a lump of something soft thrown on a flat surface,* says Wcdgw. Ihre is more cautious : 
' If,' says he, ' the word originated in the kitchen, I sliould not doubt its connection with 
lilappa, klop/tn' Probably, however, the source of the word is more distant, and not un- 
connected with the root of iroAotfot, a cut-off piece; «oA.o3<iai, to cut short, to mutilate. 
Kichardsoti's derivation is ' Collop, by corruption from the obi'ilcle collow or eolly, to make 
black with a coal, and thni applied to anything of similar form and shape to a coihp' {U It 
is worthy of notice, as at least a curious coincidence, that while Ihre mentions Gr. xilAAs^. 
pars spitidc bovii, — and this word, in its metaphorical sense, moans ' a youth hardened in 
debauchciy' (Doiinegan).— in li-Tt. Ol. wc find that ' a young spendthrift is pronmuKcd t** 
be a cottly coihp to his parents.* 


Ezampk of mettph(»ical lenie: — ■**!! will be a costly coJ/o^ to him"»prove a Tcry 
ejq)eiisire undertaking.' Wh. Ol. 

* ** A san*t eolkp ;** something ixritating or disagreeable or hard to put up with.' lb. 

* '* Ood sane the Queene of England," be said, 

'* for her blood is rerry neshe. 
As neere nito her I am 

u a eoUo^ shome from the fleshe." ' Percy's Fol. MS. i. 141. 

CoUop-lEoaday. The Monday before Lent, a day on which the 
cnstomary dish is CoUopfl — ^i. e. racers of bacon, and eggs. 

* The pocnr in the country now go about and beg coUops for the feast, of their richer 
neighbours.' Wh. Ol. 

* A cock and bacon are, in some farm-houses, boiled on the day after CoUop'Mondt^, 
ShroTc-Tuesday, or Fassn'»4Te ; aiul if any one omits to do justice to the dish, Uobthrust 
is sore, at ni^t, to cram him fall with bigg-chaff.' Brockett, in v. SobtbruU. 

Come again. To, v. n. Of a ghost, or the spirit of a deceased person. 

Comp. Dan. gjin-gaiigtr, a ghost, that which goes again; gjm/ard, an apparition or 
ghost ; Sw. gtngangar§ ; Sw. D. gm-Jard, The south of England expresuon is * to walk.' 

Come-away, v, n. (pr. cow-away, or cow-wa). To be on the move, 
leaving one's present place of tarrying or resting. 

Comp. Do-way, u in the passages below : — 

* Angdut. Do wa, Joseph, and mend thy thoght ' TcwHd. Mytt. p. 79. 
* " Mak, with youre lefe, let me gyf youre bame bot ri pence." 
Mak, * '* Nay, do way : he slepys." * Ih.p.i 14. 

Come by, v. n. To move on one side, so as to be out of the way of 
one passing by. 

Come-by-ohonoe, sb. An illegitimate child. Called also Chanoe- 
baim, iKsre-begot, &c. 

Comp. O. N. laim-gtHnn, faxto genitus, stealth-gotten, u another Instance of the spirit 
which prompts the coinage of such names. 

Comen, p. p. of to Come. 

* ** Qxa and see, bairn, gin Jossy be eomut.*^ * 

* What tydings hast thou brought me, child ? 

thou art eomm home so soone to me.' Percy's Foi. MS, i. 183. 
Comp. ' oner eonuiu' R*l, Puca, p. 43. 

Co3xmu)ther, sb. A godmother. 

Comp. Fr. eommirt, A.S. cmthpctdtr, god£ither ; the latter given by Bosw. 

Company, sb. Any assemblage of persons for a special purpose ; 
attendance at public worship, for instance; or at a concert or lecture. 

Conceit, v. a. (pr. consate). To suppose or assume ; to be of 

* I muat» you'll be frae Lonnun.* Wb. Gl, 

q 2 



Neat in person and figure ; pretty, pleasing to look at ; 

I. To consider, think over. 2. To persuade or 

Conceited, adj. (pr. consated). Somewhat flighty, weak, apt to 
entertain silly notions. 

'•'A consated body;*' a person given to fooliih Dotioiu or of ncrvoo* tempoamenl-' 

Conjuror, sb. One able to exorcise the devil or to lay ghosts. 

The power inrolred here is, or was until lately. hcU to reside in the clergy ; aiid I hi»e 
niyscU' been applied to by a woman, who was sane enough in most points, to lay certain 
spirits which pertinaciously ilisturt*ed her : unc the ghn^t oi a deceased ' niiiiis tcr ;' another 
the evil one himself. But the power oi the Cliuroh-prieata, or clergymen of the Church 
of England, was held to be light, or almost nothing, in comparison with that of the Roman 
Catholic pfiesii. See Ord's Hut, of Ctewland, p. 301. 

Conny, adj. 

Comp. Sw. D. Kni, komt, fyan, ktim, neat, pretty, handsome, pleasant and pleasant- 
looking; Dan. Itjmn (tn the pi. tjomtu); Old Dan. and jut). kOi. Comp. also the mod. 
Dan. use: tn ^f/Bi pige, a conny maid; saa ladtr en kone kjoni i ei hnti, in the Clcvel. 
vernacular, ' a niisthrcss i' t' huoss '$ conny t' sec;' ' den gaard bar cxniei kjomne pemge :* 
that farm cost a conny lot o' brass ; or Anglice, * a pretty penny/ See Canny. 

Con over, v. a, 
talk one over. 

O. N. kenna ; S. O. kmtna ; Sw. and Sw. D. katma : D. kiende ; Fris. ktnna, kamna : Qam. 
ketmfn: A. S. mmrton. The ligiiilicatton of tlie latter word is to enquire, search into, con; 
of the others, generally speaking, to know, to take knowledge of. In O. Sw. kitwui. and 
in Sw. Dial, kiinna^ there are senses almost exactly coioddeni with oun. Thus, as to sense 
a, nea kannrr nod nakna kono spinnii : neceuity teaches or persuades the naked woman lo 
spin, quoted by both Ihre and Kictz. So also of O. E. kern. 

Consumpted, pcpl. SiilTering under consumption or phthisis. 

' T* doct'r say* he 's hearily cwtsumpted ' 

Coom, cum, sb. Dust, fine dirt; also dust or scrapings of wood 
produced by the saw, or in other modes. See Saw-com. 

O. N. ktim, a speck or spot of dust, stx>l or smut, Szc. Comp, Sw. D. kam, dull, as bright 
metal becomes by the lodgment of dust, or conosion ; Dut kaam, particles of mould on 
beer or vinegar; Germ, kahm, the same. 

• Cb»iy*. of nulie.' Pr. Pnu ' Cummyngc as malte, gemuHattn.' Cath. Amgl. (note, Ih.) 

Coop, coup, sb. A vessel of wood, possiWy made wiih staves, and 
something of tlie pail description, though not necessarily so now. See 
Ass-coup, Coal-coop, &c. 

' Oiufe or coulc for capons or other poultric ware.' Pr. Pm. note to CooaU, A eoio^ 
is a tub. and eoo^ or (o«/v synonymous with it. 

Ooofloot, sb. The ringdove {Cofumha palumbus), 

A. S. cii$ctou. The name takes a rariely of forms— coiMfo/, evwhott etiMhiU, ciaia-doo. 


hmt^^ cutehetttt &c. Brock, sn^eiti that the name it due to * A. S. euut chaste, in 
alhuton to the coojugal fidelity of the bird,* pigeons of all kinds being understood to be 
particnlariy faithful in their loves : whence Chaucer's notice of the turtle-dore, — 

* The wedded tartelle, with his herte true/ Bell's Chaucer, it. 204. 

CordwaiQer, sb. A shoemaker. 

/v. Pm. * Ootdmuur, Alvtarha. Cordunmt, ledyr.' 

* His shone of eordtwant.' Rimt of Sir TTrnpaZt p. I45. 

* & doe me of thy eordiuant shoone.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. 185. 

And in the note to the same,-*' Cordivant : proprU cordwane, corium denominatum a Cor- 
doba, urbe HispanisB. The same as Morocco leather, i. e. cordovan. Cardouan, properly 
a goat's skin tanned. Cotgr.' * Of felles of ghect, or of the bukke make men good 
fordewan.' Note to Pr. Pm. (ut supra). 

In St. Oiafi Saga (FUtey. ii. 34), when the author gives an account of Olaf 's visit 
to his mother and stepfather, King Sigordr Syrr, the latter being busy in the harvest field 
vhien the risit is announced, and not in fit array consequently to receive so distinguished 
a vintor sniubly, this is the notice given of his toilet :— * Then sat King Sigurdr down and 
caused draw off his ordinary shoes and drew on hose of corthvan {kwdunobosur), and 
bound cm his gilt span. Then took he off his cape and kirtle and put on a robe of fur,' &c. 
Whence nrdrntan was erid«itly a portion of what the Cleveland folks call their * Sunday, 
or bcttenny cleeas.* 

Com, sb. A single grain or particle of any substance or article 
usually found aggregated; e.g. of sand, salt, wheat, shot, A:c. 

Comp. Sw. D. horn {del iom or smStt, anything that is little ; bUrtt-kom being used as 
a word of affection or pettingV Especially observe the Dan. use of the word — * any quite 
small and round, or nearly round, object.' Molb. Guldet jituUs undertidm i kom : gold 
may be occasionally met with in corns. Sand-kom, bvede-kom ; senngps-korn, mustard<om ; 
§eiup*i-<om, A. S. and N. Gospds; bagel'kom, hail-cora; peber-kom, and many other like 
COTapoonds are in continual use. LwU Ol. gives corns of tobacco, af^Iied to the shreds 
left in an exhausted tobacco-box. 

Corpse-yatt, corpse-yett, sb* A lych-gate. 

Corruption, sb. Pus, or matter from an ulcer, boil, &c. 

Corre, curve, 'sb. A small waggon, wheel-less, but having iron 
runners, in use in the coal-pits. 

• Corf, a Urge basket made of strong hazel-rods, called eorf-rods, in which the coals are 
drawn from the pits.' Brock. Oor Corves, though now made by the carpenter and shod 
by the smith, yet retain the old name. Cf. O.N. iatfa, korf; Sw. horg ; Dan. kurv\ N. S. 
and Dnt. korf; Germ. horh. 

Cot, sb. A man who does those ofl&ces for hunself which are usually 
done by a female in a house. 

Mr. Wedgwood comiects this with • Cotquean' (which he also spells quotquean), 'an 
effeminate man, a man inteilering in women's concerns. Du. kutte; Fin. kutta, kuttu, the 
distinctive feature of a ^loman ; thence as a term of abuse for a feeble womanly man.* But 
the old Sw. word iatisquintta, a strumpet, from S.G. kdl (salax, lasdvus). Ihre— Sw. D. 
M/, idur, and Dan. Itaad, having the same sense stiU— suggesU another origin for cot-quean ; 



and I do not we any rery eridnit connection between onr Oot and the true wnsc of 
cot-*fvean, I should be more inclined to refer it to the iune source with Sw. D. kutur^ 
kafur, kyUnr, a poor lodger in ■ cottage; O.N. hoHMgr ; O.N. and S. G. kot-itarl. a poor 
cottager ; the secondary or derived meaning being, a miierably poor or wretched being, who 
would nituraliy be obliged to do cvcrj-thing for himself, whether wonun's work or not. 
See Cot vb., and Cf. Pr. Pm. ColtrtlU and note. 

Cot, V. n. To cook for one's self; to do one's own household work. 

CotOy sb. A building, hovel or shed, the customar)- dwelling of some 

species of domestic animal ; e. g. Pig-cote, Shooi>-cote, Hen-cote, &c. 

O.U.kol: %,Q.1t&it; Sw.D.MM; \>AX\.\y. hodtU; S.]MX\.had: Ymn.knta; A.S.cdU; 
N. Fris. and U.S.kais: M/ti.G.koit; Dut. jto/. &c. ; Will, ewtt: Hisia.JniUr,Jktti; Sanscr. 
kota, hUa. Pr. Pm. * Coote, lytylle bowse (colli, coiche, cossbe). Casa,' See Or. Ot. 

Gotten, cotton, v. n. To think and feel with another ; to agree with 
him ; to take very kindly to him. 

IlalJ. speaks of this word as * a common archaism** by which he probably means that it is 
commonly met with in old writers. Rich, sayi * it is, perhaps, merely, — to be. or cause to 
be. like cotton, as soft, as easy, as yielding as cotton ; and thus to take an3rthing easily or 
quietly ; ... to yield, to accede, to agree to.* It is more probable that, springing from 
the same root as evtton, it simply implies the idea of intimacy, harmony of senltmeat and 
feeling, as a derivative from that of coherency or sticking together, as clotted wool, or locks 
of hair, &c., do. Corop. oui oottcr, and cot, a fleece of wool matted together in its 
rrowth. Wedgw. Comp. also Germ, zote, the knots on a fleece, clotted hair or locks; 
Sw. liittt = z nomber of hairs stickmg together. Hilpcrt. See cJumple to Cotter, and note 
eot-garr, refuse wool so dotted together that it caimot well be pulled asunder. UaU. 
Comp. also S. G. toiU, amicus. 

' " I cannot cotttn to him :" yield to him ; give up my views for bis.' Wb. Ot. 

* Wc can't cct/en together in any ihape.* lb. 

Cotter, V, n. i . To become entangled, to run into a confused twisted 
and interlaced mass, as string, thread, or worsted, carelessly handled, 
does. 2. To contract or nm up, as a woollen fabric does under the 
action of moisture. 

See To cotteu or ootton. Comp. Lang, eouiou, wool ; ro»^. nutted ; coutitsts, the 
dotted locki of wool from near the uil ; Wadl. cott, fleece of wool ; Germ. zoU, a doued 
lock of wool ; kotxMt, shaggy, oottered, &c. 

1. * All fettered and cotttnd like a wild colt's back.* Wb* Ot. 

' Cotttrtd up into snock soarb.' lb. 

Cotterila, cotterelB, sb. Goods in general ; money, cash. ( Wh. GL 
adds, ' materials.') 

May not the idea be of that which has, so to speak, grown tonther,— of aecretiocu of 
substance, — and which therefore has come to form one lot or mass? See Cotien. Cotter. 

Coul, sb, A wheal or lump on the person, such arrises after a blow. 

Sw. D. ktU, a lump, knob, hump; ' ba m kul pd ryggM .* he has a hump on his back ; 
Sw. kuia. a bump ; O. N. M/a. 



Ooul, V. a. To scrape or rake together ; to pull towards one with 
a rake or other instrumeni. 

Fr. cudlUr, leenu to propose itidf to oar notice here. The Sw. dialects have lyZ/or or 
kjotlor, to tie a lot of thingi together ; Xtytts or kjbiti, a proraisctiout mixture of thingi of 
different snrts ; iytta, to bundle thingi together carelessly ; but I doubt the connection with 
oar word. It is possible that it niay be connected with O. E. cowUt a tub or vessel, the use 
of a unatler specimen of which for collecting matters together h conceivable. 

' Tommy has spilt some o* t' flour oot o' t' poke, an* he 's couling it oop wiv his hands 
a^n.' Lftd* Gi. 

* He's gcttcn a stick wiv a gib tiv it, to eoul thac fiowcrs oot in t* beck/ 

Oonler, sb. A wooden scraper, with a long shaft, used for pulling 
mould, &c. towards one. 

' Reach me here yon eouter, David ;' spoken by a sexton who wai about to nie Uie 
impkmcDt desigiuted for tlie purpose of pulling the up-cast earth back iuto the grave. 

Coul-press, oowl-press, oow'-prise, sb. A lever of wood, or staff 
capable of being used as a lever. 

* Mr. Maloue says, that in Essex, cowl is used for tub; and hence that eowt-ntaff'a a staff 
to cany tub* or baskets' (A. S. cau/l, cowl} ' by the handles. Holland (in his Pliny) renders 
fusut by boitoHS, elvbs and couUtaves* Rich, in v. Cou4. 

'Take up these cloathcs hccre, quicklv. Whcr's the cow/«-staffe ?* Merry Whas a/ 
Wind, Act iil. Sc. 3. 

It is more than open to question if our present word has any connection with ctnt/l, in 
either lenie, tub or basket, it is met with in the forms cGupraise, Hall. ; courpreu, eour-prisi 
Cr. Gl. : as well as in those given above, all of which seem 10 be corruptions of the com- 
pound word ctyui'prett or -prise (comp. Colpicie^ Pr. Finch, lii ; Coipice, a lever, Hall.), 
the first member of which is due to O. N. kylfva^ S. G. hylfva, Sw. D. kylla, hyla. kolva^ 
a club, a strung, thick slick ; Dan. i&ile, M. H. G. kvite, N. S. kiUe, Germ, keule : the latter 
to O. N. /rfsso, O. Sw. ^crsa, D*n. pene, S.S.parsen, It should be observed that, uiilil 
a comparatively recent period, the press depended upon leverage for the power of compres- 
sion (Stained, and the majority of the cheese-presses in this district are made on that 
pnncipic still ; as are also not a few presses of other kinds, the printing-press, copying-press, 
Hu., not excepted. But suppose for a moment the relative positions of the /n/crvm and the 
poiru d'ttppui inverted, and the pressing power becomes a prising, or tn our dialed, paaing, 
power ; tlie latter word resulting from the form peru — comp. penevere always pro- 
ootmccd /osaeMTf, or pa'shur*. Oaal-press or Ooul-prise, therefore, Becms to be simply, 
wooden lever. 

Coul-rako, sb. A rake or scraper for collecting or scraping up 
manure, dirt, ashes, &c. 

Pr. Pm. ' Coole rake (col rake). Rtstdlunit haltUum.' ' Cowyl rayk de ferro." Pinch, 
Pr. ccxcix. 

Cotuna, sb. Hollow-lying places recessed among the hitls or banks 
running up to the moor: a local designation of not unfrcquent occur- 

Welsh cttttn, a valley; whence comes the term comb, a low place enclosed with hills, 
a valley; quoted by Bosw. in hi:^ A.S. Diet. 



Coup, V. a. I . To barter, to exchange one article for another in the 
way of bargain or trade, a. To overset or overturn; a cart, e. g., so as 
to empty, or for the purpose of emptpng it. 

O.^. itaupa; S. G. IcHpn, to traffic, to barter. It must be obsen'cd that the ancient 
kaupmaCr or kiipman must have conducted much of hit bu«tnrs» on the principle of barter ; 
and these verbs JQtt named, with their analogues in the other Northern tongues and dialeas, 
all cany the meaning of to excbangr, as wiU as thai of buying and selling outright. Thua 
in Ihrc is qnoted the phrase. — kopajord ijcrd: to coup land against land ; and again. — kdpa 
til bit/tra ocb tj till mmhra : to change for the better, and not for the wone. In fad, in 
coup we have what Rietx calls the general meaning of condudmg a deal or cxchinge ; aa 
in Chap we understand his straitest sense {tinJirdnitaite btmiirkclu) of an out-and-out 
purchase. Sw. lopa, Sw. D. Iraupii, ktpn^ Dan. kj^bt, A. S. cuipieim, ref/nn. O. Germ, knujian. 
Germ, kau/tn. Sec, are other verbs cognate with thoK already given. From the ien>e of 
to exchange, to chop (another form of coup : comp. O. Germ, ebon/, and the imp. and sup. 
of Sw. D. kep<i, viz. kjt]ffii, kjtiffi), that is of one dealer turning over articles to another, so 
that the articles in question change place as well as hands, comes the seiise of a literal turn- 
ing over, or over-setting, as in 2. 

I. ' Will you CO*/ scats with mc?' 

' 1 11 coup thee ;* = I Ml exchange with you. 

Coup, coup-cart, sb. A cart with a pole, but only two wheels, to 
wliich oxen were customarily yoked. See Hopping-tree. 

Broclcctt defines Cnup-eart as • a short team, closed with boards.' In Fincb. Pr. Imvetii. 
p. Hi. the entry. * i eoupt bodi pro fimis' occurs. Coupe-urngoni are also specified in the 
same documents, whence the editor objects to Brockctt'k dctinitinn, and assumes that 
the bodies weie 'cooped* or planked at the sides, instead of, as more cnstonutily, nikd. 
Cf. coup or coup*t our Coop a pail or wooden vessel. 

Couping-word, sb. The final or decisive word which establishes the 

bargain or other transaction. 

Comp. O. Sw. kiiptimal, koptnal, the verbal part of making a bargain ; Sw. D. hamp^ogOt 
Sw. kiiptiaga, to strike a bargain ; kop-aiagan, the completed striking of a bargain. Ihre 
quotes Germ. J^uf'%cblagm, that (oUigation, namely) which is suppo»ed to arise from 
shaking- bauds on completing a bargain. 

Coup over, v. n. To fall or tumble over. 

• •• He couptd ow€r heeads an* tails ;*' he threw summersets.* Wh. Ql. 

* Puir Uhtlc bairn, it 's eouped owtr, an' hotten itselV 

Couther, v. a. i. To comfort by the aid of refreshment and warmth, 
or other means. 2. To make better of a sickness by the use of remedies. 

I am inclined to refer this to euti* the imperf. of A. S. ennntvi, to know, to be able, at the 
origin of the O. E. adjective cotitb*. with its gradation of meanings, known, familiar, ailible. 
kind, comforting, comfortable, and so. refreshing. The word is of continual ocoirrencc in 
the old writera in the four first of these aciiscs, and Janitew^n gives examples of the Otben : 
thus, * the spcncc waj ay coutbit and clean.' Jam. Popular Batlads. 
* A mankie gown of our ain kintra growth 
Did mak them very braw, and unco eoutb' Gallowoyt Poemt, 
' CleanNncss is cxmtbie, said the wife, quhen she turned her cuurclie." Sc. Prxm, 
And. the adjective once in use in these senses, a vb. might easily be formed ftom it. 
adniiltiitg uf atiaU»^ous application, 


13 1 

Covine, cuwinB, sb. Periwinkles or pinpatches ; tlie common sea- 
snails, eaten with the aid of a pin to extract them : ( Turbo bVoreus), 

O.N. hi/itngr, kufungr, and kutiungr ; N. D. hnmng, htungje, ihe sca-sDiil or peri- 
winkle : more generally a sniil-Uiell, from O. N. ku/r, coiirexitas ; N. -hrt', ku, a small 
loond protnincnce or bump: Sw. D. Iw. a small rounded heap, or knob on an otherwUc 
even tnrfacv, which caprcsf the idea suggested by the furnt of the pinpatch in its natural 

Covin-aoar, sb. The low Sat expanse of rock especially, where 
Covins, or pinpatches, are found in quantity. See Soar. 

Cow, V. n. I. To subdue, render tractable. 2. To bend or twist: 
hence 3. To walk with the foot atwist, or turned awkwardly inwards. 
See Pow. 

O.N. kuga, cogere, adigere; O. Sw. kvfwa: Sw. kvjva; Sw, D. hugga; Dan. *■(#, to 
constrain, kubdue. make to yield, to bend : • d* hprm, sorn 4w« undtr vaxttn :' children who 
are taught to obey while young. Molb. 

1. • His wife wiU coio him, 1 '11 a-warraut her.' H-l. Ol. 

J. * Cokitd ihoa ;' aboes worn down on one side ; twisted by awkward walking. 

3* * " To cow and pow ;" to walk atwist, or with the toes turned iiiwaid.' Wb. OI. 

Cow-byre, sb. The farm-building appropriated to the use of the 
cows. See Byre. 

Cow-olagB, Bb. Probably a corruption of Clow-clags ; which see. 

Cowdy, adj. Frisky, frolicsome, pert. 

O. N. kdir; S. O. Jiat, full of life and spirits ; Sw. D. W/, kAfer, h&d; Dan. kaad, lively, 
froticsome, wild with overflowing health aud spiiJtt. * R*t %om man seer den kaade dreng, 
dei ny% tr tluppen ud fra tvang og ikole:' just as one may lee a coicwfy tad, newly escaped 
from constraint and school. Molb. 

Cower, V. n. (pr. coor). i. To crouch down, to squat, to stoop low 
by t>ending the knees, or sitting on one's heels, or the like. 2. To be 
or become submissive. 

Wedgw. is in doubt whether to consider the r as intrusive, marking a frequentative form 
of the verb, or as an essential part of the root. In support of the latter view he quotes 
* the Celtic ifKl Finnish rclaiioiis,* instaticiiig Welsh cwr, a corner, nook ; twrian^ to squat, 
to cower : £sth. kdar, crookedness : Fin. iaari^ bow, curvature. But the purely Scand. 
relations arc omitted or unnoticed, and they surely settle tlic question. Thus, referring 
M ptuMuU to O. N. hum, to maintain a crouching posture, expressive of abject stib- 
miuion, misery or despair, wo find S. G. innra^ to hide oneself, bending the legs in 
order to do so; Sw. D. hum, \o bow oneself down for the purpose of concealment, to tit 
bowed together with the head on the breast ; Dan. D. hura, 10 hide oneself by docking 
one's head down ; N. hrra, to bow down the head on the breast, to rcmam quiet and 
cowering. Molb. quotes ' hurt, som en hone paa ag tUer hylling :' to cower, as a hen 
over eggs or chickens. Further, the phrase, gammel bwnd at twra, for an old hound 
to cower, is given in Molb. Deuuk Oio*s. The second sense follows naturally as a derivative 
from the firrt. 

3. ' 1 *ll mak' thee coor under mc.' Wh. QK 



Cow-footed, adj. Having an awkw-ard gait ; of a person who walks 
with the toe turned in and on the outer side of his foot. See Cow. vb. 

Cow-gate, sb. Pasturage for a single cow. See Oate. 

Cow-grip, sb. The channel in the floor of the cow-house just behind 
the part where tlie cows stand, intended lo carry off the Hig, or urine, 
&c., of the cows. See Q-rip. 

Cowl, V. a. To clip, or cut close. 

S. G. kuUa, rcrticis capiUm abradcre : Sw. D. kulta, lo clip the hair : htuU, the same ; 
and to cut the wool off, a iheep, namely. Corop. aUo O. N. koilr, bal<i-pate. CoU in Jam. 

' I'll cou4 his topping for him;' Wb. Ol.\ — explained mistakenly by the comptlec «s 
meauing. * I '11 pull bit hair for him.' 

Cow-lady, sb. The lady-bird {CoccifuUa bipumtata or sepUm-pufi<latd\^ 
See Lady-olook, Lady-cow. 

This U a curioai inversion of both name and lente; the name being curious, lo be^ 
with, as presenting an interesting analogue to continental words. The Fr. names are 
Vmbt a Dieu, BiVr n Dieu, and Bftt d* la Vitrrt ; the Germ. Ootfn-kubittH, little cow ; 
Gotta-kalb ; Hcrr-Got/ei-fbitrcben, MaruH-iealHexH or kalbcben ; and then come in the 
countetparts to our E. Lady-bird^ riz. Maritnvoglein {Herr-goftet-vogfein, also), Marun- 
bubn. Unsfrt Herrn-huhn serve* to introduce Dan. I'or Herrt% Nmne: and Marit~, or Mari- 
bmnt, corresponds to two of the Germ, names already quoted. Germ. Meaitn-kafer inrwen 
to our Clevei. Lady-dook, and the south-country Ladf-hug. 'Just as in the cue of 
divers plants and stars,' says Grimm, speaking of these lumes, ' lo here the name of Mary 
seems to have superseded that of Freya, and Marisbmm in old days was Fn^ubana, which 
also lies at the root of our Frautn-bmnt. Frautn-tubltiM.' It does not seem absolutely cer- 
tain that the old names of two beetles {Chryfomtla and Cocct/ulla) have not t>ecn confused 
in the list above given ; for in Upper Germany the little Galdhnfer {CbrytomMa), is called 
frauacbuili or U«b€ frnut benjt, in antithesis to berrnebutlo (the Lady-bird or coccinetia) ; 
though, as Grinmi remarks, the names probably altenute between both the beetles specified. 
This remark is llJustrated by the fad that he quotes Sw. Jungfrv Marie ityeietpiga, the 
Virgin Mary's key-maiden, as tlie Go/rf berdi, while another authority niakrs it to be the 
Lady-<ou>. In spring time the Swedish girls let them creep about their hands with the say- 
ing, — ' Now, you shall show me my bride's glove.* Should the insect 6y away, then, what- 
ever direction it niay take, from that quarter the bridegroom will be sure to come. Thus 
the creature has evidently been regarded as a messenger of the Goddess of Love, or Freya. 
But an augury of another kind, also, has been drawn from the number of spots on its wing* 
covers. Should they be more than seven, com in the ensuing year would t>c sure to be dear ; 
if, on the otJier hand, fewer, ■ plentiful harvest might be reckoned upon. Oui own — 
* Lady-bird, Lady-bird, fly away home, 
Your house is on 6re, your children will burn :' 
or, u others read it, ' your children do roam/ or, * thy children are flown,* may be set side 
by side with the Germ. ' Mary chafer, fly away I Your house is on fire ! Your mother is 
crying, your father sitting on the door-«tep. Fly off, either to heaven or hcUl' German 
childicn have also another address of the kind. Taking either a cockchafer or ft Lftdy* 
0€fw, they set it on thdr linger and question it thus ; — 

* May-bug, May-bug. tell this to me. 

How many yeiri my life b to be? 

One year, two year*,' &c.. 


' onto the little beetle, wiioie faome-pUce is the toxaxj air,' layt Gnmin, * files away and 
settles the qoestioa.' hi Switserland, it is fiirtber added, the children place a gold beetle 
oo tbdr handst and say, 

* O dufer, O chafer, fly off and awa' 

For milk and Uxt bread and a silver spo<m bra.' 

* Chafers in days of yore,' concludes the eminent philotoger, ' mnst have been rej^ded as 
the messengers and confidants of the gods.' 

Cow-leedh, sb. A cow-doctor, a veterinary surgeon, or * Horse-doctor' 
of the South. 

Oow-paatore, sb. A pasture-field near the farm-stead, always kept in 
grass and always fed; never mowed, that is. 

Crack, v. n. i. To give a loud or resonant report, like a thunder- 
dap. 3. To boast or talk of in self-gratulatory tone. 

* Hnnteres wyth hyje home lusted hem after, 
vyth sndi a erakkand$ kry, as klyffes haden bmsten/ 

Sir Ottw. and Or. Kn. 1165. 
Comp. Germ, kraebm^ to crash ; dler Jtraehen dt$ dorour^ the burst of thunder. The 
mwd is also api^ied to the roar of artillery or the report of a single cannon. Cf. ' But when 
the^ beard our great guns erakke,* Vtccft Fol. MS. i. p. 136. Comp. also Sw. D. don*- 
tkrafp, crack of thunder. In its second sense, which results easily from the first, the word 
was bk extensive use in archaic, and in eren more recent, periods. Thus, Town4. Mytt. 

* Both bosten and bragers God krpe us fro. 
That with thare long dagns dos mekylle wo. 
From alle bylle hagers with colknyfes that go, 
Siche wryers and wragers gose to and fro 

For to erak' 
Chaiiccr*s Miller (/Z«*m*s Talt\ 

* Cracktd host, and swore it was not so ;' 
and TnrberriUe, quoted in Rich., says — 

' Then cease for shame to vaunt 
And Crowe in eraking wise.* 
a. * To hear him eraci^ yan 'd say he wadn't own t' Queen, wiv her crown ov her heead, 
gin she cam* tiv 'im and said, " Hoo is 't wi' thee. Tommy ?" ' 

Oraok, sb. i. A crash or peal (of thunder). 2. (And especially in 
the pL), chat, talk, news. 

Pr. Pm. ' Crakkt, or dyn. Cnfiitustjragor* 

I. ■ A flaaysom' thoonner-cnicA, for seear. T' wur fit t* bmst yan's ears I ' 

a. * What erackt, lad, doon i* t* Iow-«ahd?' 

The second sense flows from the first — or rather, from the general sense, sound — by the 
arbitrary limitation of that kind of sound whidi is produced by the human voice in ordinary 

Oraoky, adj. i. Not quite sound of intellect: equivalent to the more 
Southern ' cracked.' a. Given to or fond of retailing gossip, talkative. 

B a 



Crafty, adj. Ingenious, skilful, inventive. 

A. S. era/tig, ingmiout, ikilful. Bosw. ' The A. S. trttft^ iay« Molb., ' tignific* know- 
ledge, cunning, or skill ;' and our present word is aii interesting instsnce of the pretervatiou 
of the origiiul lignificatjoii uf a word which otherwise would hftve cetiincd only an invidiotu 
seiuc. However, while in Sir Gam. and tbi Gr. Kn. we read 

• The itif roon . . ^c stcl hondelei. 
Dubbed in a dublet of a dere tan, 
& sytheii a crafty ca[iadoft,' 

where cr^ m * skilfully made ;' and in Early Eng. AUiS. Pomu, A. 888, 

• NowJ»c-!eae non watj ncuer so quoynt 
For alle ^c cra/tey h>t euer ^ay kaewe, 
t'at of M sopge niy;t synge a poynt ;* 

and in Pricki of Cons. 9084, of heavenly * wards' that were 

• CleiJy wropht and craftily tayled 
Of dene sylrer and gold enamayld ;' 

remembering besides Demetrius' craftsmen. Acts xix. 24; and such compoonds fts Inch-cri^t 

witcb-crafi, Scc. — it will not be out of place to remark that the Scand. sense of the word, 
i. e. powar, migbl^ appears to have been at one timt not unusual in Northumbria. Thus, 
only three lines below those just quoted from Hanipolc. we find, that those same ' wardes of 
the cit£ of hcven* 

* Er mare crafty and Strang |»an any kan neven ;* 

and in Early Eng. AUit. Potms. C. 1 aS, the Divine roiuing of the storm whkb waa to canic 
the throwing overboard of Jonah is thus described : — 

' For J»e welder of wyt. t>at wot alic t>ynges, 

p2\ ay wakes and waytcs, at wylle hat) he slyites ; 

He calde on [tat ilk crafig he caif with his hondes ; 

" Eurus and Aquiloun. )'at on Est sittes, 

Blowcs bo)>e at my bode upon bio waltercs." * 

' He wur a erafiy chap at foct fun oot tbae nm-ptctttr's/ 

Crake, cruke, sb. The common or carrion crow (Corvus cor<me) : 
sometimes improperly applied 10 the rook {Corvus /rugiUgus), 

O.Xi.krdia; S.Q.kraka: ^.krika; Vui.kragc; O.Qerni. kraia, ehrAa; M.Gcrm. 
*r«, krajf; A.S. crdsv, &c. 

Crake, v. n. To cry, or ullcr its note, as the crow, or as the land- 
rail, does. 

Comp. O. S. kria ; Br. krid ; Sanscr. ime, 

* Bot begin she (a hen) to rroil, 
To groyne or to clok. 

Wo is hym of ourc cok.' Towntl. Myit. p. 99. 

CrambasKlo, sb. An old man exhausted more by vicious indulgences 
or habits than by age merely. 

li tft not ea*y to dciive this word, which I meet with only in Wh* G/. 



Cramble, v. n. (pr. crammel). i. To be halt or infinn on one's feel; 
disabled by natural causes. 3. To hobble along» or walk with much 

We hive the word emmp-/oo/«d = duh-fooUd, O. N. ifumbu-fotr, qaotcd by Wedgw. ; 
cntmp^ck, crumpt or crookt, Nomtftelator, p. 44, quoted by Hall. ; also erumple-foottd, 
having no motion of ihc toe», lb. ; all clo»cIy connected with A. S. crumb, crump, crymbig, 
from a possible or probable A. S. vb. erimpan. cramp, erumptn, to force together so as to 
cause flexures and wrinkles; sec Rietz In v. Krimpa and conip. O. N, krom, sickness, last- 
ing and severe, ftora krttnja, used of sickness in the sense to afflict, to oppress. Just as 
Gael. crw6, to crook, has as an offihooi. cruhacb, a cripple, so eripplt itself follows on 
crimpaut crtimp, there being an acttial form, mnreover, still retaining the m, viz. crump' 
tmg, a diminutive or deformed person. Hall. Sw. krympiing, a cripple, one who hobbles 
or moves badly or awkwardly, also retains the m, while in the dialects it scents to be quite 
dropped. Comp. krypimg^ krbppliHgr. krobUng, krrviing, kruling ; as also O. N. krypplingr ; 
N. krup«l: I^n. krbbiing; Germ, h-iipprt ; Dut. krrupk. Our Clevet. D. corresponds with 
the Sw. in keeping the m. S. G. inympitHg is given as * paralyticus, cujus membra ita coi>- 
tracta sunt, ut ambutare neqneat. sed reptando s« promoveat ;* a kind of action which 
would be almost exactly described by our participle orambUng. Comp. also Sw. D. krum- 
mtl-fiHgrttd, having the fingers numbed with cold, so as to remain bent or curved ; krummel- 
iHJidt, with a crooked or deformed hand. 

■ T' aud man 'i abool matched to get him crammti'd alang.' 

CramblM, sb. (pr. crammls). The larger boughs of trees, of gnarled 
and twisted growth ; such as are frequent in ihe oak. 

Comp. S. G. kranurul, Sw. D. trammel, a piece of wood used in keeping down the flax 
during the process of sleeping ; a pole used in keeping the hay from shaking off* the load : 
otherwise krammti or kriitnil, and kremmei. These words arc referred by Rict/ to the same 
origin with kmm, crooked ; krumtna, to bend ; krumnul. crooked or twisted, &c. 

Crambly, adv. (pr. crammelly). Hobblingly» lamely, with difficulty ; 
of personal motion. See Cramble, vb. 

Cramp-ring, sb. A ring made from old coffin-tyre, or the metal 
ornaments of decayed coffins, and worn as a preveniaLive of cramp. 

Cranoh, v. a. and n, i. To crush any substance, which gives a crepi- 
tating sound in the process, with the teeth; to crush the stones and 
gravel, with the attendant harsh sound, as the wheel of a heavy waggon 
docs on a hard road. 2. To break up \viLh a cracking soimd, as salt or 
large sand, or a cinder, under the foot on die floor. 

Probably a derivative from cnu2r, like crunch from crush, the insertion of the h contri- 
buting to a more efficient expression of the resonant action implied. Cf. Pr. Pm. ' Q'Mciyn, 
as tcue. Frtnto,frondco, struUo* 

Cranohy. adj. Gritty, apt to give a cracking sound in the process 
of breaking or crushing. 



Cranky, sb. A checked linen fabric, blue and white, much in use as 
material for aprons some years ago. 

Comp. crofii, an arm bcut at nght angles for turning a wiudlau; cmnk, rb., to ntark 
croMwars on bread and butter to plcate a chiid. Hal). CrimgU^crangU, a zigxag. lb. The 
firtt idea U that of bending : O. N. kringr^ O, S. kringer, Sw., N., Fru., &c. kring, a circle, 
a bending round ; and then foUowt that of croising, from the new direction the bent port 
taket in relation to the anbenu The idea ofaouing is ptuhed much further thao the limit 
of material Irxnivcrseueit in the Nurthrrn lungucs, a& indeed it i) tn our own phnuc * crou 
purposes.* Thus Dan. kraengf, Sw. D. kranga, is to tnm inside out ; * bOr du villad . . mA 
krdng trinjan & iiu Fader vdr atngl :' if you get bewildered (or lost) turn .voui jacket and 
sar }-our Our Father without ceasing. Krdnga is also to be obstinate, crou^graincd : or, 
fuU of tricki, in Sw. vara liranklig : comp. E. crank » jest, trick. 

Cranky, adj. Ill able to move, whether from debility ori^nating in 
sickness, or from stiffness the result of an injury, or of local ailment, or 
of age. See Qrenlry. 

O. N. krdnJtr; O. Sw. kranker^ kranek; Sw. D., Dao., and N. krank, tick, weakly, infirm. 

Craps, sb. The shreds of fatty skin left after rendering the fat of 
pigs into lard. See Tallow-crapB. 

The prominent idea cxpre&sed by this word is that of contraction, the shre<U in qncftioa 
from the combined action of beat and partial drying becoming shrunken and shrivelled, and, 
to a certain extent, ereii crisp. Comp. O. N. kreppa, to make to shrink, to coofracl ; htftir 
I6ji, a contracted or shrunk hand ; N. krtppa, Sw. D. krappa or krappa. The Dae. ad), knp 
is applied to twine or cordage-work, wrought lo tight that it breaks too easily, becomes, u 
it were, crisp or brittle. Note also Sw. D. krapp, Dan. D. trap, shrunk, scanty. There is 
another derivation pouible which perhaps involves tlie Pr. Pm. word ■ Crappts^ or gropyt of 
corne. Acus, cribaJium.' These are what fall out (see note lo Crappt) ui are rejected. 
Comp. ' Scrap, remnaut. refuse, leavings, what is scraped off. Sw. afikrap, tkrap, refuse, 
rubbisJi ; Dan. sira6, strapingi, trash.' What Pr. Pm. eraecbyn is to tcratcb that rrnppe 
may be to scrap, and our Orapfl mav be simply scrapt. Cf. Pr. Pm. ' Cracok*, rclcfe of 
molte talowe or grese (crauche, crawkc or crappc). Cremium.' The editor cooaectx the 
word with I»L and S. Q, krai, qoisquilix, from krchia^ to throw away. 

Cratchetf sb. The crown or upper part of the head. 

Is this a mere cant word ? Or doc* the same root give origin to it and to Or. aipda, 

Oraw, V. n. To caw or croak ; said of the crow and rook. 

A. S. craivan ; M. Q. bruhjoft ; Orrm. kriibtn^ to crow like a cock ; IrdchzM, to croak or 
caw ; Dut. kratycn : * a direct imitation,* says Wedgw., ' of the cry of different birds.* 

Creaker, sb. A rattle; a child's toy. See Night-creaker. 

Creakwamer, sb. A watchman's rattle : called also IVight-oreaker. 

Cree, creeve, v. a. To set to soak, soften and swell. Said of rice 
and wlieat ; of the latter, in course of preparation for making Furmity. 


The grain, when duly prepared, is put into cold water and set by the 
fire to grow wann (or hot), but ^ort of actually boiling. 

I believe diii obfcnre word to be c\o%t\j connected with the Sw. D. word krapa, to fer- 
ment, n^ich is applied to the earth when subject^ to the influences of spring— moistened 
and warmed, /o)^ Amnr ug : the earth is becoming creed ; loia dogtr intt U rdg^ /br 
ho kravar: the earth is tinnitable ot onprofitable to the rye before it is oreered. 

Creel, sb. z. A basket or pannier ; especially as intended for the 
reception or conveyance of fish. See Fish-creeL 2. A lathed frame 
upon legs, used to place the slaughtered pigs on after they have been 
scalded ; or living sheep during the process of salving. 

Jam. makes reference to Xr. hil or trSin, a basket, or coffer; Gael, eno/, a chest or 
coffer ; and to S. G. harit a dish or ressd ; adding that O. N, htrla is to cut twigs or osiers. 
Th»e is no connection between the two words last named, if between kc^l and the Celtic 
wOTds. 0. N. krUa is to weare, to plait ; and may suggest an origin for Oreel, if it be not 
rather referred to Ir. krU. 

Creepings, sb. The peculiar cold sensation which often terminates 
in a shiver, and is usually a symptom of an approaching inflammatory 

* " I bdieTC I hare got my ertepings;** hare caught cold.' Wh. Oi. 

CrewelB, sb. (pr. crules or crewls). Fine worsted of various colours, 
used in a species of embroidery, and especially in covering balls for 
young children, or for indoor use. 

* Properly, a ball of worsted. Germ. hiau*l^ Fl. D. kltvt^l, a ball of thread. The inter- 
change of liquids in this class of words is rery common.' Wedgw. Ferguson refers the 
word to N. iruUa, to blend or mix, to curl. 

Crioket, sb. A small, low stool ; which may serve as a milking-stool, 
a foot-stool, or a child's seat, indifferently. 

N. hraki, a little stool, without cushion or back-rail ; Sw. D. hrakk^ a form or stool, 
originally formed of the end of a cleft fir-tree, and then furnished with three legs supplied 
by the boughs of the same. Rietz. Comp. Sw. D. kr'anJta, a little stool ; a bench to set 
tubs or casks on ; Fin. krmkkut a four-legged form. 

Crob, v. n. To revile, worry with bitter scolding ; to hector or bully, 
by word. 

Comp. S. G. htpsk^ morosus ; Sw. D. kripinsk^ kripp'djnsk^ captious, ill-tempered ; N. S. 
iribbiscb, passionate; Jtrihhtln^ to provoke; Dut. kHbbig, vexatious. Ihre assumes the 
word krib^, irritare, as the origin of hihhiub; and krihheln is a popular Germ, word, as 
also irubel-kop/, a passionate, or enraged man. Rietz says comp. Lat. in-crt^are. Note 
also O. N. grobha^ to brag ; groblnnnt a braggart. Our word is another interesting instance 
of the way in which old words are crystallized in local dialects, like twigs in amber. 

Crook, sb. (pr. cruke, or crCwk). i. A nook or comer; such, e.g. as 
is formed in a field by the sudden and considerable curvature of a stream. 



2. The iron hooks on which gates, doors, Ac. are hung and swing. 

3. A disease in sheep which causes curvature of the neck. 4. Distor- 
tion or curvature of the hinder legs of an animal, originating in weakness 
or disease, or from injudicious confinement. 5. A crotchet, whim, piece 

of fol]y. 

O.N. hrtihr, a crook or hook* a corner; O. Sw. krohtr, a hook, a bending or crook, 
■ deviation from dtrccmess, wile, stratagem, irick ; Sw. D. kroh^ generally, whatever is 
crooked; a hinge or hasp; a comer or angle; an underhand dcrice, a trick; a poor. 
initcrablc or wretched object or being. We have here all the meanings of our own word 
included, Dan. hrog is used in most of the same senses ; thus, at tceti* Arogtit /or dwrtn : 
to fix a crook for tlie door ; veuu gimr tn krog : the road nukes a crook ; krog'iov. crooks 
or quirks of the law. &c. Note also N. ^b^. Sw. D. kroka. Is to fix crooks or hooks for 
tlie hiiign of a door. 

1. ' Ex t' smith t' coom an' fix ihae dccar-crvub an* jratsmuls 1* moom's moom.' 
* Vce, hangyd be thou on a cruht* Towntl, Myit, p. 249. 

4. * Pigs has gettcn t' cruik sairly, fra beiu' ower close kept iv a cau'd cote.' 

5. * Waal fond cruki '% he on t' waiy wiv noo 7 ' Wh, 01, 

Crook, V. a. and n. To become or to make crooked. 

O. Sw. hritlta; Sw. D. krvka, to make crooked, to become crooked. 

' For 1 can nawthere trouk* oe knele.* Towut. Myst. p. 163. 

Crookt, adj. (pr. cruickt or crfiwkt). Crooked, bent, twisted out of 
the straight line. 

O.N. kriihUtr; Q. Sw, hnioetr; Sw. D. kroktt, kro^t; Dan. kroget. 

' A vast o* sticks to choose frav. but he 's nobbud piked a eruiJkt yan efter a *s dce&n.' 

Crop, sb. A joint cut from the ribs of an ox, and with the bones 

O. N. kroppr, truncus corporis ; tn krop uden hoftttd, a headleu trunk. Hald. ; Sw. krcpp^ 
Dan. krop, with same limitation of seiue. In the expression, quoted by Molb., at varme 
mtd stn uld iwuu nmgnt lend og krop : to warm one's nvked loins and crop, the mcanbig at 
least appears to be more restricted still, and =■ that part of the body at large which tiet 
between the head and the loins. 

CropeD, croppen, p. p. of to Creep ; perf. oreeped. 

A. S. croptH : a form which appears in the imp. and supine of almoft all the Sand. 
tongues and dialects : e. g. Sw, kriopa, imp. kr6p ; Sw. D. krypi {krop, krdppi) ; O. N. kriupa 
{kraup. kropti) ; Dan. krybe (*r»6, kr^htt). 

Cross-gang, cross-gate, sb. A cross-road; a foot-, or other path 
across a Held or common, such as 10 shorten the distance in passing' 
from one point to another. 

Crous, orouse, adj. Brisk, lively, frolicsome, pert. Also spell 

Jam. suggests S. O. Irvc, kntsig, Oenn. kratt$, Bclg. krtm, all signifying curly, 5-iaaled. 
crisp, as the pouible origin of this word : * the primary allusion, indeed.* he says, * secnu to 



be to I cock who U taid to be erouu when he briftlcs up his feathers, so is to tn&ke them 
appear a» if evrltd, Dan. krust^ adonio. concimiuni pare' Ferg. adopts the hypothesi*. 
But neither of iheie authors observes that irwi, krusig, kraus, all have precisely the applica- 
tion flippcKd in the languages they belong to. Under krtpsJi, Ihre quotes krausJiopff and 
knubvfvud : and uiidci krus, kmugtbufvud, as signifying a crois, irritable or excitable man. 
S«. D. krus-buvud Kcmi rather to imply angularity of character than mere pettishneM or 
trritability. Sw, husa bears the meaning of ' to be highly complimentary,' and Sw. D. km- 
Mera, * to be rery polite* Tltc idea of crispno-s, curlineu, smartness, lies at the bottom of 
all these expression} (which might be multiplied), and our own word gircs auother instance 
of t like and almost still more natural transition from the original and material con- 

* As fresh and as rrous 
As a new-washed louse.' 

* " As erowM as a lopp ;" as brisk as a flea.' Wb. Ql. 

' Quite crowft and hearty.' lb. 

Crow-borries, sb. The fruit of the crow-berry {Empeirum nigrum). 

Crowdle, cruddlo, v. n. To crouch, to huddle together in a crouch- 
ing manner, as frighleaed chickens about the hen, or folks over a fire 
that has burnt low. 

* Crowd. Curd. A errmd ii a lump or mass of people ; cvrdt or erud$. as it was for- 
merly written, are milk coagulated or driven into lumps ; to cntddlt, to coagulate or curdU; 
to crowd or huddle. To croodit, to draw oneself together into a lump from cold or other- 
wtie. to cower, crouch.' Wedgw. Comp. S. G. krola, confcrta turba ; A. S. eru^. 

Crowdy, sb. Oat-meal porridge, made thick enough to turn out of 
the containing basin, like a pudding, when cooled. 

■ This word is very ancient, and claimi affinity with a variety of similar forms in other 
laoguagei ; S. G. grod, O. N. grautr, porridge, made of meal and water, mixed and then 
boiled.* Jam. Note also Dan. jt*£/, ^vt.grot. Comp. A. S. grut, grit, meal; Y.. groats, 
husked oats prepared for making gruel, &c. ; grouty coarse meal. Jam. ; ground malt. Hall. 
Belg. grutie, Germ. gruiSy &c. 

Crow-ling, sb. The common heath (Erica cinerea). 

Crowp, V, n. i. To croak, as toads do. 2. To rumble or murmur, 
as one's bowels do when full of wind, or when one has been too long 
without food. 3. To grumble or murmur, as a discontented person 

A word radically identical with roup, which seet one of the many instances of * the 
facility with which an initial g, i, w, or/is added or tost before r.' Wedgw. O. N. brtipa ; 
S.G.ropa; M.G. bropjau; Dan. raabt ; Sw. rapa. It may be observed tliat, in either 
form cnrreot in Clevel.. it is taken to express a hoarse sound or cry, as ii also the case with 
avup, tiie fatal iufints' disorder. Neither Is the distinction noticeable in the use of the 
Scaod. word, as specified by Molb., observed with us. His Trmirk it : ' Doth man and beast 
ire laid at tirige, to icream ; but raab is applied in Te^>ect of man only.' Cf. Pr. Pm. 
'Crowktn as cranes. Gruo : as todcs. or fros^hc* (froggis). Coaxo;* as alio 0. N, rcpa, 
Dtn. r«6#, to belch. 


Crowping, sb. i. The croaking of toads or frogs, a. The rambling 

in one's bowels induced by flatolence. 

Crowpy, adj. Apt to gmmble or reiHne ; given to the expression of 

• " A €ro»py bodv ;'* a repiocr.' Wb. Gl. 

Grud, V. a. To coagulate, to induce the formation of curds : chiefly 
used in the passive. 

From the older fonn of the present emrd. See Ocowdlab CC Pr. Pw$. Curdg, aaMt, 

Cmddle, v. n. To curdle, become coagulated. 

See Growdle. with which it would seem to be cssentiallT fotnriiVwfi. 

Crodge. v. a. and n. i. To crush, or jam; as a peison's body 
by a waggon against a wall 2. To push, crowd, or thrust one against 
another, as in a throng of sight-seers, or people whose curioa^ is excited. 

This is pDSstblr an intcnnediate fonn I 'c f et u O. E. eramd, to push, ibore; Pr. Pm. 
' eromdt with a hirow ;* and enalr ; aod scrres to connect the l^tcf with tfic fimncr. 
Another lorm is sertulKe. Sec Crnsh. 

Cmds. sb. Curds. 

Cruke. sb. The common rook ; or the carrion crow (Cprvms Jhigi- 

i«pts or C- cc>rcnt\ 

A. S. hr\<. Another instance in whkh the initial r has taken a e org bdoce h. The 
streniph of the asfwate wvoU in olut cues aknost cdect the same ics^ as the pfefixing 
of k or g. See QrinM, Ortmins. Wedjiw. is incfined to refer N. E. onadfc, a czow — 
another ipellinj: of oar weed — to croaA. as e xp ie ssi ng the soond of the bardTs dj. 

Gsroiik. sb. The hoarse or or croak of the raven or carrion crow. 

O. N. krmnlt, cnukin; : irwijta, to croak. * Onmk or crwUr. To or fike a ciane or 
heron. Liih. Inmict, to make a Lush noise, to snort, croak; li ■■ii ' a ft' , l i —1 111 ft" , to 
crvuk.* Wcdfv ; » vord lomed hj the inscrtson of an >. so as to give a mare naal 
sound, in .rr-jol or onab: as in tbr case oi cramA, ertputy bom trmh, tnak. Firmmk, 
fi\nht, arc- F^dcrX\x:n::es cuznes att the ccmaxn beroo: I bdicTe, simply becaose 
ihete i> so£r.c ^K«Tn^uRce in the wv^rd ;v» the socnd of the bird's or. Otnerre the use of 
the n in this case ilso, 

Crunkle. v. a. To nimble or rumple linen. 4c., so as to cause it to 

' The intenrhiixfe of n# aad «( is so ae»;ae n; that we can harflr sep ar ate trmmk fnm 
trwmfs Du. trt.viitfi.irv ttvcs F. immfh*, E. .ttuw occi trht/it,' Wed^. This fnic^le 
wvMiId btuu: us hi OL>r.uct a: ocoe with $w. D. Iran^tt. to press t og eth er so as to fonai 
ctease« or WTiiik>s : but th«re seec::^ to sae a sirspuer and probaUr more correct way of 
l^rwrediuf. F .— .»fcV. .--t^V, itc, *re of the cis.-vcst rcLatx-ckshiF to Sw. ^imgU, <lrap. 
Pan. o«^4n»j. ;>w. l\ i-t^. i-r^frt. irst^li, O.N. Ina^r or trimgr, ftc; and what 
F, i*^%ki* It h> Sw, h^^:^. 4r=*^' — there 3 a iunal i .J e « AexKC in ererr Ibid or OCftSC 
or wiioUe nude— the janie » c«r cniiik1« ^- 5w- fc"oi. O. N. 4mlr. DaB.irY^ftctoS«. D, 


O. N.» and N. krokna : and, be it noticed, this word in one Sw. district takes the fonn 
krenkdm : — ryggtn gSbbom ba kronhtd : the old man's back has grown crooked. Further, 
Sw. D. iroUi, other forms of which are krokla^ kroHot, and O. N. brokkin, hare the sense 
of wrinkled ; in other words, are equiralent to erunkUdt the Sw. word expressing which is 
siryrMig. We have here an interesting sequence : the b of brckkin changing into h pre- 
fixed to r, the first of the two medial h's nasalised — collate Dan. rynkt, O. N. hrvkka^ to 
wrinkle; br^oUia, to shrink, of cloth — and then, as it would seem, an initial < assumed 
before all, as in not a few odier instances, some of which will be fully noticed below. 

Crash, sb. A crowd or throng of people ; thence, a country enter- 
tainment; as a dance, or other merry-making. See Crudge. 

Cry up, ory up and away. A phrase used in connection with beesr 
and applied to the peculiar note or tone of their buzzing within the hivet 
which, to a person knowing in bees, notifies that they are on the point 
of swarming. 

* They'll be awa' inow ; they 's crying oop this ha'f-hour. * 

Cuddle, V. a. and n. To embrace or hug ; to interchange affectionate 
pressure. See Crowdle. 

* The existence of forms like cruddlt and evdtBt, one of which begins with a mute and 
a liquid, and in the other the liquid is omitted, in the same or in related dialects, is a phe- 
nomenon of fmjuent occurrence,' says Wedgw. ; and he proceeds to quote many instances 
in point; e.g. cv^and duff", to strike; Du. konktUn and kronktltn^ to crinkle; £. speckUj 
Sw. $prte1da; E. tptak^ Germ, sprtektn;, Sc.prin, Sec. He also quotes from Prior, 
who tpcakt of the partridge, when a falcon is * towering nigh,' as 

* Cuddling low beneath the brake.' 

Still this is a very unusual manner of applying the word, the next quotation serving far 
better to illustrate the more prevailing amplication of it as met with in the South of England : 

* They hopped from spray to spray. 
They billed, they chirped all day. 
They cuddUd close all night.' 

So far as my own opportunities of observation extend, the idea implied in cuddle is that of 
two or more individuals in close and consenting contact ; in the South, in a recumbent or, 
It least, crouching posture ; here, tn any posture whatever. The man ouddles the woman, 
who puts his arm round her as they walk or stand side by side ; the child, or grown person, 
sitting on another's knee and held close to the supporter, is cuddled ; and so on : and the 
idea tn all this is but a far-off derivative from crowds eniddlt. It is at least open to question 
if the word be not rather, as Jam. suggests, a derivative from Teut. kuddtn, coire, or some 
like word. 

Cuddy, sb. The hedge-sparrow (Accentor modular is). 

Of mddyy as the popular Sc. name for the ass. Jam. says that it is ' most probably a cant 
name.' StiU, I believe, that so-called ' cant names' frequently have some very respectable 
origin ; and, almost certainly, the names of our more familiar birds may be referrible to 
something beyond mere slang. I cannot, however, suggest anything as probable in the 
present instance. 

Cuifldafk, sb. Light or easy talk, badinage, such as people indulge 

8 2 


in when they unbend among their friends, and are in a happy or 
jesting vein. 

The latter half of this word may probibly be ■ connection of the Sc. word daff» to |est ; 
daffirt, jesting, tight or iporti?e talk. It it teu easy to suggest an origin for the former 
clement. Perhaps the irica inrolvcd may be that of light at quick iuterchange of words, 
and either A. S. en/, quick, rapid, or the same source which supplies Eng. euff, might ori- 
ginate it. The former word it met with three or four timw in E. Kng. AUU. Potnu^ B., 
in the sense of quicks handy. The ci}-molog)* of the Utter word Keint unccnaln. Wedgw. 
refers it to clap, Ihrc refers S. G. ktiffa^ verbcdbus iiuullare. to hi/wa, to quell, iittiuiidate : 
and on Mr. Wcdgvrood'i principle, alleged in the same page with the word cuff. E. cuff 
and Sw. kttuff, should be set side by side, and the latter used as an index to the origin uf tlie 
former. If cu^ in our word be related to E. cuff, the idea would be rcfy Ukc that implied 
in the expression * to bindy words.' 

* He was fain for half-an-hour's euffdafi; and for mpelf I Ukc to bknv my honi when 
I Kst.' \M). Ol. 

Cumber, sb. (pr. coommer). Care, trouble* inconvenience, obsinic- 

O. S. kymhtr : Sw. D. and Dan. kummrr; Ocnn. kummtr; Dut. Iiommtr, komhrr. Mcrfb. 
quotes it as of Germ, origin. 

For the vb. note the following ; — 

* & then they tooke htm out againe, 
& cutten all his ioynts in sunder ; 
& burnt him eke vpon a hyll : 

1-wis the dcd him cuntly eumhtr.' Percy's Fol^ MS. i. 197. 
' ^ay ware cumhyrdt in coretyse. t'e caytifs had can.' Rd. Piten, p. 93, 

Cumber-ground, sb. An useless person or thing; one that is un- 
profitable, or good-for-noibing. 

Corop. ' Cut it down ; why cumhtrHh it the ground?' Luke xiii. 7. 

Cuprose, sb. The poppy of the corn-fields {Papaver rha-ar, Ac.)- 

Currant-berry, sb. The common currant [Ribts rubntm). For 
Black-currants {Ribts nigrum), see Black-berries. 

Cushat, sb. The ringdove (Coiumba paiumbus). See Coosoot. 

Cush-loye, (pr. coosh-loove). A pet or coaxing term of address to 
a cow. 

Comp Isl. huia^ hata, iho/a, to address a cow comxingly. 

Custard-winds, sb. The cold easterly winds prevalent on the N. E. 
coast in spring. Probably a corruption of ooast-ward \nnds. 

Cutter, V. n. To talk in a low and confidential tone ; to whisper ; to 
make private communications in an undertone. 

S. G. khttra, garrire ; Sw. D. kuOra, to talk low and in tccret. Other fonnt arc kudra, 
i4imtnt : kmttra i hop^ to h4ild confidential conmiunicatious; N. S. quadtm • Bruniw. (H. G 
Dial.) kiidJcm; Dut. koeterm, to talk slang: Swab, kudtm. 


Daeity, sb. Capacity, ability or fitness for a position, duty, or office ; 
also activity, energy. 

Probsblj ccfflDKted with d*$d neariy u trickvf is with trieh. Hall, gives dosstty^ which 
is probablj onlj another fonn of this word. Dotomt signifies thriving, likeljr to do well ; 
dmtfy is indnstrioQS, notable ; dttdily is actively, diligently ; while, in the opposite sense, we 
have dMZfsf, dadlns. Comp. Sw. D. tUidloSt O. N. dadlaus. 

Daddld, dadle, v. n. To trifle, move lazily or saunteringly, to be 
listless. Also written Daudle. 

This word is supposed to be a diminntive of <fa», a sluggard, which is referred to O. N • 
iU,S,Q.dd. See Daft 
* A datdHimg, uuntering body.' 

Doff, sb. A coward, a dastard, a fool. 

Cf. Pr. Pm. * Dafft, or dastard, or he )»at spekythe not yn tyme.* 
One of a numerous &mily of derivatives reappearing under various fonns, and with 
various shades of signification, but all implying a want or a failure of some power or quality. 
Ihre remarks of the probable root-word {dA, deliquium animi), that it is * like the stock of 
a felled tree which has pushed forth a great many shoots.* Among others, our Cievel. 
words daflle, dafl, deaf, dowly, &c., are referrible to this stock, descending through 
the forms d^, dofna^ da/ha, dHig, &c. In Sw. Dial, we find duven, benumbed ; ddv^n^ 
powerless ; dAvna, to become powerless or inert ; and, in O. N., dqfi^ inertness, want of 
energy ; <2q;Swt, feeble, faint ; in M. O., dwem, to become feeble ; Sansk. (frv, to be heavy, 
sluggish. Sec. ; and, just as in these words privation or loss of feeling, vigour, energy, and 
the like is implied, so in our word that of moral energy and vigour, or courage, or intellect. 
In the old writers it usually means fool. 

' " Thou doted dafft," quod she, 
" Dnlle are thi wittes." ' P. Plougbm. p. 23, 
* For lat a dronken da^ 
In a dyk falle, 

Lat faym ligge, &c.' /ft. p. 337 
Chaucer, however, uses the word in the sense, cowardly fool : — 
* He auntrith him and hath his nedis spedde. 
And I lie as a draffe sak in my bedde ; 
And when this iapc is told another day 
I shall be hold a daffk or a Coknay/ Rtvi^s Talt^ p. 33. 

Daffle, V. a. and n. i. To confuse, disturb one's mental powers, as 
by noise or disorder, a. To become stupid or confused. 3. To grow 
weak in faculties, forgetfid and childish, from old age. 

See Daft Comp. Sw. D. dldv/«, N. dauwUg, both of which adjectives involve or imply 
at least a part of the above significations. 

1. * Ah 's just that dc^td wi' thae bairns' din. Ah 's nae use o* ma heead.' 
a. * He foilt ftst and begins to dt^t.* 



Daffiy, adj. Half-imbccile, weakened in faculties, forgeiful and 
childish ; of old people, often. 

* He 'i becoming quite dajgiy.' Wh. Gl. 

Daft, adj. i. Simple, half-silly, 'not all there/ a. Flighty, giddy, 
thoughtless. 3. Foolish, stupid, dull of apprehension. 

From iu form pouibly x p.p. from the vb. daff. Jam., it will be ieen, gives that vb. in 
the Kiuc, * to be foolish ;' but he derives d<iji from O. N. daujr, fjtims, or at least from its 
neuter dattft, quoting also S. G. d6f, itupidus. 

1 . * Send daft Willie. He 's nobbul hau'f thecar ; but he 's canny eneagh aboot cik ao 
earrand as yon.' 

3. ' T* last Kis gaen clean dafi. She wcean't malind her ain neeam Ung, a' this gate.' 

3. * As daft as a gooK :' * As daft as a decar-iuil.' Wh. GL 

Daftish, adj. Only of very moderate quickness, or ability and sense. 

■ A dafti^h, di7.zy soort o' body.' Wh. Ql. 

Bagg, degg, v. a. and n. i. To sprinkle with water. 2. To drizzle. 

Sw. D. dagga : O. N. doggwi, to bedew, sprinkle ; ^xifi doggvar, it driztles ; Sw. dmg^a, 
to sprinkle or splash : Sw. and Sw. D. dagg, O. N. diigg, Dan. dug, dew. 
I. * Gan an' dag thiie cUithes, Margel. Ah '11 uiind t' baini.* 
a. • A fine dogging rain." Hit. Gl. 

Dagged, adj. Wet, bedaggled * 

* She 's gettcn ber sko'tt finely dogged.' 

Dainah, denah, adj. Fastidious, dainty, nice. 

Tliis word occurs in the forms dauncb, daneh, doncb, demch. Hall, and Lteds GL The 
East word has for its second meaning ' Danish.* The same mevung is given for Detuht. Hall. 
It is at least open to question whether this is not the origin or the word — if it docs not 
bear with it a reminiscence of Danish assumption and haughty self-preference. * So long as 
the Danish supremacy tasted (in Engtand)/ says Wortaae {Mindtr. p. 187), * the Danes 
naturally could only carry themselrrs as lords in a conquered cnuntiy. Their innate taste 
for magnificence and luxury was abundantly fostered, and their pride was flattered by the 
subjugation of the Anglo-Saxons. The old English chruuicles contain bitter complaints 
touching the humiliations the lutires were exposed to. Thus if an Anglo-Saxon chanced to 
meet a Dane upon a bridge, he was obliged to wait in a postore of lowly rerercuce — nay 
even, if he were on horseback, he was obliged to dismount and wail, until the Dane had 
crossed over.* Verity the Dane might be looked upon as * particular.' or ' nice.' nndei 
such ctrcimutanccs, and his generic uanie, Datui, pass into a word expressive of such charac- 
teristics. Further, it may be observed that the Sw. D. word frdjis^oi — a derivative from 
boj, a (or rather the) city or tovm, and signifying, 1. To use fine or 'city* language, to 
talk big; a. To set oneself up, or (to expound dialect by dialect) to be bumptious — 
ftftsomes the forni of donsk, ddmka, demka, in ditferent Sw. localttief, and ihoi famishci 
a terra identical with ours in form, and cloiriy approaching it in meaning. 

* Over d*iuh by owght ;' far too nice or fastidious. 

Dainsh- or deoBh-gobbed, adj. Dainty about one's eating. Sec Oob. 
Dale, sb. (pr. dceal). The distinctive name of the vallc}'S which mn 


for Up between the high moorlands of Cleveland and the adjoining dis- 
tricts, each with a sm^ rapid stream, or Book, running through it from 
Head to End, where it empties itself into the larger stream : in Cleve- 
land, into the £sk, which rims along £sk-dale. 

O. N. dab-, Sw. and Dan. did. Comp. A. S. d^. That Dftla in Cleveland is a purely 
Danish word, to the entire exclusion of any A. S. intermixture, can scarcely be a matter of 
doubt to any one who gives a moment's thought to die nature of the prefixes which dis- 
tinguish the rarious dales — ^all of them Scand. — not to mention the rery important part 
filled by &e same word in local Scand. nomenclature, especially in Iceland. 

Dale^nd, sb. The point at which the Dale attains its full expansion, 
and, so to speak, terminates ; debouches or ends in the central or main 

Comp. O. N. daU-n^niu, 0% vel fauces rallis. Danby- or Dale-ciuf, Fryup-«u/, Olaisdale- 

Dale-liead, sb. The upper portion of the Dale at or nearest its 
narrowest or commencing part amidst the moorland hills. 

Dall, daul, dawl, v. a. and n. i. To tire or weary, a. To grow 
tired, to become weary. 3. To become depressed, low-spirited. Also 
spelt DowL 

Ccnnp. Sw. D. dtda S, ddla d, to become weary, heavy with sleep ; the primary meaning 
of fte word being tofaU^ the first derived meaning to t^%d toioards setting, as the sun does. 
Cf. Dan. daU, to sink, to wane. Note, also, in another direction, O. N. dvtUi, torpor, 
swoon; and Old H. G. tw&an, to be overpowered with sleep. 

I. ' It doidt me satrly, diz this thravellin' by t' reeal.* 

a. * Ah 's dauTd o' t' spot. Ah can't hceaf tiv it naeldns way.' 

* Ah *t dttuTd o' my meat.' 

* Ah *s rery dauUd: it 's bin a dree ganging.* 
3. * Ah 's fairlings doudtd to deeath.' Wb. 01. 

Dame, sb. (pr deeam). One's wife, the mistress of his house ; also 
applied to an aged woman. 

Dander, v. n. To tremble or shake with a tremulous motion, as a 
house does from the passage by of some heavy vehicle, or the like. 

O. N. d^a (imp. dudt)^ to shake, to totter. Comp. also O. N. daita^ with a similar stgni< 
fication, Sw. D. dandrd likewise has very nearly the same meaning. 

Danger, sb. Probability, risk. 

*•* Ah*s doo'tfiil Willy 'II not cast this aihnent; hell dee." ** Weel, there's a dangtr 
on t. 

Dangerous, adj. In a state or condition of danger ; of persons. 

* " Mrs. Dale 's very ill, they say ? '* " Ay, 'Doctor says she 's dangerous." ' 




Dacglemento, sb. Fringes, tassels, or any such easily moveabM 
pendants to a gannent, &c. J 

Dap, adj. Clever, dexterous, handy. See E, dab. 

Wcdgw. uy&, * A dab-band is one who does a thing off-hand, at a single blow. Note also 
Langved. tapa^ to strike, to do a thing skilfully and quickly.' See D»p, vb. 

Dap, V. n. To move with short, quick steps. 

* He goes dapping along, as if he were on spriogi.* 
' Dappmg up and down stairs.' 

Dark, v. n. To listen insidiously, eavesdrop, seek for infonuation iH; 
underhand ways, or with an insidious intention. 

Hall, says, ' to watch for an opportunity of injuring others for one's own benefit. In old 
writen, to lie hid.* Our word scarcely implies the malicious intention, but doubtless the 
«ense of lying hid contains thr germ of it* actual meaning; to conceal oneself for ihc pur- 
pose of hearing without being suspected as hearing, and thence, to hear in an Insidious way. 
Brockctl gives us the form dart. Comp. Pr. Pm. ' Daryn, or drowpyn, or prively to be 
faydde (priryly to hydyn). Latito, latio' See also note to the EUnc. The coonectioa ot 
oar word is with this and not with £. dttHt. Sec Wcdgw. In Darw. 

* They dark and gen for all they can catch.' Wh. Gl. 
' What are you darking at ?' lb. 

DarTf V. a. To dare. 

' Hog rfar' ye?' 

' Ah darr'd him tiv it. an' he wur flcyed 'o tryia'.' 
Gf. * This gere may never faylle, that dar I undertake.* Tcmul. MyU. p. 17, 

Daeed, dazed, adj. (pr, deeaz'd). 1. Astounded, stupefied, struck 
with amazement or terror. 2. Suffering from the effects of cold, numbed, 
lifeless. 3. Dry, sapless. 4. Ill-cooked, ill-baked; from the oven being 
too slow, or the (ire not properly kept up; or, perhaps, ill-leavened; the 
result being, in either case, that the bread is scarcely palatable or fit focj 
food ; and so of the meat, whether dried up, burnt, or not sufficientM 
cooked. J 

Comp. S. G da$a, O. N. daiadr, daiasJ, exhausted, to be worn out. Ihre supposes dSrt 
and ddit to be essentially the tame word, in which case the sense of 'stupefying* would 
come in. Comp. Sw. D. daia, to be utterly lazy and inert ; Dut. datun, to be beside oneself j 
duaastn, to be foolish; A. S. dwas, N. S. dwts, duras; Dut. dvfoo*, dull, beary. stvpML 
Pr. Pm, * Dasyd. yertiginoivs ;' and datyn, applied to the eyes, to become dull. O. H 
da$a2Jt {Fiaiiy. i. 536), is applied to the joint effects of cold and exhaustion. 

I. * What *s wrang wi' tbce. man 7 Hast ce gctten a gliff? Thee luiks dttaztd like.' 
* 1 dast and I dedit 
For ferd of that taylte.' Towntl. Myu. p. j8. 

3. ' It's nobbttt a poorish clelch; bud maist o' t' eggs gat dteaztd wir t' aud ben 
affsac lang.' 

3. ' Ay, it 's a itnngish froct : t* com an' grass *i fairlings dttazed wi' *t ; an* Ah *s abool 
dteaztd wi' t' cau'd niyscl.' 

4. ' T' breead-1ecjf*s dnaxsd.' 


Dasement, sb. See Hee&sment, Dased. 
Dauby, adj. Dirty, slovenly^ untidy. 

Comp. Sw. D. diAba, a ragged, slovenly woman of ill conduct ; dtAba^ to make dirty, 
daub; dabba i^, to feed ooeself dirtily; dabba tt, to make anything dabbigt^ that it, 

*ikuAy ffrfks* are peofh who are * slovenly in hoasefa<^d matters/ Wb, Gl. 

Bttom* sb. A portion or share, with an implied idea of smaUness. 

Sw. D. diom, a small piece, a morsel. The word is connected with the verb-family. 
S. G. ddmat O. N. d^emi, A. S. dnuan, Sw. domma. See., to judge, decide, sentence. The 
idea is evidently that of portions allotted, or assigned at the judgment or will of another. 
See DMun, vb. 

' •* It was a dear daum;" a dear morsel ; very little for the money.* IVb. Ol. 

Damn, v. a. To deal out or allot, with the implied sense of sparingly, 
almost grudgingly. 

• *• Damnud out f dealt out in small or scanty allowances.* »^. OL 

Comp. * For David dtmyi ever ilk deylle, 

And thus he says of chylder ying :' Towiul. MyU. p. 160 ; 
where the soise of dtmy* seems to be nearly that of divid9, in the expression. * rightly divide 
the word of truth.' 

Day-nettl^ sb. (pr. deea-netde). The common hemp-neltle (GaU- 
opsit kirahtJ). Common in corn-fields, especially where the soil is very 
hght and the crop thin. 

* Laboorers in harvest are sometimes affected with a severe inilammatiou of the hand, or 
of a finger, which they uniformly attribute to the sting of a Day-netUt^ the name by which 
this plant is known among them.' Botany of Brrwick-on-Ttoted. 

Daytal, adj. By the day ; applied to a labourer who works ' by the 
day,' or to the work done by him. 

Comp. O. N. dagaUdf a diary, day-book or register. 

Daytal-man, sb. A man who works, and is paid, by the day ; in 
contradistinction to the Farm-servant who is hired by the Term — the 
year or half-year: May-day to Martinmas, or to May-day again — and 
paid at the rate of so much a year, in addition to his food (see Meat) 
and lodging. 

•••What is your father, Robert? A farmer?" •* Nae, sir, nobbut a working-man." 
" What, a fanning-man (lann-scrvant) ?" " Nae, sir, on'y a daytal-man." ' 

Daytal-work. Work done by the day-labourer or Daytal-man ; in 
contradistinction to work done by the piece — as a job of draining, or 
mowing or harvesting— or by the duly hired Farm-aerrant 



Dead, sb. (pr. dee&d). Death. 

* Ah '& harrifh'd tc deeaii ;' ' diuled to dseaJ' See. 

Cotnp. ' He walde be-coine mine, and for vi sullire ^e tM* in Wl iwrtc nunhcd.' 
JZW. Pitf**, p. 41. 

' With an Iron forke made of iteele 
he held him downe wondoroui weele 
till he wai Kaldcd to the dgad.' Percy*! Fol. MS. I p. lOa 

' How hee laucd hrr from dead*.' lb, p. 461. 

Deaf, adj. (pr. deeaf). i. Barren, blasted, without produce, hollow or 
empty; thence of the soil, barren, incapable of producing. 2. Tasteless, 
insipid, without flavour or pungency; and ihence, 3. Without power 
to sting. 

The vaiviiig applications of this word are curious and interesting, all of them Implying, 
however, deprivation : src Daff. A. S. (Mi/-rom it simply barren corn ; O. N. dau/iggjaOr 
is duU-cdgcd, blunt ; dauf-^ngrat^r, one with imperfect use of his fingers : dauf-maltr, one 
who talks indistinctly; dau/tJtygn, of defective sight ; daufr-Htr, a dull or not rasily distin- 
guishable colour. S. G. dbf-vidr is a non-productive tree ; dnuf-jord unproductive soil. 
Besides which O.N. daufr is vapid or savourless, and Sw. D. dav«*i the same; while 
S. Jutl. ditv corresponds precisely in meaning with our word — barren, blasted. Thus, in 
Ctcvd., * A dtaf ear of com' is one which contains no grains or pickles, or Oonu. ' A 
deraf -aMX' is a nut which contains no kernel within it. Compare the saying, ' He docs not 
U)ok as if he lived upon dttaf nuls,* with the precisely like S. Jutl. expression. * Han Itvtr 
int' xtti diitf HOiir ;' literwlly. ' he doevn'l live upon deaf nut*.' A good sum of money. 
Of any other tangible benefit, also, is said to he ' tiae deeafnMV 

]. ' Ay, yon's a deeaf ipox : nowght nivvcr grows iv it.' 

* It 's a varrey bad year wi* t* bees. Maist feck o* t' kecam (comb) '( d^uff;' ootitUtu 
no honey. 

a. ' Ay. t* peers (pears) *s pait their best. Thcy's amaiit A'deeafnoo* 

3. * Nivvcr heed him. bairiu He wcan't nettle ihce wi* von*, it's nobbul a cCMa/nellle.* 

Lonely, solitar)', in 

Beafly, adj. (pr. deeSfly; also written deavely). 
the sense of remole, out of the world. 

O. N. daujUgr, sad, melarchnly. ' Its neut. daujligt signifies ginnmy or taddenmg u>\i- 
tude : ftnum J^iikir daujligt lamttn ; a lonely life is a sad life.' Egills. N. dattvidtg is 
synonymous with our word, and nearly identical in form and sound. 

' They live in a hr-off deeajly spot.' Wb, Ql, 

Doaf>nottle, sb. The dead-, or dumb-nettle : (genus Lamium). 

Pr. Pm. ' Deffe netiylU. Archaogelus.* ' The plant lamium. or archangel, known by the 
common names dead or blind nettle, in the Pr.. has the epithet deffe, evidently because it 
dors not posie*» the stinging property of the true ucttle.' /b. note. 

Deary, deeary, adj. (Pr. of doory). Minute, small, puny. 
Dea^e, v. a. (pr. dceav). To deafen, stupefy or slun with noise. 

O. N. Ayii; Sw. dif\*at Sw. D. tfdva; N. duyva, lo stun or stupefy. 

• A diti til f drave yin,' 

* Ah 'h fairlnigk de*av'J wiv *t all : wife callin* (i. e. sculJin;;) an' U4tni> ikn'kin*.* 


Deasement, deeftsment, sb. (Fr. of Dasement). The dTects or con- 
sequences of continued exposure to cold ; the sensation of being chilled 
through which is often the fore-runner of a heavy inflammatory cold. 
See Based. 

* Ah 's getten a sail dttu'mtni.' 

Deeath. (Pr. of death). 

Deeath-smear, sb. The clammy moisture of approaching dissolution. 

Deeath-Btamoken, adj. On the verge of dissolution ; said of one on 
whom the signs of closely approaching death are fully apparent. 

Deeathy-groatB, sb. One having a death- doomed look, evidendy 
claimed by death as an early victim. 

From O. N. daiSi, and jrotSi or gr^r^ a shoot, or {>roduction. 

* T* ane is a fahn, &t bairn : t' ither was alUjrs a puir dowly duatby^groait* 

Deed, sb. Doings. A word of most frequent application, and more 
easily illustrated than defined. 

■ Mwkydftd;* a greeting from one walker to another when the roads are in a very dirty 
condition : or, when a very foul pigsty (or the like) is being cleaned oat ; or, in short, when 
anything i* proceeding which is ero[^ticaUy * a dirty job.' 

' Bonny died;' usually in an ironical sense, nearly equivalent to the south-country 

• a pretty to-do,' 

' Dowly dnd;* applied in the case of a person or persons whose condition is one of 
dcpiesnon, whether arising from sickness, or sorrow, or misfortune, or ill-luck, or even want 
of employment. ' It 's dowly d*ed for t* working man when there 's nae wark t' git.' 

'Went deed;' great stir or excitement, as at a great ' coming*of-age' feast, or the 
festivities at the wedding of the squire. 

* Great deed^ — * great deed for the lawyers ;' — an election which gives them plenty of 

* Great dted at t' new hooss ;* a grand housewarming. 

' Great deed about nowght ;' a great to-do about nothing. 
Also, * sad deedt' * gay d^,' &c. 

Deedlesfl, adj. Helpless, inefficient, feckless. Hall, writes the word 

* dadless.' 

O.N. ddiSlau$, alike uruble and unwilling to help oneself; Sw. D. d&dlos^ dalos^ ddXaus^ 
8cc. A. S. has deedtic, deedlike, active, but no dad4teds. 

Deft, adj. i. Pretty, neat. 2. Handy, clever. 

A. S. dafte, convenient. Hall., Brock., and Todd's Jobtuon^ all look on this word as 
obsolete except in the North : wrongly, as 1 think. 

I. * A deft sight ;' spoken ironically, says Wb. Ql.^ and equivalent, or nearly, to ' a pretty 
sight, indeed.* 

DefUy, adv. Cleverly, dexterously. 

A. S. daftlice, 6tly. conveniently. 

' " It was all very deftly done ;" dexterously managed.* Wb. OL 

T 2 



Dogg. See Dagg. 

Delve, V. n. and a, i. To dig. 2. To work, labour hard. 3. To 
indent or leave a permanent bruise or indentation in a metal vessel, 
or other object capable of such impression, such as a hat, a tin 
box, &c. 

A. S. delfaa^ 1o dig; Dut. dilven. In its original Htuc, to dig, the word if icircelj n%tA 
It all in Cleveland. Qrare ii the word in all but exclusive use to cxpfcsc that operatioo. 
The derived tcn*e, * to bbour or toil at anything.* it more frequent, but, in nine ca»rs out of 
ten when the word ii used, it is applied in the third sense. Comp. Sw. D. Hiilpa, deUfa, to 
vault or arch over, to turn over or upside down ; dutpa, a hole or uncvcnncss in the road, 
especially one produced by the inequalities of a heavy inow-fall, or by the continued pa»- 
lage of heavy loads; dalpig, uneven, holey.— spoken of a fIedgc>road over the soow; Dut. 
dtivr, i hole or pit. There is a nirious mixture, or succession, of ideas conimAn to our 
verb and its Sw. double ; digging is turning the soil dug upside down ; the piece dug leaves 
a hole and forms a kind of vault ; the liule or rathei indentation in a pewter pot or a tin 
t>ox, looked at from the other side, also formi a vault. The coincidence it e3Ctremely 
interesting, and makes ont anxious to trace the history of the lonely Sw. word ; for it 
seems to have no fellows in the other Scand. languages. 

a. * He 's altayt driving at it, gan when ye will ;* alwayl hard at work at the specified 

The vb. is in frequent use in Chattcer, Toumd. Afyit., &c., in the icnse Id dig, and in 
Rgltgioui Pintt, Perc) 's Foi. MS., &c., in that of to bury ; e. g,— 

* All quicke shee shold dolvm be.' 
Comp. • He rasyd Lazarc out of his del/e' Towml. Myst. p. iy>. 

Dented, dinted, adj. 1. Notched, serrated, resembling the teeth of 
a saw. Comp. • The woodpeckers have a tongue which they can shoot 
forth to a very great length, ending in a sharp, siiff. bony tip, (frrt/fd on 
each side.* Ray. On ihe Creation^ Pt. i. 2. Indented, impressed with a 
sunken mark ; applied to soft substances, as the flesh, dough, &c., a.s 
delved is to harder ones. There is a stitch in use among tailors which is 
called dinting, which is done by passing the needle nearly but not quite 
through the stuff, so that the stitch forms a small depression on the other 

Denty, dentyiah, adj. Fine, genial, inspiriting. 

Coincident with E. dninfy, but with a more limited application. 

• A gay fine, denty moniing.* 

• A itfnfy day this has been, parlic'rly for 1* tahm o* year.' 

Dorse. (Pr. of Dross.) Sec Dreu; 'durse' in Hall. 

Desperate, adv. (pr. dcspe't'). Used as an augmentative. 

• A dsipif bad cold ;' * a dnpe'i awk'rl ^lot ;' • a dnft'f fahn misi,* a very *man young 
lady ; ' a dtipM'f grann* boost.' 


Dess, sb. I. A layer or course in any pile or mass that is heaped or 
built up by degrees. 2. The entire pile or mass so built. 

0. N. dn, a haj'-ftack ; i^f, t tumulus, or grare-hill ; S. G. d&i^ a pile made at described 
in the definition, a stadc ; Jmm i dya utttia : to put com together into a heap ; Sw. D. dot, 
<foss, {riled he^ of stones : ■ these ttm-do$$ir hare usually been heathen altar-jnles,' Rietz ; 
also dontt A stack of hay or straw. Cf. Pr. Pm. Dtu. 

1. (%x>ken by a working-man while engaged in excarating a tumulus Of grare-hill, 
Hcm».) * Wheeah I it all ligs i* dttsts;* it is all laid in layers. 

3. 'Admof stones.* Wb. Ql. 

Pr.Pm.*D*u, of faye benche,' denotes 'the seat of distinction placed on' the dttt$ 
proper, or 'raised platform always found at the upper end of a hall.' Note to Best. 
In TWfuf. MyU, p. 4, speaking of Lucifer and his beauty, ' Secundus malus Angelut/ 

' He is so fayre, with outten les, 
He semys fiiUe welle to sytt on dts;* 

where the meaning of da corresponds with that of Prompt, dsu. But at p. 30 the word 
nridently bears a sense nearly or quite coincident with that of grade, degree, Lat. gradus, 
and thus CMUKcts itself with our word : — 

* Of alle angels in brightnes 
God gaf Lucifer most lightnes, 
Yit prowdly he flyt his dlu. 
And set hym eren hym by. 

He thoght hymself as worth! as hym that hym made. 
In brightiws, in bewty ; therfor he hym degrade, 
Put hym in a low degre soyn after/ 

DesSy V. a. To pile up in an orderly fashion, or layer after layer. 

' Gan thoo, William, an' dtss that hay oop i' t' chawmer (hay-loft)/ 
' Here 's a vast o' boxes, lad. Thee wecant get 'em a* in, wivout thee d*s$ *em oop 
canny ;' (rile them up orderly, in regular courses, in opposition to throwing them in a con- 
fused mass. 

Deasably, adj. Orderly, in respect of arrangement. Wh, GL 
Bib, V. a. and n. To dip. 

Used in the same senses as the standard word, and identical with it. Comp. Sw. D. f/066, 
to dire, dip oneself; and Dan. dyh, deep, &c., in which 6 takes the place of /, as in our 

Dib, sb. A depression in the ground, scarcely amounting to a Slack, 
and much less to a valley. 

Didder, v. n. (pr. dither). To thrill or shiver from the effects of cold 
or fear. 

Comp. Pr. Pm. * Dydtryn for colde ;' Cadf. Ang. ' Dadir, to whake.' Dut. itttirnt ; Germ. 
zitterm; and also O. N. titra, to shiver, tremble with cold or fear. Dodder or dother, 
as also dander, a nasalised form of dadir, together with our word, are connected with 
O. N. datta, to vibrate ; palpitate, as the heart does ; Sw. D. datta, dutta ; and these probably 



with HaUoiten's dua (imp. dudi), to be iii a slate of motion, or tremulous. Conip. abo 
E. totter. 

* I dase and 1 dtdir^ 
For fcrd of that tayllc' Tounut. Myst. p. aS. 

* She ditbfrtd and shu'k. yan ihoght die wad ha' tummled f bits.* 

Didder, didderment, sb. Trembling, shivering, thrilling of the body 

from cold or fear. 

' Ah wur a' iv a ditbemunt, 'i wur sike a flaysome skrikc' 

Biflbrmg-bout, sb. A verbal dispute or quarrel. 

* Him and nie had a sairiih tS^rin'-bout along o* thac ihecp at was W0TTi«d.' 

Dike, sb. i. A ditch, a channel for carrying off water, a. A bank 
or long earthen mound, a fence. 3. A pool, or small pond. 4. A rude 
stone wall on a dike-back-top, 

O.N. diki: O.Sw. dih; Sw. D. dih: A.S. die; Dan. digt; Hind. dUti. The O.N. 
word seems to be limited in signification to a ditch, a watcT-chaiuicl. The S. G. dike has 
both the meanings — ditch and bank. A. S. die^ as Bosworth seems to think, means pri- 
marily a bank, a mound, which ii the case with Sw. D. dike or dige; while New H. Germ. 
deicb, and Deng, diki both signify a pond, a dam, as well as a mound. Ihre remarks that 
the contrariety of thc»c meanings is easily accounted for when one recollects that the earth 
dug out in forming the dike, in the sense ditch, being laid on the surface at length, forms 
the dike, in the sense mound. Grimm's remark is that the sense of tlie word seems to 
depend upon the principal motirc or object in doing the work, whether the sinking of a 
trench or the riiding of a mound. A dikt in the Scotti«'h dialect, it may be observed, 
means a stone wall or fence ; ' a slap in a dry stone dike* is a breach in a dry stotte waD. 
Probably the gender of the ooun may originally have decided the sense ; a prcsomption 
that presents itself in more than one instance analogous to this of IMke. See J>lke-lMUl]C| 
Dike-cam, Hedge-dike, Hedge -dike-side, WateT*dikeB. 

Cf. * Twen heuone hil and hcUe dik.' Gen. and Em. p. 9. 

Dike-back, sb. The bank which forms one side of a dike or ditch. 

Dike-cam, sb. The bank of the Hedge-dike. 

Dike, V. n. 1. To be engaged in the labour of making a dike. 3. To 
cleanse out, by digging, the dike at the foot of a hedge bank, using the 
material dug out to repair the bank where necessary. 

* And be woki thresh and therto dike and delve.* 

Prol. Ca$u. Talti, The Phvghnam. 

* Syche bondage nhalle I to theym beyde. 

To dyke and delf, here and draw, 
And to do alle uiihoncst dcyde.' Townet. Mytt. p. 57. 

Dill, V. a. To give ease in pain ; to allay or assuage pain ; to soothe. 

f'erhaps connected with O. N. dilta, to luO or soothe u a nurse does a baby, with a 
derived or secondary meaning. 

* Ah *s aboot dccad wi' t* lecthwirk. Ah wad gic' owgbt for soroethin* t* dill it.* 

* Maria. My son ? Alas, for care I 

Who may my doyllys dylle T Totenel. Mysi. p. 136. 


Ding, V. a. i. To push or thrust violently, a. To hurl downwards 
with force, or dash down. 3. To strike forcefully. 4. To batter or 
bruise. 5. To surpass, out-do, be superior to, in respect of achieve- 
ment or argument, &c. 

O.N. dmgia; O. Sw. tUmga, to dash, thrutt, bang; N. ddnfpt: Dan. dttnge; A. S. 
dtiugttm; M. H.Oenn. ttngm; Same. tung. 

I. * Ptdr Uhtle baiml Didst'ee get dinged (or dung) off t' cheear?' 
a. * Tak* heed, nun, or he '11 ding thee doon t' steears.* 
Comp. * 24 of my Next Cosau 

will hdpe to i^ngt him downe/ Percy's Fol. MS. 1. 236. 
See, also. Totaut. MyU. pp. 349, I4X. 

3. * He dang t' geeareloc reeght npo' mah foot.' 

Comp. * Fast upon his face I dangt.' Percy's Folio MS. i. 359. 

Cf. ToumMl. MyU. p. 960. 

4. ' Wfaeeah, he *s dinged a hole reeght thruff t' ikell-beast, be struck lae saJr ;' of 
a kicking horse or beast. 

5. * 'M 's ding him fairUngs;" I shaU beat him entirely.' Wb. Gl, 
In Tmmd, Myti. p. 141, and P, Plougbm. p. 295, — 

* Greatt dukes downe dynga for his greatt aw 

And hym lowtys :' 

* Down dyng of youre knees 

Alle that hym seys :' 

* Neither Peter the porter 
Nor Poul with his fauchon 
That wole defende me the dore 
Dynge I never so late :' 

the usage is of a vb. neuter. 

Ding, sb. The crush and confusion of a crowd, as it sways and 
pushes in different directions ; or the disturbance which always accom- 
panies a crowd. 

'What's all this ding and dordom about?' Wh. Gl. 

Dingle, v. n. (pr. dinn'l.) To thrill, tingle ; expressive of the secondary 
effects of pain or cold or a blow. 

Comp. O. N.. Sw. dingla; Dan. dingle; Sw. D. dingdl. The primary meaning of these 
rerbs is to vibrate, to move as any pendulous thing does, whether more or less quickly. 
The transition is easy to the sensation which is described by Brockett as ' if of a tremulous 
short motion in the particles of one's flesh.* Hall., Brock., Wb. G/.all spell the word as 
dindle or dinnle, dinnd ; with which comp. Pr. Pm. ' Dynddyn, tinnio/ and collate both 
with the Scand. verbs given above, and with E. tingle, which Rich, says is the same word as 
tinkle^ and which he defines * 10 sound, or cause to sound, — as metal stricken ; to ring, cause 
or emit the sound of bells when rung ; to feel a tremulous^ jarring sensation, like the 
ringing of metal when stricken* Comp. also Dut. tintelen, to tingle. This view of the 
essential identity of the forms in g and in </ or /receives confirmation also from the meaning 
the verb bears in some parts of the North — to tremble or shake, as well as to reel, to 
st^ggci*' The word is used metaphorically in Lowland Scotch : — * Ane aye thinks at the 
first dinnle of the sentence that they have heart eneugh to dee rather than bide out the sax 
weeks.' Heart of Mid-Lotbian. 



Dinnot, dlnna, deeant'ee. Forms of • Do not,' ' Do not ihou/ 
Ubed eiiLreaUiigly or warningly. 

Dint, sb. The greater part or proporlion. WA, GL says, * it is a 
word we have never heard applied in the sense given, but which, ii is 
staled, was formerly in use hereabouts lo signify the greater number as 
compared with the lebs ; '* the t^tnf of our town in those days were 
smugglers." ' 

A. S. ttynt ; O. Sw. dynUr; O. N. dyntr. Our word Uku ui indurect ftcnic derived from 
the originil meaning, a blow, a push, ihe exercise of power or force, thai is; just as 'by 
dint of aigumrnt' \\ by force of argument. Conip. a ' power of folk,' * a power of beasts.* 
&c. ; and also the use of the word given by Jant., * an opportunity:' * Stown dinti are 
sweetest:' Ranuay's Sc. Provtrli; where the uicautiig probably is a ttroke of chance. 

Dinting, sb. A stitch in use among tailors. See under Dented. 

Dither. Pr. of Didder. 

Diszy, adj. Simple, half-v^itted or deficient. 

A. S. Jyii. dysig, dysg, foolish, weak, ignorant. Dosw. quotes Low. G. diuig. aod Dot. 
duittlig. The Scand. tongues do not seem to have any corresponding word. Hall, gives 
* dizzanOy, foolish, stupid ;' and L**d» Gi. give* dtzzy as a »ouu : * What a dizzy (i. e. 
simpleton) he is.' 

Dookon, dock'ns, sb. The common dock, or dock-sorrel, genus 
Huffux : particularly the species R. oiiusifolius. 

A. S. d^€9 ; Pr. Pm. Dokktwtd*. Sec Sour-dookeni, Bur-dookeo. 

Do-danoe, sb. i. A roundabout way to a place, or to the accom* 
phshmcnt of a purpose. 2. A fool's errand or bootless mission. 

Cf. Haldorsen'i darner, mocking rhymes ; S. G. dant, mockery, nLaking a fool of a penon. 
' *' They led me a baony di>-damt about It ;" gave me a great deal of uiuieccssar7 or 
roundabout work in Ihe matter.' Wh, Gl. 

Dodded, adj. Without horns. Wh, Gi. gives it as applied to sheep 
with short horns. 

Pr. Pm. ' Doddyd, withowtyii hornys ; dodtiyd, as trees. /)rromA/«j, mutUui' The 
unie authority gives also the vb. doddyn, to lop. cut ihort, which, of couric. is the lODfce 
of our dodded. Hall, quotes dod, to lop or cut as a tree ; aiKl also, to cut or dip wool 
from, or near, the tail of a sheep ; the tunie (at the locks so cut being doddings. The 
wurd is also applied lo a person who has had his hair cut very short ; whence doiiy-pot%, 
Toumtl. MywI. p. 145. applied in refcrtnce to the loiiiured priests of pre-rcfonnatiun times. 
Conip. 'Xe schuleii bcon i-doddtd four ii'5en itit jcre, oortc Uhten ower heaued / you shaU 
be doddtd — i. e. have your hair cut— four tunes a year for to disburden your bead. Aner. 
RiwU, p. 42 i. See, also, doddungt, hair-cutting, lb. p. 14. 

Dodder, v. n. (pr. dother). To be tremulous; lo tremble or quiver, 
will) age, or wth cold, or fear. 

O. N., Sw. D. dtma: Sw. darra. See Didd«r. 
* Pair au'd carl t He dwbfn mait an' mair.' 


Ooddanuns, ab. (pr. dothrums). Tremulousness, trembling; im- 
plying both condition and accession. 

■ Ah thinki he 't allays i* t* dbibvms, noo.' 

* He toik a fit o' t' doAmmtf afore Ah 'd fairlings getten him tell'd.' 

Bol!^ V. a. To take or strip off clothes or wrappings. 

In the following pasiagei Ae origin of doff is nifficiently erident ;— 

'All my bloodjre armonr q^me wu dont* Perc/s Folio MS. u 362. 
* When >oa comeit byfore a lorde 
Yn halle^ yn bowre, or at ^ horde. 
Hod or cappe ^t ^ou of do 
XcT >ou come hym allynge to/ lb. note i. p. 1S9. 

* D^ Ae duds. Marget.' Wb. CU, 

* D^X' baiin's wet oooats, wih 'ec/ 

I>og, V. a. To set a dog afler sheep for the purpose of driving them 
off when straying where they have no right to be ; to drive them off by 
such means. 

Doggers, sb. The globular concretions or nodules met with in 
certain geological formations, usually containing each a fossil, and which 
are applied to the manufacture of Roman cement. See Scar-doggers. 

Comp- Haldonen't doggr^ a projecting object of conical form, which may perhaps be 

Bog-JnmpB, sb. The fruit of the wild rose, or common dog-rose 
(Rata caKtnOy and other varieties). ' Dog-hip' in Scotiand. 

BCanhall giret * Choops ; heps, the fruit of the rose ;' and Hall, the forms cboup^ sboup- 
Note also oor Ctettfjosn. I look npon jvmp, jug, cboop or choup^ and tboup, as merely 
varying ibnns of the same word, and dependent on Sw. hjupotit N. i^pa, kjupa, A. S. 

Bog-whipper, sb. A parish official, whose duties consisted in ex- 
pelling any dog or dogs which might intrude into the chiurch during the 
performance of any service. 

The office was usually joined with that of sexton and pew-opener, &c. ; for one person 
disdiarged many offices in our remote and primitive-mannered moorland churches. The 
short, stout dog-idiip was a regular part of the Dog-whipper's equipment ; indeed, a 
qnasi badge of office ; and his duties, where the land is subdivided into a very great number 
of snaB freeholds or farms, and where each farmer has a Sheep-stray on the moors, and 
cooseqacndy kec^ one sheep-dog at least, often more, who are used to follow their masters 
00 all occasions and into all societies, was really not a sinecure. In Danby Church the office 
has existed down to the year 1863, and had become almost hereditary in one family, having 
been hdd by Richaidsons, father and son, through three successions. Written dog-noper 
by Hall., and dt^-mauptr in LmU Ol.^ botli corruptions of Dog-knapper. 

Doit, sb. A jot, an atom, a fraction. 

* Ah deean't care a doU aboot 't.* 

Comp. Dan. doit ; * Jeg hryder mig Vth in doit dtrom ;* exactly equivalent to our example. 




Dole, sb. {pr. dooal). A distribution of money or food, at a Burial, 
to the poor. See Arval, Bid. Sometimes applied in reference to the 
entire preparation of food, &c., which is partaken of by — in a sense, 
therefore, distributed among — the assembled throng. In Leeds Gi. it ia 
quoted as applying to llic distribution of bread among certain poor per- 
sons in church after morning service. By Brockett it is limited to 
* Alms bestowed at funerals.' 

O.N. dtUa; O. Sw. dela; A.S. dalan, to divide, apportion. TTie curtom of giving 
DooaiB at the funerals of persons of substance is only just extinct (If quite so) tn the 
Ckvcl. Dales. The orij;in » doubtlcu coiuiccted with the old Scandinavian pnctice of pre- 
senting all ^or most) of the guests at an Arval «ith suitable gifts. Thus when the cele- 
brated Arval in honour of Hialti was held, not only are we told of his sons. ' l^eir buJo 
ollom bo/dinffiom, ac wiro ^*ir f6l/ bundrut hodinun ;' but also, * or vtiro aUtr virdinga 
menu nud gto/vm brott Itidder :' all the principal men were let go with presents. 

The following extract from Towml. Mys/. p. 50, Noah's wife being the speaker, gi^CS 
a hint as to the object of the dole, at least in Roman Catholic limes :— ' 
' Lord, I were at cse and hertcly fullc hoylle, 
Might I onys have a measse of wcdows coylle ; 
For thi sauUe, without lese, shuld I dele penny doytU.* 

DoUop, sb. I. An awkward or clumsy-looking portion of anything, 
as of bread or meat. 2. A quantity or number of individuals forming 
a shapeless whole. 

Comp. Haldorsen's doi^, a shapelessir ht brute ; Tat. doipungr, a round, fai baby or 
puppy i though it may be, perhaps, open to question if the words be cnnncded. 

I. ' Weell thec's gctleu a fainsh doiiop, thee has. It's a wcm^fu' fur tweca as big 
as thou.' 

7. * Yun troot 's biggest o* I* doiiop by owght.' 

Dolly, dolly-tub. sb. A washing-tub in the form of a barrel, fitted 
up A^iih an interior cross-headed shaft, terminating at its lower end in an 
object which is not imlike a sraaJI four- or si\-]egged wooden foot-stool. 
Used for washing blankets and other large and ljea\7 articles, the shaft 
(see DoUy-stick) having a kind of semi-rotatory motion communicated 
to it by means of the cross-bar at the top. 

Dolly-stick, sb. The shaft or interior instrument of ihc Dolly-tub. 

Don, adj. Clever, dexterous, apt, 

O. Dan. danms /oik, daruus nutn, or dammn^n, is a word or title implying some kind of 
distinction in the persons to whom it is applied. The prefix also occun separately. Thus 
wc have O. Sw. ' tn boftotlig ruldttrt ok turl dattn :' a noble knight and a finiihed ; as well as 
a Sw. D. word dann. Conip. Old D. and Dan. dnnrus; Dan. and N. Dial, dan: side by 
side with which may be placed the cognate words of Gertn. origtiv— O. Germ, than, tbon ; 
A. S. gt~don : Germ, gttban, dec. 

* Ay. he 's a don hand, yon chap ; he 's wetly oop tiv owght.' 

Don, V. a. To put on any portion or the whole of one's clothing. 
See Doff. 

' Dftn riiT bonnet' •l*on 0-,a' ciae* : rhurj*. lid I' 


Bonk, adj. Damp, charged with moisture. 

Identical with £. dank. C<nnp. Sw. D. dattka; Dan. D. dBtti*, dynit; Germ dunkeH, 
to make damp, cause to be moist. See Wcdgw. under Dankt for the connection between 
closencsi and dampness implied in this word. 

* As donk at a dungeon.* Wh. Gl. 

Donnot, donnet, sb. i. A thoroughly worthless person; a Oood- 
fdr-ziowght 2, A designation for Satan ; probably as the chief Oood- 

■ DoMiul is derived by Brock, from do-naugbt,' says Ferg. ; * but in Cumberland donntt 
also means the devil, and do-naugbt would be a very inappropriate title for the ever-busy 
anthor of evil. It is evidently dow-noi, not good ; conesponding to '* evil-one." ' But 
mamgbi means bad^ *vU, as well as nothing; and thus the objection to Brockett's derivation 
ftlls to the ground. However, the origin of the word is due to the verb duga, as Ferg. 
foggests, with a privative sufBx — cf. Dan. dmgtnigt, a good-for-nothing fellow; Germ. 
Im^tHubts; so that, as dugtig means able, eminent, excellent, Donnot means the exact 
Cfmrerse. good-for-nought, and eminently such. Comp. Ihre in w. Dugan^ Danneman, 
and note tM phrase, * That o' t' donnot,' that which belongs to the devil, human or other. 

* ** That o' i* donnot's never i' danger ;" what belongs to the devil " is not in trouble as 
other men." ' Wb. Ql. 

* That au'd donttot,' or, * T' au'd do/mot ;' Satan himself. 

Door-oheek, sb. (pr. deear-cheek). Either of the side-posts of a 

Door-ganging, sb. The doorway; the means or space of passing 
in or out afforded by the door. 

Door-sill, sb. The threshold of a door. 

Door-stead, sb. The site or place of the door itself, or doorway, as 
opposed to the space or means of passage in and out. See Stead. 

Door-stone, sb. (pr. deear-stan, dcear-steean). The flag-stone, usually 
a single one of some size, placed at the going-in of a door. In the 
plural the word denotes the flags or pavement along the entire house- 

Door, To get to the. To be able to get out or into the open air : 
of an invalid recovering from his illness. 

Doory, adj. (pr. deeary). Diminutive, puny. 

I look on deeazy at being to doory what Deear is to door, Boheeal to school^ &c. 
Doory may perhaps be due to the same origin as the Scot, deareb, dircb, droicb. See Jam. 
Hald. gives dr6gt bomuncio, which may mean either a manikin or a scamp : probably it 
means both, as Jam. quotes Gudm. Andr. as explaining it by minuHssimum quid et fugid- 
vnm. In this case, without need of resort to O. N. dvergr, Sw. dvdrg, A. S. dwerg^ 
dwwrh^ by the common transposition of r and its preceding vowel, we should have a 
word closely resembling our doory in form and sound, and exactly coincident in signifi- 
cation. Cf., however, Isl. durgr (derived from O. N. dvergr)^ a puny wretch. 

' A lahtle dteary bairn ;' a weakly or puny child. 

* A lahtle deeary bit ;' a very mall piece or shred. 

U 2 



Bordum, durdum, sb. Uproar and confusion ; tumultuous or riot- 
ous proceedings. Also spelt dirdum, dirdam, dyrdum. 

* I like this word/ szyi Ferguson, * to be frotn O. N. Hyradomr, thus expUined \>y 
Mallet : " In the exrly pirt of the Icelandic Commonweklth, when a man was suspected of 
thcf). a kind of ttibunal. composed of twelve persons named by him and twelve by the 
perwn whoK goods had been stolen, was instituted before the door of his dwelling, and 
hence called > door-doom ; but is this manner of proceeding generally ended in bloodshed, 
it was abolished." Hence the word might become synonymous with the ttimult And uproar 
which, it appears, generally characterized these proceedings.' Still, note N. c/vr, ao uproar, 
with the corresponding vb. dura. 

* The street 's a* iv a dyrdum.' 

Dorse, v. n. (pr. dozz, duzz). Of grains of corn; to fall from the 
ear from over ripeness, whether by the shaking of the reapers, or under 
the influence of wind, 

Sw. D. drosa, drasa, drosa, drAsw ; ' Somii var sa igjodt dA vd tk6r, ait a droul hodt 
I H(i nea mar^a :' the com was to ripe when we shore it, that it dorztd out on the land. 
Dan D. drtu*, driUe; ' Korrut drdstde of ntgtne:' the com dtsrud out of the sheaves. 
Comp. Dan. drysit; N. dryiia; A. S. drtotan. Another instructive instance of the trans- 
position of r and its succeeding vowel under dialectic changes. 

DoBseL, sb. 1 . A bunch of ears of wheat, selected for their size, and 
with their straw aliped (stripped of the exterior sheath), applied as an 
ornament or finial at the apex of the completed Corn-pike. 2. A 
homely kind of doll made of a quantity of rags lied up togetlier. 

Pr. Pm. * Dot^U, stopp>'nge of a vesselle : dotsell. DvcUlm^ dvctildnt ;' probably * * 
corruption of dnctului, which in the Lat.>Eng. Vocab. Roy. MS. ts rendered " dossetle," 
from the Fr. dnuj, doucil, or. according to Cotgr., doisU.' lb. note. Hall, gives {fouW. 
' a wisp of hay or straw to stop up an apeiture in a bam.* This su[>plics the connecting 
link between the meaning of our word and that given in Pr. Pm. Wedgw. looks upoa 
* a bunch of somelhtng tttrust in to stop an ori6cc' as ' the fundamental idea. 

Dosted, pcpl. Dimmed, having lost its gloss or polish; dirtied; 
depreciated in appearance. 

This is, perhaps, • corrupt pcpl. of the verb dtrtM, given in Hall, as implying to fftVfy. to 
ffrtad dung. 8cc. The CIcvel. pronunciation of dersnd would exactly give dtuud: other- 
wise there iccnis to be no clue to the origin of tlie word. 

Dotterill, sb. A silly old man ; a doating old fellow; a dotard. 

Pr. Pm. ' Do/r«JIe, idrm ijnod Dotarde.* From tlie same root, probably, is the Scotch 
doUtd, dat*d, doitfru, dotlar, &c. ; Belg. doUa, tn t>e of enfeebled intcllecl ; Dan. D. dad*, 
stupid, dothig ; which are, in their turn, tractable to O. N. doda, dodna, &c. Grimm, 
however, D. M. pp. 987, 588. suggests another connection : * A. S. ist dydfrian, btdyd*r\am, 
Uludcrc, tncantarc ; womit viellcicht das H. D. tattern^ dottem (uigi. dclinfc) ausammenhiiogt.' 
Comp. * dusie men \ aJottd*.' Aner. Riu^*, p. 31a. 

Doubt, V. a. To entertain an apprehensive connction ; to believe, 
when believing is accompanied with pain ; to fear apprehensively, 

* " ir your fither does rmt leave off drinking, he *li kill himself." *' Ah iho*n it, Ah '» 




Comp. * ** Beshtew his hart," tays Liile John, 

" thit bryct or thornc docs doubt." ' Percy's Foiio MS. i. 48. 
' For he will come thif ilkc tiight 
& into the forrest slippe anon 
for to wsite ihee for to iloen ; 
but herof haiie thou iioe douiht.' lb. 484. 

Doubtftil, adj. 1. Entertaining an apprehension, or unpleasant con- 
viction. 2. Impljing the same. 

1. ' •* h will rain before night, Peter." *' Ah "* doo'tful it will." * 

2. • " Hell certainly be convicted, and hung," " It '% doo'ffut, for seear." ' 

Douce, adj. Decent, sober, well-conducted, neat. 

* Fr. t/ot/jc, douca, mild, gentle, quiet, tractable ; from Latin duicix.* Jam. 

Douk, V. a. and n. i. To depress one's head, or the upper part of 
one's person; to bow down. 2. To dive or plunge under water, as 

a water-fowl does. 

To bathe or wash in the water. 

Comp. O. Sw. duia, to press or put down; Sw. duia undtr, to yield, I0 submit; Sw. 
dyka, Dan, dukkt^ to dive, duck under water. The luccessioo of ideas is plain enough. 

Doup, sb. I. The buttocks or posteriors. 2. A heavy, indolent 


0. N. do/f the hinder parts of an animal, from the common interchange of p and /. is 
nattirally suggested as the direct origin of this word. It is. however, at least open to ques- 
tion whether do/ itself, as well as our Doup, be not refcrrible to the same tonrcc as Sw. 
dopp^t N. dyppa, duppa, Sw. D. duppa, dolp<k, A. S. dyppan, to dip, to plunge into a depth ; 
O. N. djupr, deep ; O. N. dypt, dypi. N. dypt^ dyft, kc, A. S. tUop, depth, profundity, the 
deep. The English word for the specified part of the human body iuvolvei precisely the 
same idea, and it Is easy to note by what transition. By ■ like transition again, among 
those who use very familiar or coarse and vulgar terms, a lazy, heavily- or icluclantly- 
moving person (and especially if somewhat ' Dutch-built.' or ' heavy behind,') is apt to be 
saluted by some appeUation expressive of that peculiarity. Of Doup, thus applied, it is 
enough to %xy. that it is a great deal less vulgar than most of its synonyms. The word 
db/pr. Hald., an unwieldy or grossly fat beast, may suggest a derivation for the word in iti 
Kcond signification, if the above is not regarded as satisfactory. 

* Loo* thee 1 there's a gret fat doup V 

Doup, dowp, sb. The carrion crow (Corvus corone). 
Dour, adj. r. As applied to the aspect; sullen, gloomy, sour-look- 
ing. 2. To the temper; stem, morose, repellent. 

Jam. gives Lat. durta. O. N. ddr, with a nearly coincident sound, and with a signifi- 
cation partly coincident, and partly correlative, may perlups be as near the mark. 

1. * He looked as dour as a ihunner-<lotid.' Wh. 01. 

a. * He *s nobbut a dour 'n l' dee wiv ; baith stifi an* hard ;* inflexible and without 

Douse, sb. A blow, as wih the fist, 

* Gic him a dovu iu 's chops,' 



Doiise, dowse, v. a. i. To drench or saturate with water, whether 
by plunging into the water, or throwing a quantity over a person or 
thing. 2. To strike; thence to strike out, as a light; to strike off or 
down, as feathers or finery from a girl's bonnet or dress. 

It U possible that doiue may be nearly allied to dash. The Sw. Dial, dtuha, with the 
lame significations (except that, in connection with water, it is applied to soft or gcnile 
and intermitting rain-sfaowcn), with its cognate words diia, duska, duxk, i» referred to 
Saasc das. Duul, a drizzling rain, dos^n, to dtizxlc, arc words used in the Tyrol. The 
connection with dtub would supply the rationale of the second nuuning. Bui »ee 

I . • " Thou •» getten uir douted, Mally. WTieeah, thoa *$ 't' bin thruff i' beck. Ah lay." * 

3. * She's dotti€d o' her feathers.* iVh. GL 

Dousing, sb. i. A drenching, a. A blow, a beating or thrashing. 

I. • '• A good doming;" a thorough soakinK.' '^A. Gi. 
8. * Ah '11 gie thee a dousing^ ef tbcc dizn'l need.* 

Dout, V. a. To put out, to extinguish ; to do out. 

Wcdgw. suggests a doubt of do out being the origin of this word. His remarks certainly 
deserve attcrition, but arc. perhaps, scarcely conclusive. 

Dout, sb. An extinguisher, wherewith to put out — ' do out' — a candle. 

Dove, V. n. To dose, to be hea\7 and sleepy, 

O. Sw. dofwa, to have one's senses dulled or stupefied. Cotnp. O. N. doJS, torpidity, 
inToluntary indolence, &c. ; Sw. dtna, id.; Sw. D. duven, dAvtn; Dui. dIOMii; abo 
SanscT. div, to be sleepy. 

' " You're been aileep, Joseph." *• Naa, nobbut doiiwn a bit." * 

Dovi&g-drink, sb. A sleeping draught. 

Sw. do/-dryck, Dan. d9V*-drii, an anodyne draught. Comp. dbtt/tn Jamiesoo. 

Dow, V. n. I. To thrive, prosper, be successful ; of either persons or 
things, a. To mend, improve, become better, in respect of health, 
growth, circumstances. 

0. N. duga, to be tuong. to be strong enongh, or able ; O. Sw. duga, doga, to be good* 
or fit for ; A. S. dmgan, to profit, avail, be good for ; Fris. duga. Comp , especially, Dan* 
dm*, S. Jath dogt, in which two words not only docs the pronunciation approximate very 
closely to ours, but the sense also ; a remark that is Ukewise true of O. N. da/na. The 
Scottish use of the word, which we do not appear to have prcserrcd in Clevel.. if in N, 
England at all, and which is strictly consonant with the simple meaning of these old verbs, 
it well illustrated in this sentence from the Blad Dwarf: — ' Nae single man can keep 
a tower against twenty. A* the men o' the Mrarns dovnia do niair than they dow.' Bat 
the transition of idea from this seiue to that involved in our word is so simple and necet* 
ury — like that in polto, from / ttm strong or abtf, to /am toell ui health or body, and in 
our wordi itronc, weak, aiUy, — that there is no need to seek diiferent dcrivalions, ai 
Jam. does, for dote, to be able, and dow in our sense. 

1. ' " He dows bravely;" thrives or prospers exceedingly well," Wh. (W, 

* " Maich giuwi, never dowt;" applied to blossom shewing itself too early, or toaoy pre- 
maiurc sptui of vegetation.' lb. 


* Hell nerer <foi0, e{;g nor bird.* 

a. * ** He nowther decs, nor dows •** neither dies nor geti any better/ 

Comp. Nwib. Qosptt form in — * Huat fottSon deg Stegum men^ gif be all middangeard 

gtUrkma* Sec. : what shall it therefore profit a man, if he gain, &c., Matt. xvi. a6, with 

■ Soe mote 1 £&o,* Perc/s Folio MS, i. 97, and 

* Come thou onys in my honde, 

Shaltin thou never &«.* Coke's Ttdt of GanuHyn^ p. 40. 

• Evil mote I the: lb. p. 40, &c. 

Dcvwled, dulled, adj. Dead, flat, vapid ; of liquor which has grown 
flat by exposure to the atmosphere. 

I refer this word to dall or daul. The succession of ideas is fix}m weariness or dis- 
taste to want of spirit or buoyancy, in the person ; and thence easily to want of savour or 
sharpness in the liquid. Cf. the O. N. idioms do/had 61, dojnad nn, vapid or stale ale and 
vine, with their precisely analagous Dan. equivalents, dovent ml, doven vm, and the various 
applications of deaf in our and the Scand. dialects. 

Dowly, adj. i. Of persons; poorly, heavy with sorrow or anxiety, 
low or depressed in spirit. 2. Of things; lonely, melancholy, wearying 
or harassing. 3. Of the weather ; dull, gloomy, depressing. 

0. N, ddlegr, hapless, wretched ; daufiegr, low-spirited ; S. G. ddleg. Ihre quotes dauf- 
iigr as cognate with this ; Sw. ddlig, Sw. D. ddlUg, doUigt dolig (the g silent in all three), 
IHu. daarlig, 

1. * Ah's doo'tiu* its nobbut a puir dowly bairn: its nowght like dowin'.' 

'She's varry dowly. Sir. SheVe nivver mended sen she getten her bed;' lay in, was 

* ** He 's as dowly as deeath ;" so ill, and looks it.' Wb. Gl. 

a. • *' It 's a desput dowly^ deeafly spot t' won in ;'* it is a very lonely, out-of-the- world 
place to live in.' 

C& Daufligt ^kir bonum \>ar: he thinks it very dowly there ; of a man in hiding in a 
lonely cave. Flatty, i. 1^6. See also p. 384. 

* Wiv her man off on 't, an' iweca bainis down wi* t' throat-sickness, an* on'y a silly body 
hersel', she 's had a dowly time on 't/ 

* Its dou^y deed carryin' on wi* sikan a lot o' feckless folk.' 

* Ay, it's bin a dowly day, this yan: but we've wan thruff it wi' t* Loord's help.' 
3. * Its nobbut dowly weather: it owther rawks or rains ilka deea.' 

* On'y a dou^y seed-time. T' land '$ sae doom* t' seead weean't hap.* 

Comp. • Now es the wedir bright and shynand, 

And now waxes it all douiland.^ Pr. o/Consc. I442. 
This is the reading of the Coti. MS.; MS. Harl. reads domland; and MS. Lands, gives 
the word droubelind*. With our use of the word dowly (cf. Dan. dirligt veir, bad 
weather) there can be little doubt of the correctness of the reading douUlandt although 
the question is suggested, is douUland a pcpl., and if so, what is the verb? 

Down, V. a. To fell, as a tree ; to knock down, as a man, or an 
animal ; to level or pull down, as a wall or building. 

Bown-oome, down-coming, sb. A fall in respect of condition or 

* She 's had a sair down-come, she hev. Yance she war ower-mich set oop t* mak' hei 
ain meat : she 'II mcbbc be matched i* como by 't noo.' 



Comp. * " Thou maun do without horse-fheet ind nircingle now, lad." he said ; " you 
and nic hatr had a doum-<onu alike." ' Blaeh Dwarf. 

Doivn-comer, sb. The pipe (of iron or other material) which re- 
ceives the collected eaves-drainage, and conveys it down the side of the 
house to the ground. 

Down-dinner, sb. An afternoon meal, intennediate (as usually 
understood) between dinner and lea, but in which the beverage tea 
forms an important constituent. 

it it Karcely potsible to doubt that thii n umply a connption of the word still cvirent in 
N. W. England in the form aoMdra-tt, orndom, omdoorns, urtdrm. See. Profcsfor W».r- 
uae unhesitatingly claims ihts word u coiuddeiit with the S. Jutl. <mdtHt mid-day meal, or, 
a» it ii written by Kok, undern. By the latter it ii detincd as middagt'maaltid, mid-day 
mnJ-time. dinner-time, and dcrired directly from O. N. undorn. In a pasuge from the 
Valuif'ii four divisions of the day are named: ' morgin, miP/an-dag, tmdom ok apftuii* 
morning, mid-day, undorn and evening. In strict accordance with this the Finland ondtm^ 
and Sw. D. undurn, undu/t, imply a meal taken in mld-aftenioon, mid afitnsmad. In the 
Kxx district ^S. Jutl.), where undtrn is the mid-day meal, or dinner, /or-umdem and f/itr* 
undern express respectively the meali inicrmediate between breakfast and dinner, and dinner 
and supper. But what is much to the purpose, in considcriug the derivation of orndom, or 
our So'wn-dinner, as a corruption of it, is this,— that O. N undam is coincident with 
u/tdom, but with a special application to drinking. Egitss. Now tlw usual equivalent for 
Down-dliuier at present current in some parts of the Dales is Drinking or Drinklnc- 
time. Hall, gives 'Drinking, a collation between dinner and supper :' and adds, 'that the term 
is now applied to a refreshment betwixt meals taken by fann-Ubourcrs;' wliiic dtmruirin* 
is 'afternoon drinkings* in Derbyshire, and ramdtr is 'forenoon drinking' accordmg to 
Thorcsby, and ' afternoon* according to Grose. The L**ds Oh also gives ' drinking' in both 
these applications. In collating these words it is scarcely possible to escape noticing the 
connection which exists between the term omJfm. aandom, undem, and the idea of drink- 
ing, or dritJting-timt ; and thus one is almost led to assume that the Dales term for the 
mid-aftemoon meal — Drinking or Drinkings— can be nothing else virtually than a 
translation of the O. N. andam. The form of the word Dovn-dinnor is probably due 
to a confusion or misconception about the word of which its prefix is a remnant, coupled 
with the conception that the repast meant is in a sense subsidiary, or. at least. In succession, 
to dinner. I hare somewhere seen a hint throwit ont that ttie first syllable of Qondom 
may be due to Dan. anden, second, the next. This, of course, is out of the question. 
Jam. gives a long discussion about the word, which is well worth corisideration. In 
Chaucer, umd*m, undren, imply a certain hour of the day ; early in the morning at pp. 
g8, 171 ; and pvossibly a titer hour at p. 104. 

Down-gang, sb. A palli, or any similar means of descent from a 
height, such as the cliffs above the sea, or a very precipitous moor-bank. 

Down-ligging, sb. A lying-in or confinement. See Iiig, G«t 
one's bod. Sickoning. 

Down-li^ging-tinie, sb. i. Down-lying-time, bed-time. 2. The 
time of lying-in or child-birth. 

Down-pour, sb. A very heavy fall of rain, the drops both large and 
very thick. Comp. droppy and dogging. 


Bpssen'd, dosen'd, dosand, adj. Of persons ; wrinkled or withered, 
shrunk, effete, feeble in mind and body, shewing the effects of age. Of 
things ; (apples or other fruits, Ac.) having lost all firmness and round- 
ness, withered, wrinkled. See Dwizsen'd. 

No doubt identical, radically, with dased or dased. Comp. D. Dial. cUum, to be 
heavy, listleu ; dot*, to be numb in sense and faculty ; Dan. dwe (pcpl. dmendt\ to be 
dromy, heavy or dull with sleep ; S. G. d&st. See. HaU. and Jam. give the vb. dozen, to 
stomber : our word is probably only the pres . pcpl. of this vb., and a kind of inversion of 
•cnse or idea has come to pass with it In Essex and other parts of S. England a pear 
or other like fruit, which has entered upon the first stage of decay and has become 
q>ongy and tasteltts, is said to be sleepy^ just as in Denmark ale or wine that has 
become rapid is termed dovtn or dovncvuU. So with our word there is an analogous 
truuitton of sense, but in such a way as to convey rather the physical than the psychical 
cofueqnebces of age. 

BoBzil. Pr. of Droasel or DrasiL 

Braff, sb. i. Dregs, refuse, especially brewers' refuse, or grains. 
3. Mere rubbish or dirt. 

0. N., O. Sw. draf, Ihre conceives the primary sense to be dngs^ tees of wine or beer. 
The secondary sense in the Northern tongues, as in our dialect, seems to have found its 
peculiar application in denoting what was intended to be food for swine, and specially what 
we understand by the word grains. Comp. Sw. D. drav, a mixture made with meal for 
swine or fowls ; N. drav, grains. Comp. also A. S. drahht, dregs, lees ; Germ. triUnr, 
husks, grains, refuse. Again a derivative meaning, and we have the sense of mere rubbish ; 
* the ofiscouring of all things.' 

1. ' Looks t' ec ! thoo gi'e t* best o' t' draff te thae tweea gilts. Deeant 'ee mak' spare 
on 't.' 

* Ah 's gannan t' brewer's wi' t' draught, fur a leead o' draff, an' Ah *\\ fetch t' toom barr'ls 

a. * She 's nobbut a mean 'un. She 's bad as draff;' utterly worthless. 

Brape, adj. (pr. dreeftp). i. Not in milk, or dry. 2. Not with young 
at the usual or proper time ; of cows and ewes : often used in application 
to the former as a noun. 

Brock, gives Sax. drtpen, to fail, with the comment * having failed to give milk,' as illus- 
trative of the origin of this word, and adds, * drape sheep, oves rtjieuUe, credo ab A. S. 
drtEpe, expulsio ; draped, abactus : Skinner.' It seems to me that this is rather putting 
effect in the place of cause. The probability appears to be that drape, and drepd, to 
speak slowly, and with effort — as if the matter to be spoken came forward very falteringly 
and slowly — are from the same source, and that probably the S. G. drypa, to pour in by 
drops, O. N. driupa^ A. S. dnopan, drypan, Dan. draabe, supply that source. Comp. 
£. <frip, to come in very small quantities ; and the word dropmeU, by driblets, or portions, 
coming in drops. The idea thus suggested tallies exactly with the marks of a drape cow. 
The milk comes in less and less quantities, until at last there is ' such a drop' only, that it 
is not worth while to continue to milk her; and strictly expressive of this condition is the 
word drape. It was then natural enough that the word should be applied to express the 
condition of an animal, which in farmer's phrase was ' nowther in milk nor in calf,' or quite 
unproductive at the proper time. 

• An' nivvcr a dreeap amang 'em a'.' Cleveland Song 0/ Solomon, iv. 3. 


OLOSSARy or the 

DrasU, drossel, sb. (pr. dozz'l or duzz'l). A slutlish female. 

Uy metath. the word becomes dorsel, and then, by the tendency of the dialect to ilur 
the r. douel or doizel. Comp. Sw. D. drotJa, drodt, a lazy, slovenly female; drotia, to 
be laiy and ilu^th over oitc'i work. Mr. WctJgw. collatet Dan. D. draat^, a dull, inac- 
tive pflcson. and suggests a possible connection with Isl. dragd or dragsU, a slut. Rictse, 
howevrr, quuics O. N. drotia, and N. S. dryt^Jn, drieuln, to be dug^sb or Uzy in moving. 
Cunip. alw hi. drug, a poor jadc, and dmiU'brosi ; both, moreover, applicable to persons. 

* •• A dizen'd doaii;" a Uwdry slut.* Wb. Gl. 

Drate, drite, v. n. To talk slowly or hesitatingly, to drawl ; to speak 
thickly and indistinctly. 

Ilail. gives droot, one who stutters, and drotynt, to speak indistinctly, to stammer; both 
from Pr. Pm. The derivation of the word can hardly be doubtful. It is a derived offshoot 
from the same root which prodoces the verbs, O. N., O. Sw. draga, A. S. dragon, &c.; and 
thougli I do not meet with any derivatives expressive of slow or drawn-out speaking (except 
F.. drawl), yet there are so many implying slowness and halting in respect of this or that 
action, that it would have been strange indeed had not some of the family come to be 
applied as the present word is. I may instance O. N. drattr, pfocrasti nation, delay; Sw. D. 
draft, iidvance by short uncertain steps; dratta^ with corrcsjwnding meauLng, &c. Comp. 
drepe, with the succession of ideas which it illustrates. 

Draught, sb. A team of horses or oxen, together with that which 
ihey draw, whether cart, waggon, or plough. 

* T' sun'eyor w»nt« i' t* draugbu be can git t' mooni. to fcttl« oop t' rooadi about 
t' new brigg.* 

* W,lly Franks 's gelten' l' Lan^lands Farm takkci). an' he 's bomi to have 's pleeafing- 
deca t' niooru. He reckoiu he 'it have nuir an lunty dravgbti on.' Sec Plough Igg- 

Dream-holes, sb. The slits or loopholes in church-towers, stair- 
turrets, &c.. to admit air and light. 

A. S. drtam, i. joy, minh, rejoicing : 2. what causes mirth ; harmony, melody, song, in. 
ftruments uf music. From thc^c senses the usage in the early writers passes on to that of 
luud nuisc. Ill Uali Mttd. pit, * Ah al is meidcncs song unlicli ^eosc wifS eugles imeaue, 
dream ouer al he dreamet in hcucnc,* the meaning is simply harmony, melody, song. 
In Ancr. Riwi*, p. 210, * t^e prude beot! his bemares, drawcC> wind inward of worldlich 
hereword, t eft. mid idcl le'pc, puHcK hit atward. ate \k benure deS. uorte maiden noise. — 
lud drtam to schcauwen hurc horel,* the sense is a loud noise, but still such as is made by 
an instrument, — a trumpet namely. In Z^. i. 4^,— 
' )>a he mihie ihere: 
|>c bihalucs were. 
mudicl dom, mnchel dune : 
muchel folkes drtam,'—' 
the word is simplj clamour, confused noise of a multitude. And so again, iii. J20k in a 
spirited description of a battle and the dreadful din and tunmlt of it, this plirasc occurs: — 
* t^m wcs r>n uolkc : drtam was among the folk ; 

|4 eorSe gun to duiiien.* the earth began to din. 
The application of the word tn the openings in church •towers, belfrtes, Scc, is simple 


Dreaiifiome, adj. Dreary, dismal, lonely, wearying. 

* A lang dnaritome road/ Wh. GL 

Dree, adj. Tedious, long-continued, wearisome. 

See Jam. Tent, drtugh^ slow, laxy ; Goth, drig^ driugr, long drawn out ; O. N. dragr^ 
of * what can be drawn out ;' S. G. drhja^ to be long over a thing. Ck>mp. Sw. dryg-miU 
& long mile ; drygt arbete^ a wearisome piece of work ; tn dryg bok, a heavy book ; $c. to 
read ; Dan. drmif long-continued ; <n drmt arbtitU, a tcdinui piece of work ; and S. Jutl. 
dr^, which has not only the signification of our cbree but also almost the same sound. 

* Ah 's got t" leeas' th« coom ; an' a desper't dr« job it be : 'biggest pairt on *t 's nobbut 
slecan an' popple, or owght' 

' ** A dm floppy rain ;" a rain that comes only a little at t time, but continues without 
its ever becommg quite fair.' Wb. Gl. 

* A desper't drtt bit o* road, yon, for seear.' 

* "A dry, drtt preachment;" a dull, uninteresting, tediously spun out discourse.' Wh. GL 

Dree, adj. Sad, doleful, cheerless. 

The sense of this word might seem to be a secondary meaning of the last : but with the 
old Northumbrian noun drt, sorrow, misery, suffering ; — 

* Yhit sal thai that dai dre hafe :' Pricke 0/ CotucUnce, 5373 ; 
and the vb. dngbtt drigb*, to suffer, endure pain or sonow, — 
' For thai sal haf a dai thare 
Als mykel bitter payn or mare, 
AIs a man mught thole here of penaunce 
A yhere, and fele as mykel greraunce ; 
And als mykel drighe thar fourty days 
Als fourty yhere here ;* — 
both of which, as well as A. S. dreorig, probably depend on A. S. etreogan, to bear, suffer ; 
it springs from a totally different root. Comp. the phrase, t^eab ar^ aibolde: he dreed 
and tholed ; suffered and bore. Lye. 

* Ay ; it 's a drM life to live, when yan 's parted wiv a' yan's frin's/ 

Dree, v. a. To deliver slowly, droningly, tediously. 

Originating probably in the adj. dree, rather than otherwise. 
• " He drttd a lang drone ;" delivered a tedious dissertation.' Wh. Gl. 
(As far as I have been able to ascertain, the ordinary sense of dree* v. a., to endure, to 
bear, is not now recognised in Clevel.) 

Dree, v. n. To endure, to last. 

Sec Dree, tedious, and Diith; noting the extract from the Towrul. MyU. The vb. 
occurs several times in Gen. and Ex. in the forms drechen, dregen. 

* She 's drftd on sae lang, mebbe she '11 win thniff it now ;' said of a person who has had 
a l<»ig illness. 

Cf. * Ther was never a freake wone foot wolde fle, 

But still in stour dyd stand, 
• Heawyng on yche othar, whyll the myght dre 

WiUi many a bal-ful brande.' Reliquts Ancient Poetry^ i. 13. 

Dreely, adv. Slowly, tediously. 

* He talks very dreelyj 

X 2 


Breesome, adj. Tedious, wearisome ; with nothing to give any plea- 
sure, zest, or enjoyment. 

Brepe, dreep, v. n. i. To drip or drop slowly and sparingly. 
3. To talk slowly and haltingly, to drawL Brock, gives the form 
* draup.' 

0. N. driopa, O. Sw. drypa, to hll by drops. Sec. See Dr*pe. 
t. ' Gan thee, lass, and hing't oot t* drtpe.' 

3. * Ay, puir au'd chap, he gans drnpin' on, bud it 's Tarrey dree discooru.' 

DresSr v. a. (pr. derse). i. To set in order, make neat and orderly. 
a. To apply any matter to the surface or outside of a thing, with a view 
to improving it in any way. 3. To soil or make dirty. 4. To beat, 
chastise, thrash. 

1. * T kirk*s a' i* good fettle, an* Ah's dtnt oop Idrk-garth, an* nke, back end o* t' 
week ;' in anticipation of a rural dean't visit. 

* Wad ye like t* land amang thae berry-trees demd ower a bit?* the soil among the 
gooseberry bushes lightly dug or stirred. 

2. ' Get yon heap o' soot an* soil dtrstd ower the grassin*, John.* 

Drink-draught, sb. A brewer's dray or waggon, with the horses 
drawing it. JVk. GL 

Drink-driver, sb. The driver of a brewer's waggon. 

Drinking-time, sb. The time of the afternoon refreshment. See 

Drite. See Drate. 

Drite-poke, sb. A drawler; one who speaks indistinctly or hesi- 

I only notice this word ftirther, in order to observe that it presupposes a noon, dWir, 
slow, or drawling discourse, which nonn does not remain in any Glossary, as far as I am 

Drith, sb. (pr. dreet). Endurance, lastingness, substantiality. 

A curious and expressive word, which I have seen printed nowhere save in Wh. Ol. It 
is a derivative from the old vb. cfiv, to continue, to abide, to remain in being, from A.S. 
drtogan. The vb. is also given by Ray — drt*, perdurare. See Dree, v. n. 

* Lovyd he my Lord in will and thoght. 
That his servant forgettes noght. 

When that he seys tyme ; 
Welle is me that I sballe drt 
Tylle 1 have sene hym with myn ec 

And no longer hyne.' TotmW. My%t. p. 156. 

The sense of tbrt in this passage, which is part of the expression of the aged Smeon's 


feelings on bdng told by an angel of the infant Christ's coming to the Temple, u exactly 
coincident with that of our word in the example giren below. 

* Ill-gotten gear carries nae dritb iv it.' Wh. Ql. 

Cf. * I trust yonr grace will doe me noe dmre 

for spending my owne trew gottm gnrt* 

Percy's Folio MS. i. p. 509. 

Droke, sb. Wild oats, or so-called darnel. 

The name, like so many other local names of plants, is applied loosely or indefinitely. 
Dr. Prior gires ' Aromiu sttrilis, Avttia fatua^ &c., as among the plants intended to be 
designated ; Pr. Pm. ' Drawht^ wede. Dravca ;' Catb. Ang. ' Drake or damylle/ Ac- 
cording to Forby, t^awkg or drak* in Norfolk and Suffolk is the common darnel grass, 
LoUxm ptretmt ; according to Gerarde it is Bromus sttrilis. Comp. Dut. dravig, Welsh 
dmpg, Br. c^ac^, darnel, cockle, &c. 

Drop, v.a, i. To knock down, to fell with a blow. 2. To shoot 
a bird, on the wing or otherwise, so that it falls immediately. 

Probably a direct bequest from S. G. drapet to kill ; drdp^ death*4troke ; drypa, to smite ; 
and allied words. Bosw. refers drtpt, a slaying, a violent death, as occurring in A. S. 
writers, to the O. N. 

Drop-dry, adj. Of vessels, Sec. ; water-tight, not admitting the 
passage of so much as a drop of water. 

IJroppy, adj. Wet, rainy ; a weather term, used when the rain-drops 
are of full size, and fall freely. See Deg and Down-pour. 

Hald. gives plvtre as one of the significations of driupa (perf. btj! dropid) : driupr $air, 
the droppy canopy, is an epithet for the sky ; and drupA^ in Sw. Dial., means * to rain.' 

• •• A vast o' rain fa'n lately. Tommy." " Ay ; its bin a desper't droppy tahm sen 
Mart'nmas." ' 

Droppyish, adj. A diminutive of Droppy. 

Drought, sb. (pr. drowt). Dryness; usually, not to say always, with 
an intensive sense ; continued very dry weather. See Drouth. 

Pr. Pm. * DrowUt accitas,' Rich., following Tooke's leading, says this word is drtnttb 
or Ay^^ really, from A.S. drygan, drugan, and ought to be spelt— and he himself spells 
it accordingly — drougOt. The A. S. word is undoubtedly drugalSt or drogedSt; but it is 
idle to assume thence a law for the orthography, and, still more, for the sound of English 
words. It would almost seem as if drought or drouth were originally rather two different 
words, than two difTerent forms of the same word ; the one having a distinct passive sense 
(so to speak) — that which is already made dry ; the other, drouth, an almost active sense — 
^at which makes dry. And it is noticeable thit Rich, writes, ' drought is that which 
drieth, the 3rd p. s. &c.,' adding, the moment after, * WalUs says, dry^ siccus ; drowtb, 
drougbtb, dry'tb, siccitas ;' but aecitas is that whidi is already made dry. It is also worthy 
of note, that in both the passages from Chaucer addu(^ by Rich, the word is droughty and 
has distinctly the passive meaning : 

* When that April with his shoures sote 
The drought* of March hath perced to the rote ;* 



where drought* it c«ruiaiy not in agents but what U acted on. Cump. the roDowing 
extract from Spenser : — 

' Let streaming floodi their hasty coar»es stay 
And parching drouth dry up the cryttatl wellf ;' 
where dn»ah is as clearly the agent. And the same remark applies, with more or lest 
exadnns, to nearly every instance r>f usage given ; while, in respect of the eleven instances 
of the word occurring in the English Bible, eight of them bear (he passive sense. See also 
the instance in Jam., in r. Drouth. 1 may add, that dry occurs iu the Ttnorutl. Myst. in 
the sense of drought. 

Droughted, To bo, v. p. To be troubled or oppressed with thirst. 

Droughty, adj. (pr. drowty). Very dry indeed; used as a weather 
term, and especially as descriptive of long-continued vcr>' dry or parch- 
ing weather. 

Drouk, V. a. To drench, soak, saturate with water. 

O. N. drtkija, O. Sw. dratnkat Sw. drdnJ^a, Dan. drukne, to immerse, to drown ; O. Sw. 
drvnkna, O. N. drukkna, Sw. D. druftkan. drdikja, S. Jutl. drakne. to be plunged into 
water, &c. 

' I'm doubtful yon lime '■ aboot wasted. It *s sair drxmVt wiv all this wet' 

Drouth, sb. Thirst, drjncss in tliat sense. Sec Drought. 
Drouthy, adj. Thirsty, more than usually so. 

• Wecl, Ah's dcsper't drootby, Ah's seear. 'Seenu l' me there's nac alcck i* t' watter ;' il 
sccnu as if water had no power to quench thint. 

Drucken, adj. Drunks drunken. 

O. N., O. Sw., Sw. D., S. Juil. druJkhm, &c, 

Dubler, dubbler, sb. A deep earthenware dish of some magnitude. 

Dr. Rietz, under Dulard, quotes Welsh dwbltr, and com[iarcs O. N dallr. I do not, 
however, find dtohUr in Pughc's Welsh Diciioiury. Id Pr. Pm. the word sunds in the 
forms dobtltr, dubUr. 

* I wisshed fill witterly 
That disshes and douhitrt 
Bifore this iike doctour 
Were molten lead in his mawe.' P. Ploughm. p. 351. 

Duffll, sb. A kind of coarse or shaggy woollen cloth, chiefly manu- 
factured in Yorkshire 

Dulbard, dullard, sb. A stupid person, a blockhead, one of slow 

or deficient comprehension. 

HalL gives dulhar as one form of this word, and adds, that ' d$db*rb*ad it also used in 
tlic same sense.* I look upon dulherd or duihard as most probably a colloquial contraction 
of duJbtrbead. Pr. Pm, gives * DuSard. Durihuceiux, agrtstts.' Jam. gives O. N. did, 
fooliAhncu, and 6fr/a, to evince or shew. — a possible but not probable compound. 

Dump, sb. A deep hole in the bed of a river or pool of water. 

' Idj leadc ham into so drop dung i> ha dnincneO (»erin.' Seiiit Mark. p. 15. tramUled 


by Ae Editor — I leftd them into so deep (a) dump that they drown therein. Dung or 
iKngtf he uys in the Qt to 5. iV., ' by letter change Dump, a deep bole in vnUer feigned at 
Utui ta be bottomless. (Oroie.) Germ. Dumpfel, a deep place in a river or lake ; a deep 
pudtBe, pool. By throwing off the liquid, A Dub, a pool of water. Kennct's MS. Cf. 
Low O. Dobhe: 

Dunderhead, dundeimoU, sb. A blockhead. 

Jam. suggests a relationship with domiart^ bedundered; and a comparison with Dan. 
dummerhoved: side by side with which, moreover, Sw. dumbufvud may be placed, Both 
these words trn^j signify duU-head or itt^id-bead; * nunukuU,' in short. Perhaps, how- 
erer, we may suggest a different origin for the prefix in our words, and one that presents 
an analogy to the words tbiek-bead, jolter-bead^ &c., which are used in the same sense. In 
other words, dunder may really imply abnormal or excessive bigness. In the Sw. Dial, the 
prefixes dunder^ dunner, donnerj are of frequent occurrence in this application ; and we 
probably have another corresponding instance of usage in the word tbundering as frequently 
applied colloquially ; e. g. * a thundering big one,' ' a thundering great He,' &c. Wb. Gl. 
gives dudemoll, which must surely be a misprint 

Bnngeon, sb. In the phrase, ' he is a dungeon of wit/ Wh. GL ; 
that is, a person of great natural shrewdness or of much depth of under- 

* She is a dungeon at breaking ;' of a careless, crockery-breaking girl. Communicated by 
author of Wb. GL 

Dungeonable, adj. Shrewd, possessing some depth of thought. 
Dunty, adj. Stimted, dwarfed, stumpy. 

I connect this with dumpty, dumpy^ dubby, short, stumpy. Mr. Wedgw. says, ' from 
dabt dub, a blow.' Dint, dunt, in like way, implies a blow. 

* •' X>wi/y-homed kye ;" short or stumpy-homed cows.' Wb. GL 

Bwalm, sb. (pr. dwawm or dwam). A swoon, suspension of the 

A word which has its correlatives in all the languages of Gothic origin. Ihre, quoting 
himself from Stiemhielm, defines dwala as a kind of intermediate state between life and 
death, such as flies under the influence of cold, and swallows lying (as supposed) at the 
bottom of the water during the winter months, experience. They are said * ligga i dwala.' 
He further gives dwalm, in exactly our sense, as occurring ' apud Willeramum in Cant. Cant. 
p. 1^3.' Comp. M. G dwala, a fool ; dwalmon, to be out of one's mind ; A. S. dwelian, 
dwoHan^ to be mistaken ; Dut. dwtslen, to play the fool ; dolma, said in Smoland of one 
who is neither wide awake nor fast asleep. Comp. also O. N. and O. Sw. dvali, Sw. dvala, 
Dan, dvale, Sw. D. dv'Olu; O. Germ, twelan^ to be torpid ; Germ, tvalmt a swoon or trance. 

Dwalmish, adj. (pr. dwammish). Somewhat faint, or as if likely to 

I>wi]ie, V. n. I. To pine away, waste, become attenuated; of a per- 
son or creature under the influence of sickness, &c. 2. To wither, fade 
away ; of a plant or flower. 

O. N. dvina; Sw. dvina; A. S. dwinan. Pr. Pm. * Dwynyn awey. Evaneo^ evanesco.' 


* Tharfor a man may Itkend be 
Til a flour, that a fajre to k. 
Than son after that it es forth broght, 
WeUces and Aeynn til it be noght/ Pr. o/Conu. 704-707. 

' He dwitud away til an atomy.* Wb. Ol. 

Dwiny, adj. Puny, weakly. 

Dwiny-voiced, adj. Weak-voiced, speaking in only feeble tones. 

DwizBon'd, adj. Withered, wrinkled, shrunk. See BoBsen'd. 

Essentially the same word as Dosaad or Dossen'd. Ck>rop. A. S. dwaSf dwasnnt 
dutUKytt dull, dullness, &c. 

2>wissen-£EU)ed, adj. Thin-faced, with a shninken countenance. 


Bam* sb. An uncle ; a familiar friend, a neighbour, intimate acquaint- 
ance or gossip. 

A. S. ra'm, an uncle; Germ, ofrm, obeim; Dot. oom; Fris. um. Spelt «m, «fnc. in 
Chaucer ; «m, mw. in Sir Gam. and Gr, Knigbt. See £m, and the note to it, in Pr. Pm. 

Earn, v. a. (pr. yearn). To curdle milk or cause it to coagulate. 

Jam. takes this word to come 6rom * Oerm. girimum, Su G. rtfwui, Belg. rttwim, A. S. 
gerunnoHt coagubre. This use of the verb is retained in Scotl. : when milk curdles, we say 
that it ritu. But as the A. S. verb signifying to run is often written yman, the word ttxm 
resembles it most in this form.' Cf. lur, buttermilk, given by Hald., and wtuch must be 
connected with earn. 

* One did aske her (a noted witch) advise toucJiinge one of her kyne whose milk did tarn 
in the galling.' ^ork Castlt Depositions, p. 9, note. 

* This informant could not get butter when she chimed nor cheese when she §am»d* 
lb. p. 38. 

Earning, sb. (pr. yearning). Rennet, the substance which is used to 
turn or curdle milk. 

* Bishop Kcnnett notices the sense of font, as used in the North, which is given also by 
Brock, and Jam. ; " to iam^ to run as chees doth. Earning, chees rennet." ' Note to 
* Emyn, as horse/ Pr. Pm. 

Ease, V. a. To splash with mud, or bemire. Chiefly used in the 

Hall, gives * easings, dung, ordure.' I find no other provincial word connected with ours, 
which is due to O. N. «sms. boggy or miry soil. 

* " You hae gotten sair tased;" sadly bemired.' Wb. Gl 


Basement, 8b. i. Alleviation of, or relief from, pain. a. Any remedy 
or application which produces such a result. 

* Nor att that word shee layd noe more, 
bat all good taatmantt I had there.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. p. 36a. 

JBaain'fl, sb. (Pr. of evesings). The eaves of a house or other 

A. 8. ^^tM, eares of a house; (/Uin, ^/wnattf e^niaii^ to cot in the form of eares. 

' Orcheyardes and erberes 
Eimtd wel clene.* P. Phtigbm. p. 460. 
Blr. Marsh's note to this ii ' tv*$id should mean provided with eave-troughs; perhaps, 
here, sheltered with arbours, roofs, or awnings.* More likely, it wonld seem, with the 
eaves (voper neatly or *denely' trimmed. Comp. also O. Dut. oviu, Fris. ou, eaTCs; 
O. N. tffi, upt; O. Sw. opt, upM; Sw. D. b6fi, ofi, ob; D. D. aoi, ovs. 

Baeter-shellB, sb. The pinpatch or periwinkle. See Oovixu. 

These articles of food * are considered to be in season from Easter to Ascension Day.' 
Wh. 01, Hence, the name, no doubt. 

Een, even, sb. i. Evening, a. The eve or vigil of any feast or 
saint's day. 

A.S. ttfm; O.N., O.Sw., N., and Sw. D. aftan; Sw. t^fion; Dan. afim; O.Genn. 
dpaitd, 6b(mt; Germ, abmd, 

I. ' To moom at ««» ;' to morrow at evening. 
J. * Kessenmas ttn ;' * Mark's fiwn,' &c. 

Ben-holes, sb. The sockets of the eyes. 

Comp. Dan. wu-buU, Germ, ttugtn-hobl*, 

Sfter» prep. After. 

O. N. «/Kr. jptfr; Dan. tfier; Sw. tfttr. 

* E/fyr his lufe me bude lang.' R0I. Pitas, p. 84. 

Sffmoon, eftnoon, sb. Afternoon. 

* I swere you, sir, by son any moyne, 
I com not here by fore gft mm* 

Wheder ye be leyfe or lothe.' 7omW. Mytt. p. 71. 

Egg, v. a. To incite, urge on, provoke. 

O.N. tggia, to incite or provoke; Dan. igge. Comp. Sw. uppagga^ and Dan. D. tgu. 
Hie Dan. use of the word is exactly equivalent to ours ; e. g. * bmt fantod ai tgg* bam 
$aa Umgt, til ban tneUlig bin forbittret paa mandm:' he persisted in egging him until ftt 
Ust he became bitter against the man. Comp. * He was igging the other nun on to 

Bldin% sb. Fuel, the material for supporting a fire; peat, turf, 
wood, &c. 

Sw. ddnmg, fuel, horn O. N. tUdr, S. O. ind Sw. «/</, Dan. ild, A. S. aid, ftc. It may 




probably admit of a question whether our word be more than fimply a contraction from 
a Scand. compound such as Sw. D. eldtn/tnt. with ume tcnie. 

' We arc getting in our winter rldin.' HTr. Gt. 

The word often occurs in the forni Flrfr-oldin, with one of thou reiterations of name, 
due to di^erent language-origins, not uncommon in our tongce, and especially in names of 

£Iler, eller*tree» sb. The alder {Betula ahtus). 

O. N. tlm, olan, iiln ; S. Q. and Sw. al ; Sw. D. ala-hdska, alder-bushfts ; Dan. fiT. W/, Ma, 
etlitra ; A. S. air, air ,- Germ. tUer, erU, &c 

£Ul-wand, sb. 
See Yard-wand. 

A name, incorrectly used, for the yard-measure. 

Elmother, sb. A stepmother. 

'E1-, ell-, cle-, a:l-, prefixed to words denotes other, strange, ftneign. alius, alicnns; as 
Hiand, foreign land; tlltnd^ foreign; alfylc, foreign folk or people.' Botw. A. S. Diet. 
Hall, givei our word, and Brock, also, vrith the spelling gilmother; and it occurs in Wb. Gi, 
In Pr. Pm. both tl{d)fadyr and eldmodyr or elmoder occur ; and el/adyr, tldmodtr iu 
Catb. Ang. I think Janiicson's derivati<in of elmotbrr, referred to in the Pr. Pm. note, 
from A. S. ealdt-modtr, avia. is mistaken. There is no sufficient authority for the asser- 
tion that timother * must hare properly denoted a grandmother,' and the unvarying 
usage of the North, together with the Pr. Pm. and Cadt, Ang. words, fairly establish the 
true meaning of the word, which as denoting firange or foreign mother is sufficiently 

£lBiii, sb. A shoemaker's awl. Comp. Pricker. 
Jam. quotes Teut. alsttu, itseru, to which may be added Dut ttu, #/«. 

£nanthor8. Sec Ananthers. 

Sndeavour-for, v. a. To labour or work, as one does for one's 
wages or living. 

Endeavouring, adj. Industrious, laborious, careful. 

' lie '% a sliddy endhrutrtn' chap, but he's hard set t' nuk' a living,' 

£ndlang, adv. Along or forwards in the direction or to the extent 
of the length of an object or person. 

Comp. Dan, D. «ndtlang\. along, or along the side of, a thing:—' A vil Itanxt m grab 
ngeiangs / raating :' I )hall dig a gutter all along the side of the piemisci. Molb. refcn 
to the meaning, ' without inteimiision/ given for our word in the Hallamsbirt Gi., and 
conceives it to be mistaken. Hall, gives the form tfuUand*, with the explanation 'along, 
straight forwards ;' Or. GI. gives * along, directly forward ;' and Wh. Gi. ' as long as from 
end to etid.* which is perhaps both short, and aside of. the full meaning. The cxam[>le in 
the 01. last named is, * 1 tummel'd rndlimg : 1 fell down my whole length.' I beherOt 
however, our dettnttion ti nearer the exact meaning of the word, and the Danish lexico- 
grapher's criticism to be a just one. The word occurs in both roK^iW. Mytt. and Pr, of 
OoMftifntt. In the former the pusage mot thus : — 


' Beiute, benste, be us emang. 
And save alle that I m here in this thrang, 
He save yon and me orerthwart and tmSang 
That hang on a tre.' (p. 85.) 
Here mtdiang h joined with ovtrthwart in tuch a way as to make its meaning abun- 
Justly evideot as a meaning of direction, not of continuousness ; although in the Glossary 
the wnd is explained u ' rontinuously' as well as 'straightforwardly.' It is the same 
idiiHn again, ni Hampole : — 

* Ffor the devels sal, ay, on >am gang 
To and fra. orerthewrt and tndlan^ (8581) ; 
which is rightly explained * from head to tail,' A. S. anSar^t and Germ. tnAtmg being both 
quoted ; to which may be added Sw. ttdangs^ Dut. onlang. 

Endways, adv. (pr. endus). In a state of progression, whether as 
regards motion, or approach towards completion : often occurring in the 
form Even endways. 

* Weel I Ah 's getting tnd^ys wt 't noo ; bud its bin a parlous lasty job.' 

* They spent all they had nwn tndwayt,' Wh, Gl. 

Snengh, adv. (more guttural in soimd than as if spelt enew). 
I. Enough, sufficient. 2. Sufficiently cooked, enough done; of any 
article of food. 

Mr. Can* qpealcs of «miv, tnow^ as * applied to numbers, not to quantity,' illustrating the 
statement with the example, ' I hare cake mif^ an' apples tiuw: He then adds that * Pitr* 
PlombmoH is the only writer I have observed who applies this word to quantity, as 
'* Alle the people had pardon ynoiv." ' 

Out of countless instances to the contrary I give two from one book only ;— 

* Then notes noble in-no^ 

Are herde in wod so wlonk.' Sir Gaw. and Or. Kn. I. 514. • 

* Wyth dayntes nwe in-nowe,* Ih, 1. 140X. 

In fact there is no definite rule which, in old writers, marks off tntw from tnougby and in 
Clerel. * there 's eneugh,' or * there 's mair an eneugh' is said alike of cake and of apples. 
Marsh, L*eture»t i Ser. p. 49a, quotes Gil (who published in 1619), as remarking that, 
* in the common dialect, enough wai often pronounced muff", instead of with the guttural ;' 
so that really etuw, or rather our Sneiigh. is the true representative of the one original 
sound of the word. Cf. the forms anog, ynog, ynug, as well as * grene ollues hog^ wi'S't^g', 
the last rhyming with ynog', from C?<n. atui Ex. ; and inoub, utouz, from P. Ploughm. 

(i.£.r. 5.)p.8i. 

Enow, adv. For the present, presently, by and by. See Inoo. 

* This seems to be a contraction of evm or «'fn now* Cr. Ol, That is possible ; as also 
that it is the Clevel. equivalent or analogue of Dan. i-tt-nu^ directly, pr«ently. 

* " Do you want anything else, Henry ? " " Ncea : that 's all mow** ' 

* Gan thee, honey, an' tell 'im Ah 'II be on inoo;' I '11 be with him presently. 

Entertain, v. a. To occupy the attention of an auditory, by preach- 
ing or serious speaking, quite as much as in any other way. 

* Ah wur at D — church last cen an' Ah 's seear Ah wur weel murtaimd* 

Y 2 


Entry, sb. The space just within the principal entrance to a house, 
of whatever dimensions. 

Ept, eptiflh, adj. i. Ready, handy; both in an active sense, a. Neat 
in execution, as a skilful workman is ; nice, accurate. 

Simi^y another fonn of E. apt. 

' He 's tptiMb at his book-lcar.' Wh. <?/. 

Esh, sb. The ash (Fraxmut excelsior), 
o. N. Mh; a<». &c. 

Sak, ex. Forms of the vb. ABk or Ax. 

BstringUiyer, sb. A manufacturer of string, ropes, ftc. ' A term 
which occurs in a local document of the fifteenth century.' Wh. Gl. 

StUe, V. a. (sometimes pr. airtle). To aim at, intend, attempt 

O. N., O. Sw. ada, to think, to propoie or purpose. 

' ** What arc they til airtling at ?" what is their aim or pnrposeT* Wb. Oi. 

* Now if a kyng of a riche krogryke 
pat had a doghter . . . 

pe whilk he Inred sperially 

And tghiHd to mak hit qwene of wonhipe.* Pr. ^ CbMC. 5780. 

* The whilk he tghtdd to coronn qwene.' lb. 5800. 

■ This word is sometinies written atd$d^ tytald, aghtM' IB, Oloi$. 
The Scand. use is precisely analogous. 

Even^ V. a. To compare, to liken. 

* What schulde ^ mone ^ compas dym, 
8c to fvm wyth ^t wo^ly ly}t 

pat schyn^ vpon >e bnju} brym?' S. Bng» AUit. Pomm, A. 1071. 

Bren-down, adj. Down-right, direct, perpendicular. 

In the description gireo in Sir Qmo. and th* Or. KnigU of breaking a deer, the author 


* So ryde Hy of by resoun bi |>e ryne bone), 
EvmdtH to )»e hanndie, )>at henged alle samen, 
& heuen hit rp al hole, and hwen hit of ^e.' 

The editor's questioning note on ntntUn is ' ercnly(?), perpendicularly (?).' It is pro- 
bably only our present word as anciently sounded. 

Even-endways, adv. Uninterruptedly, straight on from end to end. 
See Endwayv. 

Erery-like, adv. From time to time, now and then. 

Hall, gives this word, and I find it in Wh. Ol. Hampole also uses it :— >* A dameselle 
wyse and wele taghte M mene callcs Oclosye, )>at es ay wakyie and bcsy nmylyk$ wde for 


to do. nil kepe ^ oiloge.' Comp. * They kept playing the moiic timy-Uki* Wb. Oi. 
CC * Me leiS upon aocrcn, |«t nuricb trust haaeiS on olde cwene to ueden hire eazen :* 
men uy of andioreues that ereiy most (almost erery one) has an old qnean to feed her 
ears. Aner. RopU, p. 88. 

(jEvcr/y, with nearly the same signification, dren by Jam., is no doubt the same word, 
bnt oars retains the older form, and may be coUated with A. S. tmlic, only, that is, oruMkt : 
*imy4ik* bdng thus serenl-Uke.) 

Bzpeoty V. a. To suppose, assume, take for granted. 

Bye, sb. (pr. ee in i and 2). i. An eye (pi. Sen or Eyen). 2. A 
spout; perluips, more properly, the orifice or aperture of the spout. 
3. An open hole, as a pit mouth, ftc. 4. A way or passage through, 
a clear road. 5. The bud or sprout — more accurately, the site of the 
bud or sprout — upon a potato, scion, or plant more generally. 

0. N. io^a; S. G. oga; Dan. mu (pL mun or miu) ; A. S. tdgo^ &c. * Metaphorice de- 
notat foramen,* obserres Ihre : as, hio kweniUnn HI augaiu : he cut through the millstone to 
Ac Tcry eye ; and Molb. remarks that the Dan. word is used for anything which has any 
fcsemblance, more or less, to an eye ; as the eyes (buds) on trees, shrubs, &c., from whic^ 
shoots, blossoms, ftc., issue, the eye of a mill, or in the upper millstone through which the 
oom fklls to be ground, &c. 

1. ' He gtoores wir a pair o* good ttn.' Wh. Gl. 

3. ' T meeal fit 's ower het fn t' mill-4»/ 

4. * ** A dear ty*;** a clear road or passage, eg. to a counter-side in a shop.' Wh. Ol. 

* ** Go in when there 's a clear tye;*' no crowd in the way, to interfere with free passage 
■ad diqntch of biuiness.' Ih. 

Cf. ' Sire, )>nt ich pleide, olSer spec ine diirche : eode oSe pleouwe ine churcheie :* sir, 
I played or spoke thus in the church ; went to the play in the eburcb-€yt ; 1. e. church- 
yard; (?)the open space in which the church stands. Aner, RiwU, p. 318. 

Fadge, sb. i. A bundle, a burden in which thickness predominates 
over length, a. One that is short and thick in person, 

Wedgw. connects '/odW, corpulent, unwieldy, and Sc. fodgd, plump, fleshy,' with W» 
to flag or become flaccid. Jam. nfcTsfodgel (without apparent ground) to Teut. voedsd, 
food, and also g^ves fadgt, i. a bundle of sticks; a. a lusty and clumsy woman, referring 
the fonner to Svr./agga^ onerare. 1 would rather refer sb. F«dce to W. ffagod (Gamett 
refers it to Welsh ,^^u^, a bundle) ; and vb. fadge to the same source zijidgt^fidgtt. Hall. 
gires jig^ which is probably the more ancient form of Jidgt, and Wedgw. quotes Swiss 
JiggMt to rub, shore, or move to and fro, to fidget, connecting it with Sc.fikt, and there- 
fore with our flok and Cumb. /tei. Still there may be a connection with the Old D. and 
Dan. D. fagt^ quoted by both Molb. and Kok, which implies the ideas of haste and resV 
Ics mess both, as in the instance, dt ere fage til at bevise ondt, which might be constmed 
* they are fidgetty, or they fadge, to devise mischief/ Again, in det/ager «', there's no hurry 
about it, there is a very near approach to the second meaning of our verb. As to sb. Fadtfttt 
the idea of a short, thick bundle or fagot easily passes on to that of a short, squat person ; 
at, hideed, is the case with the word In/ndle itself in the West-Midland district. 



Fadge, v. n. i. To move along or about with Bhort, irre^ar steps, 
as a corpulent person does. a. To move about irregularly, as a fussy 
person does. See sh. Fadge. 

Fadgy, adj. Corpulent, unwieldy, stumpy in person. 

Faff, fuflE; V. a. and n. To blow in pufTs, as when a person blows 
chaff away from com held in his hands, or the >vind when it causes brief 
puiTs of smoke to retiu*n down the chimney. 

Apparently only another fonn oipuff. Jam, quote* Oerm. pfuffkn (not in Hitp.) tn the 
samr sense ; iitd ccrt^iinty, in this district, Wedgwood's remark that * the sound of blowing 
u very generaUy represented by the sylUMe pu^ usually with a terminal consonant,' might 
be very well applied with the substitution of the inibal sound of/ or ^for that of ^. 

FafiB.e, v. n. To play or flap idly or genlJy, as a sail when there is 
not wind enough to fiU it, or a loose gannent, &c., just stirred by a 
momentary breath of air. See Faff. 

Faffle, sb. A wavering or intermittent blowing of a light wind. 

* The boat will not tail without a regular breez«; there is only a puff and a ftM»J 
Wh, 01. 

Fail, V. n. To grow weaker and fall off in general health and ap- 
pearance ; to shew evident signs of bodily decay. 

* T* au'd man 's not lang for this world : he *i uit/aiUd of late.' 

* He 's a /oiling man, and haa been for lang.' 

Fail off, V. n. To shew signs of approaching dissolution; e,g. in- 
creasing debility, loss of flesh, diminished energies, &c. 
' He 'iftultd q^f dcfpcr't sharp sen last back-end.' 

Fain, adj. i. Very willing, ready, fully disposed, a. Glad, rejoiced. 

A. S./tSftH,/agn, S. G. /agtm, joyful, glad, with a willing heart : O. N. ftgrnn. Comp. 
S, O. /a jwi, to be glad, joyful, fain ; Sw./agma; Sw.D./agrta; O.U. fagmai A.S, fag- 
mofi. Pr. Pm. ' Faynt. Libttu.' 

' Apon land here anone that we mtn^fayn I wold.' Toumtl. My%i. p. 54. 
I. * Weel, Ah 'sfain for my dinner, aoy wayi.* 
3. * T lahtle Ud 'tfmn to gan.' 

' " I hope it will be fine to-morrow." ** Ay, there 's many 'U be/im if it ho'da lair ower 
t* moom." * 

Cf. • Cristene men ogen ben vo/agen 

So fuelles am qoan he it sen dagen, 

tUn nun hem telleth sotSe tale 

Wid londes speche and wordes smale, 

Of blesses dune, of sorwes dale.' Story of Otn. and Ek. I. 15. 

Wrdgw. derives the word in tense 1. dilTcrently, but I ihhik inconsistently with old usage- 
Ci, *f^ of H felawschnpc,' P. Phugbin. {E, E. T. S.) p. 34. 



Fair, adv. (used intensitively). Altogether, utterly, entirely. 

* Ah nirrer iced likan a lahtle cat for Ukin|[ : its/tur wild.* 

There it a remarkable coincidence of sense and application between this word and the 
Dan. D. adj. and adr. /«r, /«rv, quoted by Molb. and explained as meaning ' greatly, in 
a high degree, remarkably ;' e. g. bun var fart n^kit: she was extremely pretty. The 
same word is used in Jntluid to intensify a negation, ikkt far signifying ' not at all,' * never 
a bit.' 

Fair, fiiir-np, v. n. To become fair weather again ; to leave off rain- 
ing, and grow clear or bright. 

* " Weel, it *s been a sharpish downfall while it lasted ; but Ah thinks iu boun t'/ocr 
now." " Ay, its \ikt fairing oop.'* ' 

Fairiflh, adj. Passable, pretty good ; often used intensitively, or with 
a species of irony. 

* Fairisb ofif for brau ;* tolerably weU<to-do. 

* Thee'd her a fatrtMb crop, bairn, gin t' swedes wnr as rank at t' fooal-foot.* 

* Hk** fairisb on for bairns: he *s getten three mair wiv his new wife.* 

Fairlings, adv. Fairly. 

Corop. Koatllngs, Hardlinss. Nearlincs, Sec. 

* Ah 'sfairlings bet wiv it.' 

Fair to see. Easy to be seen or perceived. 

' T' rooad 'tfatr to st** 

Cf. ■ a/atr< path ;' * a well/offv patb.* Percy's Folio MS. i. 488. 

* Its yzTTy fair to sm whilk on 'em is biggest favourite.* 

Fairy-butter, sb. A species of fungus (TrenuUa arborea and albida) 
found growing on dead wood, and even yet believed by many to be the 
produce of the fairies' dairy. 

A well or spring in Baysdale is mentioned as the site of butter-washing by the fairies, and 
Egton Grange has (as alleged) been fiunous within the memory of living persons for the 
nocturnal proceedings of the said elves ; one of their pranks being to fling their butter so as 
to make it adhere to the gates and doors of the premises. 

Fall, V. n. I. To happen, to betide. 2. Of lime; to become fine 
and powdery, in consequence of having been slaked. 

Fall away, v. n. To waste in corporal substance ; to grow thin, or 
become attenuated. 

Comp. Sw. D.falla iv^falla samrmm, to become lean or thin. 

* Ah thinks Ah nivver seen a man sae 6iiled afore ; he 'sfa'n awa* to nowght.' 

Fall in, v. n. To meet with, light upon, prove successful in a quest. 

* " I hear your brother's /a'n in weel." " Ay, he 's getten all he wanted, an' mair.*' * 

* He '11 be yamm by neeghl, if in case he/o's weel in at Stowsley.* 



Fand, fund, pret. of Find. 

Comp. O. N.^;&uta, im^./tuin; O.Sw. ^Miia, /an, 
Din. /tndr, /andt, 8cc, 

Sw. D. finna, farm ; Jinn, fan, A:c. 

Fantickles, farentickles, farnticles, sb. Freckles on the skin. 

The first of these fornii is simply the shorter or clipped Pr . of the second and third, ind 
these ate cloidy connected (the r being transposed) with O. S.frthna, S. G./rekna,frakmn, 
freckles; O.N. Jrekknoltr, S. G. /rtknot, freckled; Sw. fraJm*, fraknig : D»n. frtgn*, 
Jrtgmtd^ See. ; the tenuiiutioo being a diminutive of tiok, a ouik nude with a pcficil ur 
other means ; a word in frequent use both as rb. and ib. in QevcL 

Far, adj. Further, more remote or distant. 

S. G. £Hr, ^iirri, adv. ; O. fi.Jirr,/ar; A. S. fnr, fa; J!m ; Dan. j^«n», adj. tad adv. ; 
O. D.jfor, adj. ; Sw.fifrrem, adj. 

* T /or side o' yon field.' 

* Si thee I Von 's a hare liggtn' : o' yon far land or a*, anenst t' gateslcead.' 

Cf. * |»u steorest te sea stream ■^ hit flcdrn nc raotjSr t-an Jni markedeit.' S. Marh. p. 10. 
Note abo that O. Sm.^amur.j^dmust; O. ti.Jirri,Jirttr, are adj. althoogh the positive in 
cither case is an adv. 

Farantly, adj. i. Decent, weU-bchavcd, respectable. 2. Neat, 

orderly, with regularity. 

This word occurs as an adv. in E. Eng. AUit, Poems, C, 435 :— 

* FararuUly on a feldc he (Jonas) fcttclc) hym to bide, 
For to wayte on t>at won what schuldc woit>e after,* 

The more usual form of the adj. is farrand, faruid, or fkrrant. Both Lnds and 
Wh. Gl.* however, give the word at above. — ' ■ famntly body,' * famntly folks.' The 
adi./ar<M(/< is met with several times, in much the same senses as belong to oar word, in 
E. Eng. AHit. Potmi : — 

* Lest les thou Icve ray ule/aratuU :' (A. 1. 864) ; 

* If )>ay wer/arandt and fre and fayre to behold ;* (B. 607} ; 

' pe solace of |>e solempnct6 in ^at ule dured 
Of t>at/arfl«t/* fesi, lyl faylcd the sun ;* (76. 1757) : 

and the same escpression, fnrandg fest, is found again in Sir Gtao. and Gr. Kn. !n refe- 
rence to the origm of this word. Jam. says, * 1 have sometimes thought that we might trace 
this term to S. G. and Ul./ara, experiri ; as Isl. im/ orlbtin farxn signifies experienced in 
speaking ; lag-faren, skilled in law.' Ferg.. however, is rather inclined to refer it simply 
to O.'S. /arandi, a traveller; one who has seen the world, and, therefore, presumably, 
knows how to behave ; has learnt to be polite, well-conducted, decent-mannered, and to 
forth. Morris, Gl. to E. Eng. AUit. Poems, simply quotes Gad. farranttL, stout, brave, 
which is the more worthy of notice, inasmuch as neither of the Scand. timgucs or dialects 
teem to assume any sense for/ora, or any derivative from that word, very nearlv approach- 
ing, or even suggesting ihat of our fftrftatly or Jamieton's farrand. Ai for the word 
farand or fiarrand, as occurring in our au*d-fuT&nd and $c. /air-/arand, /out-famm, 
tttU-farnnd, &c., 1 cannot but look upon it as distinct from farrantlj ot fjarrantt in the 
tente decent, orderly, well-behaved. I take it simply to be the obsolete form of the pcp(. 



•of to fan, to behave or conduct oneself, to seem or appear. See Fare. It may be ob- 
terrtd that Jamieson's explanation of * the maist sanely farrand personage/ Doug. Virgil., 
as ' one appearing as the most seemly personage,' is more than open to question ; as will be 
leen by a reference to the passages quoted above. And the same renurk applies with more 
than equal force to his interpretation of/arand, in the passage quoted from Barbour: — 
* Tharfor thai went till Abyrdeyue, 

Quhar Nele the Bruyss come, and the Queyn, 

And other ladyis fayr and /oram/. 

Ilkane for luff off thair husband ;' — 
the interpretation in question being * they fared from home' — travelled forth — 'animated 
by love to their husbands.' * Fayr and farand,' */arande and fayre to behold/ seems simply 
to have been a sort of ' household word' to express fair seemliness of person and array. 

Far away, adv. In a great degree, beyond comparison. 

• Far away the best/ 

Fare, v. n. i. To go, to proceed. 2. To approach, draw on, or 
near. 3. To get on, or succeed. 4. To behave or conduct oneself. 
5. To seem or appear. 

0. N. and S. G.fara, Sw./ara, Dan. /or#, A. S./aran^ to go, proceed, make a journey. 
Ihre farther gives, ' agere, agendi modum sequi,' as a secondary sense of the O. Sw. fara^ 
and quotes a vb. /ara (with its cognates, A\./areH^ Isl./ora), *to acquire, experience; 
whence, erfara,/dr/ara. Sec. Comp. Dan. erfaren^ possessing experience. Rietz charac- 
terises Sw. D.yora, as possessing many of the qualities of an auxiliary vb,, and some of the 
instances adduced by him are such as to present a strong analogy to the applications of our 
own vb. : e. g.fara Jiiies, to begin to proceed, literally ; with which comp. our * he fares te 
gan slowly/ Indeed this very idiom also occurs: — as fara gd; also /ora laup, to fare to 
run, &c. In Finland, he adds,/flra is used somewhat in the way of an expletive (utan syn- 
nerligt bemiirkeise), but certainly so as to present a significant likeness to our own usage, 
especially in that sense which led Jam. to explain the word as meaning * to seem/ and 
farand as ' seeming, having the appearance :' thus ban far a dejer : he fares to be dying ; 
be far S val ilakt: that fares to be all wrong. Further, the word, with a particle joined, 
seems to take the sense of to proceed to (an action or endeavour, namely), besides other 
various {sdr skilla) usages not easily classified. 

1. * An* seea he/ar«^ away.' 

• )>taaefare forth/ E. Eng. Allit. Poems, B. 929. 

2. ' T* coo fares a cawvin.' 

3. * He fares nobbut ill, atwixt his wife an' 's maaster/ 

Comp. ' jTc rauen raykej hym forth Jiat reckcs ful lyttel 

How alle fodej /ar*, cUe3 he fynde mete/ E. Eng. Atlit. Poems, B.464. 

4. * He fares like a feeal ; an' a feeal he be.' 

Comp. ' My frendcj, your /ar« is to strange.' lb. 861. 

5. • Yon chap /ar(5 fond. Ah think.' 

Fare, sb. That which happens or proceeds ; chance, or lot. 

* Wcel, Ah mun tak' my fare.' 

' fTeele folke ware thi frendes bare bou fcrde froo. 
And for to frayste of thi /are J>c to|»cr ware faync.' Rel. Pieces, p. 91. 



Far-end. A point near the close of a matter or action. Of per- 
petual occurrence in the form at the far end, and as varied in applica- 
tion as frequent. 

' Ay. he 's despcr't ill : he 'U be aboot i'/ar ttml. Ah lay ;* At the end of hit life ; likely 
to die. 

• •• AlmoU done your U>fc, Willy ?" " Aye. Ah 's aboot t'/ar tend o' 't." * 

• " They say he i got ihmflf all hi$ money ?" " Whyih. Ah 'i doubtful he 'i nighhand 

FarlieSf sb. i. Something strange, unusual, or wonderful. 2, Pecu- 
liarities of conduct or character; thence, failings, foibles, weaknesses, or 

K.S. farlice^ farlic, sudden, onforcseen. startling, frighlful ; ^.Q. farligt pcriculosns ; 
O. "S.farUgr, id. ; ferlegr, moostroiu, honiblc. Sw D./arhga and Dan. D. (}uti.)/aHfg 
are uted principuilly a» augmentative*, exactly in the jame scnici and appjicatiom ai our 
pftrloiu. Old Dan./>ir/i] comes nearer to our present word, lignifying laddcn. unfore- 
feren. Farliea tnorc widom occun with us in the first sense, in which there is a marked 
deviation from archaic usage. 

' If he \nn tufdiede, it et na/fWy.* Pr. o/Cofiu. 3955. 
' Fur \>ct Aftrly bifd |»at fcic folk scjcn.' E. Eng. Atlit. Poims, B. 1529. 
' Mo/trlygt on H> fotde haii fallen here oft 
pen in any o^r J>at I wot.' Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 33. 
Betides iiutances of this kind, which are innumcrable./rr/y sometimes teems to stand in 
ictiTe s««e, u in the following passage from R. Eng. Allit. Pomtf, A. 1084 :— 
' 1 stod It stylle as dascd quayle 
fot ferly of )>at frencli (?freM:h) figure.' 
Our present usage ts seen in the example from If^. 01. : "* A <pyer oat of other folks 
/ariigs;" a censorious pertun.' 

Famtioled, adj. Freckled. 

Parrish-on, adj. Pretty well advanced; of people in years, or at 
their cups, &c. 

Far-side. The off or right-hand side in riding or driving ; the other 
being the N'ar-side. 

Comp. Sw. ti.J)am*r ocb niimmrr; bUger ocb vtntttr, om/iinpoMda drngart; right and 
left, of draught-animals vhen yoked ; Dan. D.^ermaitt : jUnrur in SaeUaud. In the Dan. 
provinces narmani answers lojitrmant, as narmtr lo^armtr. Sec Ricts, and M(^b. Dtauk 
Did. L*M. 

Faah, v. a. and n. i. To occasion trouble or inconvenience, to 
worry or annoy. 2. To take trouble, or put oneself to inconvenience. 

Jam. concludes that * we hare borrowed this word immediately from the Fr. ; and there 
is no evidence, as far as he hat observed, that it is more ancient than the reign of Mary.' 
Stin, there it ' reason to believe that it is origin;iIlv Gothic ; S. Q./aa being sometimes ui«d 
with Ibe passive termination, as ban ei iir gnd nf /nnt vid : n{ a passionate man whom il ll 



nol pnidcnt lo mcrddlc (or fash) with.* The ' borrowing from the Fr.' may perhaps seem 
questionable to any one who considers the currency of the word over aU N. KngUnd. 
though the derivation finm a Gothic source will not. Cxrr quotes an expreuioo from 
Archbp. Spottiiwoode, * to put one in great ftuhcree,' Corap. with this Dan. D.j^t§tsere, 
bothering over small matters, a word which Molb. looks upon as allied with Sw.jf<rjjk, 
Juaa^ to gire oneself unprofitiiblc or useless trouble ; fiaska, tarde circuracursare et parum 
proficere : alleging also E. Jmas, The Sw. D. has both ^dt and fjas, as well as the Tb. 
^<uk, the ad'y jQoitvff, ^osku, Ac., all bearing in their significance more or less likeness lo 
fosh. It may be observed that Wcdgw. quotes Jiitiseri, Jttis, Jiiixka^ &c. in connection 
wiih /its*, while Rietz. with some hesitation, collates them with the Sw. adj./uj, hasty, pre- 
cipitate. To me, however, Dan. D./tust, to seek with trouble, lo toil and trouble oneself 
after a thing, presents a still closer analogy. 

• Nivrer heed, lad ! Dccan't \hce /asb thecsel' aboat it.' 

Foah, sb. Trouble, bother^ inconvenience, annoyance. 

Fashous, adj. Troublesome, annoying, vexatious. Comp. Fr. 

' K/tuhom sort of body ;' ' z/atbous job.' Wh. Gl. 
Fast, adj. At a standstill, unable to proceed. 

' *• Why, you don't get on with that job. Henry." " Ncea ; Ah '« about /as/ wi *t'* ' 

• Fau for want of materials ;* the miller, /au for lack of water ; the sower, for waat of 
seed; the workman, with bad or unmanageable material ; and so on. 

Fasten out, v. a. To turn the Moor-sheep to the moor for the 
season, excluding them for good from the enclosed land. 

The phrase is often used figuratively ; e. g. of a peison whose opportunities for further 
action in any special direction are summarily cut off, or who has been desired lo abstain 
from further visits to any given house : that,—' So-and-So 's getten hisseJ* fassmtd oot, noo, 

Father, V. a. i. To impute, to ascribe to or charge with, 2. Of 
a child, and in a reflective sense ; to suggest its own origin by a strong 
personal resemblance to its father. 

Comp. O. }i.frdra, patrem tndicarc. pronuntiare. 

I. * Ay, 't wur a mean act: but he /ath*rtd it mainly on *s wahfe ;' his wife insti* 
gated it 

• Has'n't "ee beared at Mally Fawcetl lays her baim ou Tommy Stone'us?* imputes it 
to him. * Ay, an' she'll get h/aibtrtd on him at Gisbur'h, Ah lay ;' alHliated lo him. 

J. ' Wecl, t* labile 'n faalhwri hissclf anyways. There's nac need l' ex wheeas baim 
he be.' 

Fat-raacal, sb. A kind of rich tea-cake compounded with butter or 
cream (or both], and with currants intermingled besides. 

Faugh, V. a. (pr. fawO- To fallow. 

Faugh, faughing, sb. Fallow land; the portion of a farm which 
lies uncropped although duly tilled. 

E./a^/oiv, with the same sense as uur Fftu^h, is ordinarily reTcnred to A, S./<a/o./ira/s»#. 

7. i 



p;ilc reddish or yellowish, dun. Tallow ; from the ordinary colour of the Kiil in land turned 
wcr by the plough, and iiiffcrcd to dry and become paler in colour by exposure to the *un 
and air. Whether such reference is well-grnunded may be open to question. If it be. the 
Dan. D. wi>rd/a//#,/«//f,/tx/d^, or/algf, must hare been borrowed by the ancestors of the 
present JiitUnders, as was certainly the case with other words of decided A. S. derivation 
as opposed to Scatid. Bui many distinguished writers (sec Kok, pp. 7, 8, and note, p. aa) 
would opp«.»»c this view wiih great energy, and rioi without rcasun ; and it is certainly more 
than possible that prov. Diu./aUt./<tIU, and h. /allow are cither coordinate, 01 the latter 
derived from the former. But further, Molb. contend*, that the true foim of the word ii 

/tf/jT', and noXfalHe (whence /«//«>. adducing the A. S. word fmlga, a harrow, and N. Sax. 

/algttt, a field once ploughed and left to mellow, as corroborative of his view; and if so, 
in the g of the word in question we probably have the origin of the gb in our word — -/aight 

f^'gh: ihe / being dropped as in Cau'f. our pronunciAtiou of calf. I should therefore look 
upon Faugh (Sc. /aucb) as radically the tanie word as E./ailw. Cf. Pr. Pm. FnJwt ; and 
O. E. ioruM with Dan xorgt. 

FaJtoring-iron, sh. (pr. faughtering-iron). The instramenl used for 
separating the awns from the grains of barley ; in form a square 
iron frame with cross-bars set lattice-wise, and a long vertical shaft or 

• To Falter: to thrash harlcy, in the chaff» in order to breik off the awni.* Marshall's 
Rur. Econ. p. ,^18. See Hall. also. Probably an arbitrary application of the standard 
word, conttccted with the interrupted or up-and>down motion of the instrument when ill 
use. See Falter in Wedgw. ; Faltryn, ccspilo, Pr. Pm. 

Fault, V. a. To blame, or lay the blame on ; to chaise with an 
ofTencc or fault. 

Feared, To be, vh. To be afraid, in dread or apprehension. 

• I am (uDt/erd that we get blame.' Townei. Mys/. p. 1 1. 

* We atrt/ford of yonder fowte: »o fcircly he farclh.' 

Percy'i Folio MS. i. 230. 
The vb. is used also iniperKKuny : — 

' for all the words he tpake in thai time, 
nothing il/mrrc/lhc Knight Sir Grime.' Ih. 378. 
' Ah 'y/rartd its te nae youK* i^xae). 

Fearful, adv. 

Very, exceedingly; constantly used as an augmcn- 

Comp. the use of Dan. D. farlig, JliI. farUg, Sw. D. /arliga, — all meaning, literally, 
ftarfml. EnfaUt god dreng : a fcarfiil good lad ; fallt ril, fearful rich ; both given by Kok. 
The Dan. uwge tometinict makes the wcrd an ad) , as rn fnrlig bob, a fearful heap (of 
money, namclyt : m/aaU Imal ijarlig iarl) for a aittr : a fearful chap for the altar — mear>- 
tng «a cacellcut priest ; farliga^n ; vack^ : fearful ^oc m sniali ; pretty. Ihre also obMrvcs 
on this UK of the wotii/arlig. 

Fearsome, adj. A\\'ful. frig:hiful. 

Foather-falleDf adj. Crest-fallen, dispirited, subdued in demeanour. 



Feather-fowl, sb. (pr. feaiher-fewl). Birds, * fowl of the air. 

Rjctz %\\ci fjdrfogjeJ, Jjddtrhbna, u the provinciil name of the wood-grnuK or Caper- 
cailzte. Our word is simply a Northern form of * feathered fowl.* Comp. the form Jcwle^ 
R«l. Piecti, p. 7y. 

Peatly, adv. Neatly, dexterously, properly. 

* He \»t fitly in face fettled all erea ' E. Eng. AUit. Poems, B. 585. 

' Fetly hym kiwcd.' Sir Gate, and Or. Kn. 1758. 
From • O. Fr. faict, Fr. fait, a deed, a feat.' Gl. to E. Eng. AUil. Poems The pror. 
Dan. feit^ neat, pretty, handsome, niay be put side by side with S. G. fait, ready, handy, 
of which Ihre says he cannot affirm that it it not borrowed from Fr. fait. Comp. also 
Sw. D. fatter (same sense), which takes the fonn/art in the ncut. and fern. (Rict/.)- 

Feck, sb. i, ActKity, ability, might. 2. Number, quantity, mass. 

Jani. regards this word as ' of very uncertain origin.' As implying quantity or 5pace. 
* It correspoiidi to A. S. faec, space, interval, distance; Genii./ac2)#/i, tu divide into cquaJ 
spaces; faeb^ one of these spaces,' As meaning ' the greatest part,* ' it seems to have more 
analogy to K,S. feob. Tent, veegb, opes.* As implying * of ralue,' or ' deser\'ing consi- 
deration,' ' it probably claims a diiferent origin, and is nearly allied to Fr. bomme tie peu 
iTtfftct, a weak and witless fellow.' 1 would rather regard it as formed upon the model of 
E. sb. migbt and its analogues in the Northern tongues ; O. N. wi(f, tnakt; Sw. md, magt ; 
Dan. man, magt; Germ, mag {mo^en) macbt ; A.S. mag, taibt; — l)ic imperf. of the vb. 
being, in every case, the intermediate step. So O. N./d (imp./wrir) ; S. G./d,_/£i, /«*,/«* ; 
Dan./aa*,^*; Sw. D fii,jikk. Sec, fully supply both the form and the sense of our Feok. 
As to the Utter point. Molbcch's remark on Dan. faM—x remark more or less applicable 
also in the case of the other Scand. tongues and dialects — is tliat it generally assumes the 
meanings ' to own," ' possess,* • enjoy,' ' feel and suffer.' besides several others more or less 
corresponding with ' to suit (be suitable to),' ' to retain,' ' to receive,* ' to acquire,' ' to 
ejirn or become entitled to;' and in the various instances of usage we meet perpetually with 
cases in which ability, power 10 make, to obtain, to keep, is the prominent idea. Like cases 
of the formation of a sb. from the imp, of the vb., and with perfectly analngnus transitions 
of sense, arc by no means rare. It is at least open to surmise, that the Jutl. word^We, 
% purse, a pouch, may be of similar origin. 

Feckless, adj. Feeble, weak, incapable of helping oneself or others. 

Feed, V. a. and n. i. To fatten ; as a l>east or pig. 2. To become 
fat : of an animal or a person. 

Comp. Dan.T^iir, to fatten, make fat, the vb. /orf* signifying ' to give food to, or feed;' 
\% also do O. N. fizda. S. G. /«to, Ac. The Dan. idiom af ftde kreature, sviin, gas. Ike, 
corresponds precltelv with our own. and the passive form yields our second signification:-^ 
Enbver, wm til selv fedes af den Jioft. ban burdt fnde ug vogle: every one who desires 
to become fat through the fiock. must needs feed and tend it. Soe also Sw. D. fejta, to 
become fat ; O, fi.ftita, to make fat. 

Feft, V. a. To secure to any one in a formal or legal manner. 

' O. N. fe, A. S. feob, &c., cattle, riches, money, adopted into the Romance tongues, 
became prov. /ru,jieu, fr.fief. Latinized, it became y>Mrfii"i. signifying the property in land 
distributed by the Conqueror to his companions in arms, as a reward for their past services 
and s pledge for their rendering the like in future. Mcnce the term /#r. in Knglish law. for 



the entire estate in land ; /toffvtent, from the Yt Jitfftr, to coiivcy the fief, or ftt. to a new 
owner.' Wcdgw. The ejtiitence of our word it a curious instance of the originatiou of a 
new term by a ilight corruption. 

' Ht/tjitd hU wife on so much a year/ Ht. <?/. 

* AUe |>ii Riche Retenaancc* ^at Regneden with Fall 
Wroren bede to \>t Bniyt-4le' on Bo two Yt lydcs. 
Sir Simonyc is nf-sent* to atteale )>e Chartres, 

pat Fals o^ur Fauuel* by eny fyn beoldeii. 

And Feffe Nfccde )>er-with' In Mariage for etiere.* 

Skeat's P. Plongbm. p. Iq. 

Feftment, sb. Property legaUy secured; an endowment, or enfeofmenl. 

Pr, Pm. * FtftnuHt. Feofamcntutn.' 

• Now Simoiiyc and Siuylf tiondcb fwr^ boJ»e, 
Vn-(oldyng ^ FeffkiruKt )>at Falsues made.' 

Skeat's P. Pioughm. p. ao. 

Peg, sb. I. A dead grass-Stem. 2. Anything without worth or value. 

Wedgw. connect) ftg with/oj', defining it as * grau not eaten down in the lunmier. that 
grows in tufts over the winter.' With us the two words are, in usage, verjr distnict : Tof 
denoting the fre^b, bright grccti growth of grass (not possessing, however, any correspond- 
ing amount of nutriment) which springs in the meadows after the severance of the hay- 
crop. Fecf. on the other hand, is in Westmoreland rough dead gras«. and here, as used 
with the indef. article, a stn^e dead grau-steni. Wcdgw. collates /o^a^tMni, winter pasture 
in the forests, and adds, ' perhaps from Jag, to flag or wither.' In E. Eng. Altit. Pofmt, 
B. 1683, it is said of Nebuchadnezzar, that 

* He fares forth 00 alle hmK,/oggt wat} hii inete;' 
bat, u the next tine rant, 

' & etc ay (hay) as a horce when erbes were fallen.' 
probably /o^g** does not mean dry natural herbage. The Gl.. however, gives ' fogge, ilry 
grass. W. y^;' and it may be observed that Oamett, Euayt, 165, quotes W. jSc^ » 
the more than probable ' Celtic origin* of /o^ (which he makes equivalent to • Yorkshire 
tddish, tc, mots'). In this case, the assignment of one distinct sense to fog, and another 
to /*g, must be looked on as arbitrary- : at the same time, it is far from unparalleled, or 
even nnusna ; similar cases being of frequent occurrence in our own dialed. 

Fele, V. a. (pr. feeaJ). To hide or conceal. 

O. N. yWd. to hide, cover, conceal ; Sw. /ela : N., Dan., O. D.. and D. D.,JiaIt ; Sw. D. 
J§ala,£*ta; A.S,/ioUtH,/nlban. Both Rietz and Kok look on the word ,/U!s— the equira* 
lent of E. fait*, falithood — as derived from the imperf. of the O. N. vb. (Sec Rietc tn v. 
PaU; Kojc. p. 177). Comp. Dan. uicfiisle sig. to hide oneself, with otin in the uunple. 
Comp. also. Dm bitttr bfdst torn utv bar JSalet: the hidcr is the best finder ; Dri komnur 
up i /«. som tr JiaUi i snte .- what's hid in the snow. '11 turn up in the Thow. Note also, 
prov. Dzn.Ji^tfuiag, hid-beard ; Angl. blind man's buff; Dan. biindrbuk. 
' Gan an' get thee/<//. bairn ;' go and gel hid. 

* He yooied (tised) lo/tli his hammer, an' sike as that, iv a hole i' t* sleean wtU.' 
* My counsellars so wyse of larc. 
Help to comforthe mc of care. 

No wyl from me yc fdt.' Toumtl. 3fy*i. 67. 
Rifti ooMirfcfi the word to be allied to Lai. vtlart, u-fvUrt, &c 



Pell, V. a. To knock down or prostrate ; used both literally and 
figuratively of men, animals, &c. 

O. fi./tila, to prostrate, knock down, cut down ; S. G. ftella; Sw. JiUla; Sw, D, Jalla, 
to fell timber ; Din. /aide. Sec. 

' Hc/eli'ii him at he wad an ox ;' of z man who had knocked another down. 
' Hc/eird em, stoups, raili. and a'.' 

* '* FtUed wir his ailment ;" prostrate with sickness.' Wb. Gl. 

Fell, sb. A skin of an animal with the hair on it, an undressed 

O.S./itl./eilar; the former only in coinpoiition. Hald. Sw./U/; Qoth.^/i; Germ. 
fill : A. S. /ell ; Dutch vet. Dan. pets. Sw. /Wi. A. S. pylca. pyUe, as well as Lat. pellet, 
arc probably doc to the same root as our Fell. In O. H. it seems often to have meant fur 
or drcsscd skins. Thus in Goto, and Gr. Kn., 

' a niery niantytc mete to Jw crt'e 
I'at wit^ /urred ful fync with /elley.' (1 756.) 
And ' a manlyle fiyrefiirrtd wyih-iniie with/rf/cj of the besl.* lb, (8S0.) 

In otbet caies it is apj^ied to the human skin, as in HampoU, Totontl Mytt., Sec, U 
* He thalle be fon in Galale 
In fleshc awii /elie.' 

FeU, sb. A hill, bleak, barren, and lengthened in ouitinc; a long 
moorland summit. 

O. N. /nW; S. G. j^rt// (dicituT proprie dc Jugo montium, atque in specie illorum, qui 
hodic Norwegian) a Sueci& dislerminaiit. Ihre) ; Vni.J)eId, 8cc. 

Fell, adj. i. Eager, keen, energetic, striving, vehement in exertion. 
2. Of tlie ploughshare and coulter, when the former is set so as to enter 
the earth too deeply, the latter so as to * take too much land.' 

Wedgw. quotes Usii.fillo; Ft. fiUe, cniel, 6cicc ; yWon, cruel, rough, nntractable: and 
the editor of Pr. o/Oviu. also adduces the latter two words. In the Gl. to E. Eng. Allit. 
Poetm. however, he t|iiotcv A. S./ell, cruel, sercre ; while Bosw. collates Fris.yV/. Wedgw. 
thinks ' llie true ongm is probably 10 be found in the Celtic branch : Welsh gwall, defect ; 
^Ttl. gufoil, bad. wicked; /all, id.' Perhaps the connection is rather a case of afEnity than 
of extraction. It is possible that fell may t>c connected with O. N /trla, to terrify, to 
shock. Comp. Dan. /dtl, whjch, says Molb., expresses that degree and kind of hideousuess 
which inspires dread 01 repulsion. Comp. also Sw. D. /el, /ad, terrific, frightful, which 
Rietx sets side by side with Dan. /<e/ (taking a like sense), with A. S. /-xr, and with Dut. 
^/W, grim, fierce, frightful. But, whether of Teut. or Celtic origin, the word is of very 
frequent use in E. Eng. writers in the forms /el, /elle, fill, and meaning * fierce, bold, 
furious ;' and also in the adv. forms /^/(y. /tUtty, fiercely, boldly, cruelly. See Pr. Pm. 
* FeUe. Scvcrus, fetus, alrox.* 

• T' au*d horse trails mair in hau'f t* draught. He '1 own /ell by owght.' 

' T' young uu 's keen ; but t* au'd chap — he be /*//. He weean't be bel wit a Uhtle ;' of 
Jl jouDg man striving to outwork an old one. 

Fellon, sb. i. A painful disorder of rheumatic nature to which cows 
(chiefly) are subject. 2. A painful disorder of the liands or other 



members of the human body, of the nature of an abscess. See Bone- 
felloD. Fell. 

Pr.Pm. • /"Won*, wore. Antrax, carhuncidui,' 

* Socn. for cnry, »al haf in )>air l^nis 
Ah kvUes iad/tlottru and apoitjmu.' Pr. o/Coh.v:. 2994. 

F0UOD, Bone-, sb. A painful swelling, frequently in a finger, or 

other part of the hand, arising from an abscess, which suppurates and 
breaks after a time, and ver>' frequently, then, is accompanied by the 
passage of particles of the bone. This, the bone, is consequently 
assumed to be the seat of the disorder, which is usually intensely 

Thrrc can be scarcely any doubt that, in at least th« vast majority of «■». the bone 
becomes diseased truin the actioo of the cnnfiucd matter. There it iisuaUy an almon 
insuperable reluctance among the people I0 call in thr aid of the surgeon. Consequently, 
for days after the abscess requires opening the matter remains pent up: and. too often, if 
the medical man be eventually called in, the mischief is already done, and the unfortonate 
practitioner gets the credit of having inAicted it. In its first stages, that, which in the end 
becomes Bone^fellon, is a very manageable disorder. 

Fellon, Joint-, Skin-. 

' The animal shows some stiffness in moving, and if the hand is pressed on any part of 
the back, the beast will shrink as if from pain. This is railed Cbtnt-fdion in many 
parts of the country :' in Clercl. Skm-feUou. * Generally, in two or three days, the 
animal appears stiff m the joints: these afterwards begin to swell, and are evidently painful, 
particularly when he attempts to move. Sometimes the stiffness extends all over the body, 
and the l>eail is unable to rise without assistance. This is termed Joint-ftUon.' CUter's 
CattU Docior, p. 59. 

Fellon of the Udder (pr. )'ucr). 

The udders of cows are fieqitently thickened and enlarged in the progrcsa of the disorder, 
in which caM the term Tuer-fellon is employed. 

Fellow-fond, adj. Enamoured, in love; said of a female. 

Felly, felve, sb. The felloe of a wheel; one of the curved pieces, 
several of which go to make up the rim. 

A.S./aJgg,/ttlga; Gcrm.ftlgt: Dut. vtlg ; Dta./algf, In the second form we have 
another instance of the transition uf the f -sound into v, as in Dan. ^0^. ptcv, and Clevel. 
Pluf or Plewf . 

Felly, V. a. To break up fallow land. 

Dan. D. (J"tl.) /aid*, fixtU or falgt; falU elsewhere; to break up sward, 
lightly and for the lint lime, before the deeper ploughing fur the seed. 

to plough 

Felt, pcpl. Hidden, concealed. See Fele. 

Felter, v. a. To entangle, to clot or cause to intertwine and become 



mixed and confusedly coherent ; of hair, wool, &c. : chiefly used in the 

A.S./dt^ clotted hair; Gcrm/e/z; Dut. velt; Dzn. fit; and Sv.Jilt. Molb. connecti 
the Dan. *b. with O. N. /til, feUdr; and Morris, GK to E. Eng. Allit. Poems, collates 
W.gwali^ GztX.fall, hair of the head. The later Lat. writers, says Ihre, seem to have derived 
ihdT Jiltrum, ftltrum from the Goths and Alemaiuii, the older Lat. allied form being villus. 
There is scarcely room for doubt that prov. Dan. atfite iammen ; atJUte p«nge sammm ; to 
scrape money together in a miserly way, Involves a figurative use of the same word. The 
Lttds Gl. affords another illustration of our word : * The wheel gar (got) ho'd *a his brat 
(pinafore) an* fslttr'd an* draew him in, poor bam 1 ' 

' With a hede lyke a clowde filferd his here.* Toumel. Myst. p. 85. 

Of Nebuchadnezzar, it is said, E. Eng, Allit. Poems, B. 1689, 

* Fzxe/yltered and felt Bosed hyra umbe 

That schad fro his schulderes to his schyre wykes.' 

From the notice of the casting of the devils from out of heaven, lb, 324 : 
' Fylter fenden-folk forty daye^ lencj>e 
Er |)at styngande storme stynt ne myjt.* 

* Fel^red locks ;' quoted from Fairfax's TVisso by Brockett, CarTi Morris. 

* As shaggy and rough as zfeltered foal.' 

Feltrios, sb. A disorder to which horses are liable, in which great 
thickening and hardness of the skin and the integuments beneath take 
place, and the hair becomes matted and staring. See Felter, to entangle, 
clot, as hair or wool does.. 

Felve, sb. See Felly. 

Femmer, adj. Slender, slightly made, weak. 

Another instance of a word preserved accurately as to form, while its sense is simply 
transitionary or derived from its original sense. Comp. Sw. D. femmer, D. T>.fimmer,fimt 
quick in one's movements, active, dexterous or handy, light. The next sense would natu- 
rally be what is given above as the meaning of Clevel. femmer. 

Fend, v. n. To be careful and industrious ; to strive or labour, or 
employ oneself; to manage or make shift. 

Dan. D. fante^fente oxjinte, to seek, try to acquire, with care and toil ; cujintefor noget : 
to give oneself trouble to obtain anything. Molb. adduces the Eng. D. word fend, fmd for 
oneself in his notice of fcsnte oi fente ; as also Jutl./axt/ and N./cen^/f. The latter ap- 
proaches more to the Sw. D. formfangta. Fdnta, however, also occurs. A Dan. example 
is, fcente om foder til Itreaturerne til foraaret, naar vinterfoderet er gaaet op : to fend for 
spring-fodder for the stock when the winter supplies are consumed. Fendixig for fodder, 
here, seems often to be done by means of a kind of indirect begging from the neighbours. 

* " He tries to fend at all points ;" he is industrious in a variety of ways.' Wb. Gl, 

• I assayed him, and \it ffended weele.' Percy's Fci. MS. i. p. 365. 

Fend, sb. Careful and provident action or labour, contrivance or 
management ; industrious striving, activity in one's business or employ- 

A a 


ment ; speaking generally, efforts to assist oneself and provide things 

* They nuke a gpoAfmd for a living/ 

* No moTtfind than a new-bom bairn ;* of a helpless person. Wb. Gl. 

VendablOr fandible, adj. Active, industrious, notable, contriving. 

Vend and prove, v. v. a. To argue pertinaciously ; to defend oneself 
in the way of imputing blame to others. 

*FiHd, from Fr. dtfmdrt, to forbid, defend, protect; dt/mu, prohibition, protection. 
fence.* Wedgw. 'Fndtr, i.e. defender; that which fends, defends, guards.' Rich. He 
also quotes from Beaom. and Fletcher : 

' Your son. an't please you. sir, is new cashiered yonder. 
Cast from his mistress' favour ; and such a coil there is, 
Such frndtng and such proving' 

* The landlord was to hold a court. 
And there his tenants were attending. 
Sundry debates prnnnng and/tmUng.' JoetySer. Diteountt p. 24- 

Fend-heads, sb. Matters of dispute or contention ; sources of strife, 
verbal or physical. 

Fendible, adj. Admitting of defence or justification; capable of 
being maintained or made good by argument or proof. 

Font, sb. An opening, or slit, purposely made or left, in any article 
of clothing. See Vent. 

F seems sometimes to take the place of v in our dialect, as in this word and in Fusom, a 
word given in Wb. Gl. Observe also Pr. Pm. Fentt, and note. 

Fent, sb. The binding of the edge of a garment or other article. 

The * binding ' is a narrow strip of material sewed on to the edge in question for the pur- 
pose of protection, and, secondarily perhaps, ornament. The rurrow strip, however, seems 
to supply the idea of the word, which ts exactly correspondent to that in Dan.^n/<, ex- 
plained by Molb. through the word strimnui, a strip. 

Font, v. a. To bind, or sew an edging on to a garment, &c. See 
Fent, sb., Fents. 

Fonts, sb. Remnants of cloth, calico, &c. 

Comp. O. D.y&tfr, which Molb. defines as, ' a small strip of land lying alongside other 
laodi, taken in former times from one farm and laid to another.* Our word most frequently 
occurs in the [^rasc Fents and £ac-«nd« ; but it is also used simply. See f ant, v. a. 
and sb. 

Feat, v. a. To bind as apprentice. 

A word of undoubted Northern origin, which is probably what Molb. {DanMk Dial. Lex.) 
means when he says oi faUemnnd^ fasttnf, fasttHsgave. /attmsmi that they are gamit og 


agle Danah ord, oM and genuine Danish words. Ihre defines /ces/a, * firtnare aliquo modo« 
phytico ant moraii :' in the ecclesiastical sense, however, it means, * sponsalium soleoni htu 
sponsam sponso addicere ;* whence fanemii, an engaged or betrothed maiden ; faUematt^ &c., 
the man she is engaged or betrothed to ; fctsteninge-ring, the ring of betrothal. In tfie 
forensic usage, he adcU, it varies in sense ; as fasia ed^ to stablish an oath by some security 
given ; fasta iop, to confinn or make binding a bargain ; from which comes the term 
Jmtt'ptmMg, the moncy-pledge or deposit which is given in token of future completion of 
the said bargain. See Testing-penny. In O. Dan. also (see Kok in v. Fa$ee^, fa$t€ 
means to pledge oneself, to betroth oneself. Rietz gives Jiista in the ume senses as Ihre 
and Kok quote for the verbs just mentioned, but also in the further sense of to engage or 
hire: aa fasta tjensttbjon^ to hire farm-servants; fasta sjoman, to engage or ship sailors; 
and this ahnost exactly coincides with the usage of our present word. Ihre's idea seems to 
be that the term is derived from the customary practice of hand'fasting over a bargain. 
Others think there is simply the notion of making font ox firm involved. Ihre's suggestion 
is the more probable, and Kok certainly errs in his derivation. 

Festmg-pemiy, sb. Earnest-money paid to a servant on concluding 
the hiring-bargain. See Hiring-penny, Ood's-pemiy, Aries. 

S. G. fEtU-pemng ; O. N. fnti-pmingr ; Dan. fctstepenge. The first of these words is 
explained under Fest. In Jutl. the Dan. word — under the prov. form fab^p*i»^ — has ac- 
quired a special meaning. There land was— if not, is yet — held imder a kind of hereditary 
tenancy, which came to be designated by the term faUt : and, on the entrance of a new 
tenant in the course of hereditary succession ou one of these farms, he paid down a certain 
fixed sum once for ail ; which payment is called fabst-ping'. But there are several words, 
either derivatives from or compounds of the vb. fetsia^ or fastt^ which, like O. Sv/. fasti- 
petting, imply a gift, of whatsoever kind, made in the way of earnest at the time of forming 
the contract whether of future marriage, actual marriage, or what not. Thus fsstandafa 
is mentioned by Ihre; /eatensgave by Molb. {Dial. L€X.);faste/a,/asiningfcE,/astft$de/<e, 
fiBstnede/a in Dansk Gloss. — all meaning the gifts of money or the like presented by 
the betrothed lover to his mistress at the time of betrothal. Kok mentions /<es/wis^<w, 
and Kietz Jiistning, in the same sense. Clevel. Festing-xienny is as completely analogous 
as possible: and the fact, that if a servant who has been duly hired and received her 
Hiring- or Festlng-jienny, wishes to cancel her bargain ; as for instance on account of 
an utilooked-for offer of marriage ; she always sends back the Festing- penny with the 
notification of her altered plans, shews the force or bindingness yet attributed to the giving 
and receiving of the coin in question. Two instances of the kind have occurred in this 
parish in the course of the Spring hiring-time of the present year, 1865. 

Cf. ' \>essa skihhu kaupir Haukr ok reidir )>a firir festarptnning ok gmgr i hrott ok efier 
ftnu .-' this habit cheaps Haukr and deposits the fisting-penny^ and gans forth and after the 
money. Flat, i. 577. 

Fetch, V. a. i. To carry anything with one, when one goes to a 
place or person. 2. To draw the breath painfully. 

' Wants a speead, diz he ? Tell 'im. Ah 11 be on inoo, an' Ah Ml fetch yan wi* me.' 
Cf. * And M fit ys uppan hys bust, ru gd be ny-^ ISat be dnig |wijr «■ htM bus* Jieee.' 
A.S. Gosp^s, Matt. xxiv. 17. 

Fetch, sb. A catch, possibly a painful one, in drawing the breath. 

' " I have a fetcb and a catch ;" a pain or stitch in breathing.' Wb. Gl. 

A a 2 


ment ; speaking generally, efforts to assist oneself and provide things 

* They nuke a goodfmd for a living.* 

* No monfind than a new-born bairn ;' of a helpless person. Wb. Gl. 

Tendable, fendible* adj. Active, industrious, notable, contriving. 

Vend and prove, v. v. a. To argue pertinaciously ; to defend oneself 
in the way of imputing blame to others. 

*Fmd^ from Fr. dtfindrt^ to forbid, defend, protect; dtfenu^ prohibition, [wotection, 
fence.' Wedgw. ^Fwdtr^ i.e. defender; that which fends, defends, guards.' Rich. He 
also quotes from Beaum. and Fletcher : 

* Your son, an't please yon, sir, is new cashiered yonder. 
Cast from his mistress' favour ; and such a coil there is. 
Such Jmdu^ and such proving* 

* The landlord was to hold a court. 
And there his tenants were attending. 

Sundry debates pmving andftndmg' yoeo^er. Dae^wrse, p. 24. 

Tend-headB, sb. Matters of dispute or contention ; sources of strife, 
verbal or physical. 

Fendible, adj. Admittmg of defence or justification; capable of 
being maintained or made good by argument or proof. 

Pent, sb. An opening, or slit, purposely made or lefl, in any article 
of clothing. See Vent. 

F seems somctimu to take the place of v in our dialect, as in this word and in Fwsom, a 
word given in Wb. OL Observe also Pr, Pm. Fmtt, and note. 

^nt, sb. The binding of the edge of a garment or other article. 

The * binding* is a narrow strip of material sewed on to the edge in question for the pur- 
pose of protection, and, seccmdartly perhaps, ornament. The narrow strip, however, seems 
to supply the idea of the word, which is exactly correspondent to that in Dan.^n/*, ex- 
plained by Molb. through the word strimnui, a strip. 

Fent, V. a. To bind, or sew an edging on to a garment, &c. See 
^nt, sb., Feiits. 

Fents, sb. Remnants of cloth, calico, &c. 

C<»Dp. O. Xy.JuUtt which Molb. defines as, ' a small strip of land lying alongside other 
lands, taken in former times from one farm and laid to another.' Our word most frequently 
occurs in the phrase Fents and fas-ends; but it is also used simply. See 7ent, v. a. 
and sb. 

Feet, V. a. To bind as apprentice. 

A word of undoubted Northern origin, which is probably what Molb. {Damk Dial. Lex.) 
means when he says o{ /asfemand, fastemm, f^tttntgavt, fatitnsai that they are gamit og 


<9<« Dimdf ord^ <rid and genuine Danish words. Ihre dcBnes /tcs/a, * firmare aliquo niodo, 
physico aut morali :* in the ecclesiastical sense, however, it means, ' sponsalium solenni ritn 
sponsara sponso addicere ;' whence fcestemii, an engaged or betrothed maiden ; /astemaH, &c., 
the man she is engaged or betrothed to ; fasteninge-ring^ the ring of betrothal. In die 
forensic usage, he adds, it varies in sense ; as fasta ed^ to stablish an oath by some security 
given ; fixUa l^p, to confirm or make binding a bargain ; from which comes the term 
fastt-pining^ the money-pledge or deposit which is given in token of future completion of 
the said bargain. See Festing-penny. In O. Dan. also (see Kok in v. Faste-^t), feutt 
means to pledge oneself, to betroth oneself. Rietz gives fdUa in the same senses as Ihre 
and Kok quote for the verbs just mentioned, but also in the further sense of to engage or 
hire: as ^os/a tjtTaUibjon, to hire farm-servants; fdsta sjoman^ to engage or ship sailors; 
and this almost exactly coincides with the usage of our present word. Hire's idea seems to 
be that the term is derived from the customary practice of band-fasting over a bargain. 
Others think there is simply the notion of making fast otjSrm involved. Ihre's suggestion 
is the more probable, and ICok certainly errs in his derivation. 

Festiiig-peimy, sb. Earnest-money paid to a servant on concluding 
the hiring-bargain. See Hiring-peimy, Gk>d'8-peim7, Aries. 

S. G. fasu-peming ; O. fi. ftsti-pemngr ; Dan. /as/epenge. The first of these words is 
explained under Feat. In Jutl. the Dan. word — under the prov. form /«»&sf;^<ii^ — has ac- 
quired a special meaning. There land was — if not, is yet — held under a kind of hereditary 
tenancy, which came to be designated by the term /sate : and, on the entrance of a new 
tenant in the course of hereditary succession on one of these farms, he paid down a certain 
fixed sum once for all ; which payment is called fabst-peng'. But there are several words, 
either derivatives from or compounds of the vb. fasta^ or /cs/«, which, like O. Sw. faste- 
Pening^ imply a gift, of whatsoever kind, made in the way of earnest at the time of fonning 
the contract whether of future maniagc, actual marriage, or what not. Thus festanda/o! 
is mentioned by Ihrc; fastensgave by Mo]h, (Dial. Lex.); /iestefcE,/<sstningfiB^/xst€iu/e/<e, 
fastnede/a in Dansk Ghss. — all meaning the gifts of money or the like presented by 
the betrothed lover to his mistress at the time of betrothal. Kok mentions _^s/«wg;aw, 
and Kietz Jiistning, in the same sense. Clevel. Festing-XMnny is as completely analogous 
as possible: and the fact, that if a servant who has been duly hired and received her 
Hiring- or Feating-penny, wishes to cancel her bargain ; as for instance on account of 
an unlooked-for offer of marriage ; she always sends back the Feating- penny with the 
notification of her altered plans, shews the force or bindingness yet attributed to the giving 
and receiving of the coin in question. Two instances of the kind have occurred in this 
parish in the course of the Spring hiring-time of the present year, 1865. 

Cf. ' )yes$a skikiiu kaupir Haukr ok reidir j>a Jirir festarpenning ok gengr i brott ok efitr 
fenu ;* this habit cheaps Haukr and deposits the festing-pmny, and gans forth and after the 
money. Flat. i. 577. 

Fetch, V. a. i. To carry anything with one» when one goes to a 
place or person. 2. To draw the breath painfully. 

* Wants a speead, diz he ? Tell 'im. Ah *U be on inoo, an* Ah 'H fetch yan wi' me.' 
Cf. * And s€ ^e ys uppan bys buse, n* gd be nylier Iket be dnig }ping on bU bust fiece.' 
A.S. Gospels, Matt xxiv. 17. 

Fetch, sb. A catch, possibly a painful one, in drawing the breath. 

* " I have »/etcb and a catch ;" a pain or stitch in breathing.* Wh. GL 

A a 2 


ment; speaking generally, efforts to assist oneself and provide things 

* They make a good fmd for a living.' 

* No moceybuf than a oew-bora bairn ;' of a hdplesi person. Wh. Ql. 

Fendable, flendible, adj. Active, industrious, notable, contriving. 

Vend and prove, v. v. a. To argue pertinaciously ; to defend oneself 
in the way of imputing blame to others. 

*Ftndt ^m Fr. d*fmdrt^ to forbid, defend, protect; d*fenu^ prohibition, protection, 
fence.' Wedgw. * Fmdtr, i. e. defender ; that which fends, defends, guards.' Rich. He 
also quotes ftom Beaum. and Fletcher : 

* Your son, an't i^ease you, sir, is new cashiered yonder. 
Cast fr<Hn his mistress' favour; and such a coil there is. 
Such fmdmg and such proving' 

* The landlord was to hold a court. 
And there his tenants were attending, 

Sundry debates fatitving and/mding.' yocoSer. Diteovrst, p. 24. 

Fend-heada, sb. Matters of dispute or contention ; sources of strife, 
verbal or physical. 

Fendible, adj. Admitting of defence or justification; capable of 
being maintained or made good by argument or proof. 

Fent, sb. An opening, or slit, purposely made or left, in any article 
of clothing. See Vent. 

F seems sometimes to take the place of v in our dialect, as in this word and in Futom^ a 
word given in Wh. Gl. Observe also Pr. Pm. FtnU, and note. 

Fent, sb. The binding of the edge of a garment or other article. 

The * binding' is a narrow strip <^ material sewed on to the edge in question for the pur- 
pose of protection, and, secondanly perhaps, ornament. The narrow strip, however, seems 
to supply the idea of the word, which is exactly correspondent to that in Dan.^n/f, ex- 
l^ained by Molb. through the word strimmd^ a strip. 

Fent, V. a. To bind, or sew an edging on to a garment, &c. See 
Fent, sb., Fenta. 

Fenta, sb. Remnants of cloth, calico, &c. 

Comp. O. D.^fifit*, which Molb. defines as, ' a small strip of land lying alongside other 
lands, taken in former times from one farm and laid to another.* Our word most frequently 
occurs in the phrase Fonts and fiis-enda ; but it is also used simply. See Fent, v. a. 
and sb. 

Feat, V. a. To bind as apprentice. 

A word of undoubted Northern origin, which is probably what Molb. {Datuk Dial. Lex.) 
means when he says of fasfemami, /asttmm, fatttntgave, /asttmsut that they are gamlt og 


<^lt Dantkt ord, old and genuine Danish words. Ihre dc&na ftBSta, * firmare aliquo modo. 
physico lut morali :' in the ecclesiastical sense, however, it means, ' sponsalium solenni ritu 
sponsam sponso addicere ;' whence fastemo, an engaged or betrothed maiden ; fasteman^ &c., 
tfie man she is engaged or betrothed to ; fasteningg'riHg, the ring of betrothal. In the 
forensic usage, he adds, it varies in sense ; as /asta ed, to stablish an oath by some security 
given ;_/tes/a hoPt to confirm or make binding a bargain; from which comes the term 
f<etsit-p9ni$%g^ the money-pledge or deposit which is given in token of future completion of 
the said bargain. See Festing-penny. In O. Dan. also (see Kok in v. Fastt-ml)., fixtU 
means to pledge oneself, to betroth oneself. Rietz gives Jasla in the same senses as Ihre 
and Kok quote for the verbs just mentioned, but also in the further sense of to engage or 
hire: Zi fdsta tjenstebjon, to hire farm-servants ; ,^/a sjoman, to engage or ship sailors; 
and this almost exactly coincides with the usage of our present word. Ihre's idea seems to 
be that the term is derived from the customary practice of band'/asting over a bargain. 
Others think there is simply the notion of making fast otjirm involved. Ihre's suggestion 
is the more probable, and Kok certainly errs in his derivation. 

Festmg-penny, sb. Earnest-money paid to a servant on concluding 
the hiring-bargain. See Hiring-penny, Qod*s-penny, Aries. 

S. G. fa^e'pening \ O. N. ftsti-peningr • Dan. /astepenge. The first of these words is 
explained under Feat. In Jutl. the Dan. word— under the prov. form fahs^pm^ — has ac- 
quired a special meaning. There land was — if not, is yet — held under a kind of hereditary 
tenancy, which came to be designated by the term fasu : and, on the entrance of a new 
tenant in the course of hereditary succession on one of these farms, he paid down a certain 
fixed sum once for all ; which payment is called fcebst-peng*. But there are several words, 
either derivatives from or compounds of the vb. fiesta, or /aste, which, like O. Sw, /cestt' 
peningy imply a gift, of whatsoever kind, made in the way of earnest at the time of fonning 
the contract whether of future marriage, actual marriage, or what not. Thus ftstandafa 
is mentioned by Ihre; fcBitensgave by Molb. {Dial. Lex.);fcBsie/<e,/<BStningfatf<sstsnde/a, 
/astnede/<B in Dansk Gloss. — all meaning the gifts of money or the like presented by 
the betrothed lover to his mistress at the time of betrothal. Kok mentions /aslensgjav, 
and Rictz /tisttiing, in the same sense. Clevel. Festing-pexmy is as completely analogous 
as possible : and the fact, that if a servant who has been duly hired and received her 
Hirinfl;- or Festmg-penny, wishes to cancel her bargain ; as for instance on account of 
an unlooked-for offer of marriage ; she always sends back the Festlng-penny with the 
notification of her ahered plans, shews the force or bindingncss yet attributed to the giving 
and receiving of the coin in question. Two instances of the kind have occurred in this 
parish in the course of the Spring hiring-time of the present year, 1865. 

Cf. • hMs/i skiJtkiu hauphr Haukr ok reidir Ya frir festarpenning ok gengr i hrott ok efier 
fenu :' this habit cheaps Haukr and deposits the fisiing-pennyt and gans forth and after the 
money. Flat. i. 577. 

Fetch, V. a. i. To carry anything with one, when one goes to a 
place or person. 2. To draw the breath painfully. 

• Wants a spcead, diz he ? Tell 'im. Ah *U be on inoo, an' Ah '11 fetch yan wi' me.' 
Cf. * And $e fie ys uppan bys busi, ne gd b* ny&er Hat be dnig \>img on bis bAse fieee.' 
A.S. Gospels, Matt xxiv, 17. 

Fetch, sb. A catch, possibly a painful one, in drawing the breath. 

' " I have A/ttcb and a catch ;" a pain or stitch in breathing.' Wb. Ol, 

A a 2 



ment; speaking generally, efforts to assist oneself aad provide tilings 

' They make a ^ooA/tnd for a living.' 

* No mQtcftnd than a. new-born baini ;' oi a lietpless perKJii. Wh. Ol. 

Fendablo, fondlblo, adj. Active, industrious, notable, contriving. 

Fend and prove, v. v. a. To argue pertinaciously; to defend oneself 
in the way of imputing blame to others. 

* Fend, tVoin Fi. dafendre^ lo forbid, defend, pcotect ; dtftH%9, prohibitioa, protection, 
fence.' Wcdgw. ^Fender, i.e. defeodar; that which fcndi, dcfcndi, guaidi.' Rich. He 
aJw quota from Bcaum. and Fletcher : 

* Your soil, an't please you, tir, ii new caihiered yonder. 
Cast from hit mistress' favour ; aod web a coil there is, 
Such /rttdiHg and such proving.' 

* The landlord W2& tu hold a court. 
And there hii tenants were attending. 

Sundr)' debates preuving and fending.' jteco-Jrr. Discvune, p. 34. 

Fend-heads, sb. Matters of dispute or contention ; sources of strife, 
verbal or physical. 

Fendible, adj. Admitting of defence or jusufication ; capable oT 
being maintained or made good by argument or proof. 

Fent, sb. An opening, or slit, purposely made or left, in any article 
of cloiliing. See Vent. 

F seems sometimes to take the place of * in our dialect, as in this word and in Fmsom, a 
word given in Wb. Gl. Observe also Pr. Pm. Fente, and note. 

Font, sb. The binding of the edge of a garment or other article. 

The ' binding ' is a narrow strip of material sewed on to the edge in question for the pur- 
pOM of protection, and. secondarily perhaps, onianient. The narrow strip, however, seems 
10 supply the idea of the word, which is exactly correspondent lu that in Duu^nte, ex* 
plained by Molb. through the word $trimrrui^ a strip. 

Fent, V. a. To bind, or sew an edging on lo a garment, &c. See 
Fent, sb., Fonts. 

Fonts, sb. Rcmnanth of cloth, calico, &c. 

Comp. O. D.Ji$iie, which Molb. defines as. ' a small ittip of land lying alongside other 
landa, taken in former times from one farm and laid to another.* Our word most frequently 
occurs in the phrase Fenta and fn^-enda; but it is alio used simply. Sec Fent, v. a. 
and sb. 

Feat, V. a. To bind as apprentice. 

A word of undoubted Northern origin, which it probably what Molb. (Amsi Ditd. L4M.) 
IIMUU wftim he says o( fftitemoMd, /aiUmm, fatteuMgmre. '/ifVer$Mml that they are gamit eg 



ii^te Danth ord, old and genuine Danish words. Ihre defines /es/a, ' firoiare aliquo mode, 
physico aut morali :* in the ecclesiastical sense, however, it means, ' sponsalium solcnni ritu 
sponsam sponso addicere ;' whence ^^fmo, an engaged or betrothed maiden ; /testemart^ &c., 
the man she is engaged or betrothed to ; fcesieninge-ring, the ring of betrothal. In the 
forensic usage, he adds, it varies in sense ; as fasta ed^ to stablish an oath by some security 
given ;_^es/a kbpt to confirm or make binding a bargain; from which comes the term 
JtKtt-p*Hing, the money-pledge or deposit which is given in token of future completion of 
the said bargain. See Festtng-penny. In O. Dan. also (see Koi in v. Faste-^, /test* 
means to pledge oneself, to betroth onnclf. Rietz gives /dsta in the same senses as Ihre 
and Kok quote for the verbs just mentioned, but also in the further sense of to engage or 
hire: zs Jiista tjenstthjon, to hire farm-servants ; ,^s/a sjoman, to engage or ship sailors; 
and tlus almost exactly coincides with the usage of our present word. Jhre's idea seems to 
be that the term is derived from the customary practice of band'/astmg over a bargain. 
Others think there is simply the notion of making fast or firm involved. Ihre's suggestion 
is the more probable, and Kok certainly errs in his derivation. 

Festing-peimyy sb. Earnest-money paid to a servant on concluding 
the hiring-bargain. See Hiring-penny, Qod's-penny, Aries. 

S. G. fxitt-pemng ; O. ti. festi-peningr; Dan. fatsttptnge. The first of these words is 
explained under Feat. In Jutl. the Dan. word — under the prov. form fahstptng' — has ac- 
quired a special meaning. There land was — if not, is yet — held under a kind of hereditary 
tenancy, which came to be designated by the term fasu : and, on the entrance of a new 
tenant in the course of hereditary succession on one of these fanns, he paid down a certain 
fixed sum once for all ; which payment is called fabst-peag'. But there are several words, 
either derivatives from or compounds of the vb, fasta, or fasttt which, like O. Svf.faeste- 
P*t^g> imply a gift, of whatsoever kind, made in the way of earnest at the time of forming 
the contract whether of future marriage, actual marriage, or what not. Thus festandafce 
is mentioned by Ihre ; fmitensgave by Molb. {Dial. Ltx.) ; ftEstefce, fastningfa, /<xstende/(Bt 
fastntde/a in Dansk Gloss. — all meaning the gifts of money or the like presented by 
the betrothed lover to his mistress at the time of betrothal. Kok mentions /tes^ms^/av, 
and Kietz Jtisttting^ in the same sense. Clevcl. Festing-penny is as completely analogous 
as possible : and the fact, that if a servant who has been duly hired and received her 
Hiring- or FeBting-penny, wishes to cancel her bargain ; as for instance on account of 
an unlooked-for offer of marriage ; she always sends back the Festing-penny with the 
notification of her altered plans, shews the force or bindingness yet attributed to the giving 
and receiving of the coin in question. Two instances of the kind have occurred in this 
parish in the course of the Spring hiring-iime of the present year, 1865. 

Cf. ' \>essa skikkiu kaupir Hauhr ok reidir )>a firir fistarpmnmg ok gengr t brott ok efitr 
ftnu :' this habit cheaps Haukr and deposits the festing'penny^ and gans forth and after the 
money. Flat, i. 577. 

Fetch, V. a. i . To carry anything with one, when one goes to a 
place or person. 2. To draw the breath painfully. 

' Wants a speead, diz he? Tell 'im. Ah '11 be on inoo, an' Ah '11 fetch yan wi* me.' 
Cf. * And se iSi ys uppan by& busi, nt gd bt ny^ ISat be drug )>iHg on ln$ bust ftce*.' 
A.S. Gospels, Matt. xxiv. 17. 

Fetch, sb. A catch, possibly a painful one, in drawing the breath. 

' " I have zfetcb and a catch ;" a pain or stitch in breathing.' Wb. Gl. 

A a 2 



Fettle, V. a. i. To adapt, arrange, fit up. 2. To prepare, equip, 
get ready, supply. 3. To contrive, accomplish or manage a thing. 
4. To put into a slate of repair. 5. To beat, thrash, overcome or 

In his notice of the Sw. D. wotA /fisia,j!ssa, to icour, to furbith up, Rictz collates not 
only N. S.ji/tjen, Germ. Diil.^sein, to rub. poHsh, drc*i or trim up auJiJuously ; M. Germ. 
ftittn, to make neat or pretty ; M. Q./eitioH, id., but also our own f«tUe. Morris, GL to 
£. Eng. AUit. Pofms^ alHi gifts PL D.yfsWn, with the sense * to bustle abuul.' and Goth. 
ftitian; but quotes besides O. Fm.Jida, to idom, and t-i.Jifla, to Ubonr at a thing to get 
it right. Wcdgw. also gives most of these words, adding • Pt. \i.Jiisel-miilrm (fettlr-niaid), 
an under houseniaid.' But he seems to halt between this derivation — founded on ' the light 
work required to finish the preparation of a thing.' — and that which assumes a> ' the funda- 
mental idea, that of binding up. binding together, from A.S./ettI, a girdle. Sw. /ae/ill, a 
girdle, band, hanJIe of a sword, the equivalent of Gena./eiul, a thong, froni/iu/N. to hold.* 
I give the following from Landnamahok, p. 409, explanatory notes on one of the 'songs* 
in the teirt, ' Fetill figamen, rrufeHa. et in specie, ttrnia ^uA elypti aaptiufumtur. Hinc et 
fetill metotiyniice pro clyfieo vcl armis, adhibetur.' If for amis generally, why not for entire 
equipment? VaJeat quantum. Certainly the transition of meaning from that of' buckling 
to.' — accingcndi te ad aliquid, applying oneself to a matter — to arranging or completing 
the matter itself, is ralhcr les* natuml than the convene: from busy and effecnial activity. 
that is, to resolute effort and a^'pHcation. 1 should, therefore, be incliited to adopt Rieti't 
»iew. Tlic word ii of continual ocxnirrence in our oldei North Eiig. writers ; e.g.'ylleyiWy/rf/ 
in rownc/. Myti. p. 509. Again ; — 

' Now alle )>esc fyue sy|>e^ forso|>c, were fttM on Jns knyjt, 

& rchone hatched in o),er, t»at non ende hade, 

& fychcd vpoo fyue poyntcj. \>zx fayld neuer,* Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1. 656 ; 
in which passage the sense seems rather to approach to that of S. G.Jittja, colUgarc, with 
which /iTfi/ is closely connected. But the sense may preferably I'e that these fire ipecified 
' sy^jej' — graces or moral excellences — were, so to speak, a kind of vesture or anay. nicely 
fashioned and iiXXcA—ftftltd — upon this knight, rather than simply united tH him or his 
character. In the following, however.— 

* When hit (the ark) vu^/ttdid atul forged and to be fulle grayt>ed,* 

E. Eng. AUU. Pormi. B. 343 ; 

* And he hat fetly in fact/tt/M alle eres/ Th. 585 ; 

* Ptttltd in on (one) form," spoken of P.*iJcnce and Povwty (C. 38) ; 
and * farandely on a feldc he/eiutr} hvm to bide,' /h. 435 ; 

there can be no oiiitake either at to $cn<« or the gencr:i] turn and run of th« Idcs. Comp. 
the following examples: — 

I. * " A hnveiy /tttUd house ;** well furnished.' Wh. Gt. 

• MifittUJ t' lahtle chap a spot i' t' an'd cauT-pen fur's rabbits.* 

a. ' " We are just ftttling for off;" getting ready to start on a )ounicy Of expedi- 
tion ■ Itt. G/. 

" FettU me that, an ye please ;" to a shop-keeper, the ipeaka presenting at the same 
time an order for g'>ods.' lb. 

• We 11 be leading to mooru's moom. Qau an' get pike-bottom /rfrf*rf.' 

3. ' Ay. Ah aims wt'Wfude it for him ;* get something managed or arranged — c:g. get* 
ting a boy Wito a situation, or out of a scrape, and the like. 

4. ♦ 1 Wish you coiiltl/r/r/r me my ruat a bit," Wh. Gt, 

• Ah Mm' hii?i fefding *t jn'd *h;d,' 



5. • Ah 'U/etdt 'm an" Ah get grip ov 'im.' 

* Noo, young un : thou '11 fttde i* auM cock, yit ;* of two cocks fighting. 

]PettIe, sb. I. State, condition : the precise sense qualified by an 
adjective, or by the application or connection of the word. 

* Nobbut in hzd fettU for work ;* of animal or man, when out of condition, or poorly. 

' Ah's feared he's in bad^///«, poor chap;' of a man whose circumstances are supposed to 
be but poor or bad. 

* In 'prime /etda ;* ' out oifsttlt;* of man, animal, machinery, tool, instriunent, &c. 

Pew, adj., but used substantively. A quantity or number: if un- 
qualified by an adj., a small quantity or numt)er. Comp. the use 
of Vaat. 

A. S. .^roiiKi ; O.S.far; S.Q./d; D»n./aa, 8cc. Some unnecessary ingenuity has been 
applied to explain the idiom ' a few broth.' A specimen may be found in Leeds Gl., where 
the explanation is made to depend upon the pieces of meat boiled in making the broth, or 
upon die pieces of bread broken into it preparatory to ' senring it out.' The Or. GL, how- 
ever, seems to be much nearer the mark, by suggesting that the word brotb is ' generally 
wed as a noun of number ;' and Rich, gives a quotation in which it is actually used in the 
pi. : * When they exceede. and haue varietie of dishes, the first are their baked meates, and 
then their brotbes or pottage. Hacklu3rt, Voyages, vol. t. p. 496.* Cf. * Brewes is derived 
from the plural of A. S. briw, jusculum.' Pr. Pm. note to Browessi^ browes. The further 
ex(^nation depends upon the substantival use of the word few, analogous to that of little 
in the phrases, * a little water,' * a little bread,' 8cc. Comp. the u»ge ofpaululum in Latin, 
Mff peu in French, &c. It is worthy of remark that O. N./ar is us^ in almost exactly the 
same manner : thus, /or ^o/unn, a few giants ; fiss er/rd^um vant, of but a few (<= Httle) 
is there want to the wise. The neuter,/a//, also is used absolutely, exactly as our few is; . 
e.g. fdtt er til, nema . ., equivalent to our there's nobbut . , to do this or the 

' There was a good^^io at church this morning.' Wb. Gl, 

' There was nobbut a poorish^w.' lb. 

' There 's a gay few side-aways amang thae whoats.' 

* Not a good crop of apples, but a canny scattering/rw amang t* trees.' 
' Nobbul a lahtle/«ff.' 

Fey, V. a. To cleanse, or remove impurities. 

At first I added to the above definition this more, — 'hence to winnow, the ordinary wind 
being the agency employed ;' but I am inclined to think it would be an error to confound 
fey, to winnow by aid of the natural wind, with the present word, which originates in 
O.H. /agja, to cleanse, to scour. Comp. Germ. ^j'^n, to cleanse, &c.; M.Germ. vegen; 
"H./egja; Dan./*/*, to sweep, clean up. Comp. also 0.14. fdga, fd, both signifying to 
clean, to brighten. See Pey, to winnow. 

A curious adaptation of the word is given in the following example, taken from the lips 
of an old lady remarkable for her ' " Yorkshire" unde6Ied :' — 

' Fey out thae sheep out in t' garth.' 

Fey, V. a. To winnow, or clear com from its impurities, by aid of 
the natural wind. 

Rietz gives fo{g)a or/oa, and fauot in as nearly as possible the same sense as our word ; 
viz. to sift com in such a way that the refuse is removed from it. FogesaU is then given 


as a finer kind of sieve, or a winnowing-fan, while Molb. gives /tit utd^ Jm q/^ lo as 
a customaiy N. Sell, expression for to deanse com, by aid of a sieve, after thrashing, 
and removing the coarser impurities by other means. 

Pezson, V. a. i. To seize with fierce eagerness, whether on food, as 
with the avidity of extreme hunger, or as a bull-dog on a bull. Hence 
a. To fight, engage in active strife. 

Possibly a mere vernacular corruption of fasttH ; especially as in Wh. Ol. it is given as 
only used with the prep, on following. Thus ' they Biirly fnxoHtd on* is explained * they 
got at last to blows.' 

Kke, flok, feek, v. n. To move restlessly, or fidget, with the feet 
and toes, as an infant does ; applied to any restless action of the feet, 
whether purposeless and imconscious, or otherwise, and of both man 
and animal. 

O. H.fka, to make haste, to bustle ; S. G.fka; Sw. H.fka^figa; O. Sw.JtUa: D. Dial. 
^0i S'mtL,^bltn — all implying more or less of haste, bustle, fidgetty eagerness, and the 
like. Out word b process of time has come to bear a somewhat varied, but still dosely 
allied significatioa. 

* T' puir bairn nobbut JSeks wi' 's taes a bit He 's not yabble to meeav else ;' of an 
idiot ic^Bmt. 

* He Jkei^d an* he ftt^d, while he gat t' boong oot ;* of a hot-water bottle, in bed, 

CMnp. ' He flang yan (a cracker) upon my breeks. 

And truly, ur, it burnt my leg 
And garr«l me^M like hea with ^g.' JoethStr. Dite, p. i8. 

* He looped t* yat' an' nobbut ftti^d a bit wiv his hind feet ;' of a pig, which jumped over 
the door of the sty, all but clearing it 

Cf. • ffor they reysede fre crosse with )»i body, 

And^tr^A^f it in a tre mortasse vyolently.* Rd. Pitus, p. 66. 

* The kynge Boors redressed hym in his sadelle and fieebtd hjrm so in his steropes so 
harde that the iren bente.' Merlin, p. 338. 

Pile over, v. a. To smooth over, wheedle, cajole, whether by dis- 
arming suspicion, or applying flattery. 

In Aner, RhoU we have fikdung, flattery ; Jikdts, vikMS, flattereth ; wiytUi, wiles, pass- 
ing into wibda, wulst, all connected with A. S. wigtlung, gnoiglungy deception, juggling, 
enchantment. Contraction from the form smjcIh, retaining only the interchangeable /or v, 
gives us our present word with unaltered sense. Comp. Fris. JUehtln^ to flatter, give good 
words ; and with it agun the S. Marb. and Aner, RaoU formjEltN, to deceive, impose on. 

Find, v. a. (pr. finnd). To find (pret fand, fUnd; p. p. ftin). 

FiBks, sb. The residuary substance left after the extraction of the 
oil from the blubber. 

Comp. Sw. D.^ifar, sb. pi., i. various small parts from the interior of the goose when 
co<^ed : a. The fat of pigs cut into small pieces in order to be melted ; taig-faiim: 


Rietz quotes also Dut vinkert small angular bits of meat. Note abo Dan. D.,/&wi»r, shiedi 
of api^e, and Dztu^fiMkett a dish of minced meat, especially of the Urer and lights of the pig, 
cut up and cooked with vinegar and seasoning. 

nre-oodB, sb. Bellows. See Cods. 

• " Blast it up wi' t'J!rt<ods;" take the bellows to the fire.' Wh. Gl. 

Fire-eldin, sb. Fuel generally. See EUUn. 

Fire-fonged, adj. i. Of food; burnt, or 'caught/ in the prepara- 
tion. 2. Of a person ; fierce or vehement of disposition or tempera- 

S.G./anga; Sw, D. /anga; \>z\\. fctnge ; fi.fmgja; fi.S, ftngm, anfmgtn; Germ. 
Dial, anjangen ; Mid. Germ, vanken, venktn — ail, but the last, signifying to take fire, as well 
as to set fire to, to kindle. Our word is a direct p.p. from the original Scand. form, and 
as O. Sw. /anga is doubtless derived from /anga, to catch, to take, — see Ihre in v. Fanga, 
and Molb. in v. Fange, — the coincidence lu sense between our word, and the pror. &ig. 
word caught is interesting. Sw. eld-/angdt inflammable or hot-tempered, coincides with the 
se«Hid sense of our word precisely. 

Fire-flaught, sb. i. The flaming coal which sometimes leaps from 
the fire with a report. 2. Any luminous appearance which seems to 
shoot or dart through or athwart the sky; meteors, Northern lights, 
lightning. 3. Metaphorically a hasty-tempered person. 

Jam. says this * is evidently from Su. G./yr^ Teut. vier, ignis, and vlacken, spargere fiam- 
mam ; vibrare instar flammx, coruscare.* Rather from Sw. /lioga, or some Dialect form ; 
e. g. Sw. D. ftauga,/lyge,flyg,ftuug (imp. /laug) ; O. Sw. flivga, ftiauga ; O. N. ftjuga, 
Cmnp. the forms «/«*/, Ancr. Ritole ; Jiubt, Mali Meid. ; ftaugb, for^cv, Percy's F<d, MS, 
i. p. 71. The idea is simply that of fire or flame in flight or motion. 

3. • *' A TtgahT Jfrt-^augbt ;" a hasty-tempered person.' Wb. Gl. 

Fire-fodder, sb. Fuel ; aliment for the fire. 
Fire-porr, sb. A poker. See Fire-pote. 

Dan. purre, as, at purre ved ilden ; to stir, or poke the fire ; N. S. purren, id. The Dan. 
word is used figuratively, much as E. poke is in so-called slang, and stir in more formal 
speech ; thus, at purre ten, to remind one ; at purrt/olket ud, to rouse or stir the people up. 
Jam. gives ' por^ a thrust with a sword,' and quotes Teut. porreny urgere. 

Fire-pote, flre-poit, sb. A poker ; the instrument used for poking 
the fire. See Poat or Bote. 

Fire-smatcb, sb. The savour or twang which accompanies an 
article of food which has been burnt in cooking, or ' caught.' See 

Fire-stead, sb. The place appropriated to the fire. 

First, adj. In the sense of next, applied to a day of the week ; as 
* Sat'rda' first,' for Saturday next. 



FishixLg-gadf sb. A fishing-rod. See Gktdu 

FiBhing-taum, sb. A fishing-line. See Taum. 

Fit, sb. A season, a defined portion of time characterised by some 
distinct peculiarity of the weather. 

' A suange diyjit we 're had for iccar. A Uhile loop o' wet *d dee a VMt o* guid.* 
Similarly. * a wct^/,' * a blowyTfr,' ' a lenipcttyjff,' &c. 

Pit, adj. Disposed to any given course or proceeding ; likely to 
adopt it, or to be led into it. 

' Well, All 'i ibont Jit for ma dinner, fur yan.' 
' He wut Jit \o fell 'im, he war ; he wur that M\.' 

* Fit fur bed ;* tired, and wanting to go. 

• Fit 10 drop ;' from weariness or exhaustion. 

' Fit 10 boggle ;' diipotcd, or klicwiug symptoms of being about, to ihy ; of a hone. 

Fizsle, V. n. To be in a state of bodily restlessness ; to fidget 

Rich, refers this word to jjik. Conip. Svf. /joiJta. to fidget. But note alto Sw. D. 
JUsla, to twist up or entangle, which «cemi to iiirolvc the same idea; while yf&Mi nieatis to 
be In an excited or restless condition, aiidy£tia A danux explains itself. 

Flacker, v. n. i. To flutter, or move the wings quickly as a bird 
does. 3. To be in quick or palpitating motion. 

S. 0. jlacka, circunicursitare. Ihre adduces O N. JiaJta^ adding that Gudm. Andr. 
as&igns to that word tlie mcantng of having a Huttcrmg motion (pendulum motari). Molb. 
gives O. N, Jtifp'a as the etymon of Dan. Jlagre, which latter coincides precisely in sense 
with our word, ^nd to which it is obviously coordinate. Cump. also Sw. D. fiagra ; 
Pr. Pni. ' FUktryn. as iongc byrdis. Volilo, aidta.' 

Flags, sb. Flakes, laminae ; applied alike to the flat or fiag-stones 
used for paving, and to snow flakes. 

Svf.D, Jiag, jlak.iHn flakes, such ai loosen and separate themselves from iron; any 
thin and small matters which »rparaic from the mass ni the form of scales. Comp. the 
(orm jam/lag with our fomi Bnow-flac> Otliei forms of the word ^itJlaga^Jiagu^Jlagii 
or jiagd; N, /fak; U.S. Jlag, Jiage, a flat surface; O.U. fiaga, z chip, a scale. Kitlicr 
from the Sw. verb /facia, to divide, separate, or Jfaga, to tpUt (Rictx) : the prevailing idea, 
in eitlier case, being that of separation in the fono of flat scales or Uminx. The Danes 
keep tfue-Jlag* as we do, implying by it, also as we do, the large woolly-looking Aakes 
which fall when ihe cold is anything but intense; iom den /alder ved bah tw: as it falls in 
a half-lhaw. Comp. also Jlag^'mri', jiag, /lag'. Hat sods of turf peeled off the surface of 
grais-growo land. These are utcd in some parts of Jutland, says Molb., as a covering for 
peat and lurf-stacks ; and Kok adds, as materials for roofiag : just as they are in CIcvcUdJ. 

Flakes, sb. (pr. (leaks or fleeaks). i. Hurdles, or slack-bars; pro- 
perly such as are composed of wattled-work, or sticks interwoven 
logetlier. 2. The hurdle-formed quasi-shelf suspended horizontally 
below the ceiling in old-fashioned houses, and used to support bacon- 
sides, or the like. 

Sw. D.fiaht, wxttleii maltcis. hurdles or moveable fencei of wattle, or made as a gate 



u; other fomii being, _^a^*. /a**, /oAe; l^.S. Jfake.^ak*; f4,Vni./lagt,Jlaeh. Rietz 
adduces aJso O. N.^ZrUj, any expanded and level surface, aiid D. ^ag*, which seems to me 
to be in overtight of the tnie analogy of the word. For this, comp. Gtrm. Jttcbtett, to 
interweave, to watUc; flrcbt^werk — tlic exact equivalent of Sw.jla(V€rh, uwrd by Ricta to 
explain ftaJt* — wattle-work, basket-work. The true O. N. etymon surely is Jfteha, to 
entangle, thence to interweave: intricate. Hald. Comp. also I>an. D. ^agt. which Molh. 
illustntes by Dtjt. vlaak, N. S.Jtake^ but, like Rietx, refers to O. ti.flaga, m chip, scale. 

Flam, sb. Flattery ; sometimes, if not always, with the implied idea 
of falsehood rather than simple hollo\sTicss. 

Wedgw. says of fiim-jiam, under Flam, that it is evidently of an ■ imitative character, 
probably representing a flapping motion with some light implement,' and compares fidtiU- 
/addle, Gtrm. fieh-faek, &c. There is, however. Sw, D. _/?nm, yet current in some parts, 
almost obsolete in others, siguifying both the buffoon, fool or justcr, aiiJ aUo a )c»t, a piece 
of bulToonery. snch as the professional jester or fool might display or indulge in. The 
Iraniition thence to our seme is simple enough, and even in a sense necessary. Conip. also 
Sw. D. jianti, loud, noisy talk, chatter, loudly-spoken nonsense ; Jtarma, jiam:ert the corre- 
sponding vb. and person. 

Flam, V. a. To flatter, to begtiile by the use of flattery. 

. Flan, V. n. To spread or expand more widely towards the top, as 
a vessel or utensil with sides sloping outwards. 

Hall, gives '/tan, broad and large. North;' and iVb. GL gives ' To Jlan, to spread wide 
al the top. to expand upwards as the sides of .i bowli or scuttle,' — an O. Oan. word, un- 
altered in fonn and sense. Molb. (Danfk D. Lex.) ^\ya flane, 1. To gape, to stare ; t. Id 
a sense closely analogoui to onr own : * It is said of a waggon whose wheels do not 
stand upright, or parallel with each other, on the axictrec, so that the space between then) 
above is greater than where they touch the ground : thus, dim vogn fiantr fnr mtgel og er 
talftnent: thai waggon tlani over mich an' 's like t' ower-wclt.' The occunence of the 
Sw. D. words fiana. an unsteady, thoughtless girl ; Jlane, a downright fool ; jlanun^ un- 
steady, flighty, tottering ; fianka, to be unsteady, I. as to conduct, and 2. as to stability ; 
several of which words, as well as Dan. D. fane, an unsteady, flighty, easy-going female, 
being referred to O. \i.jian, thoughtlessness, fiana, to be heedless, inconsiderate, rash, leads 
to the inference that our own word and its O. Dan. original are due to the same traiisiiion 
of idea which gives force to the expression ' uruuble as water thou ihalt not excel ;' first, 
unsteady or unliable of character ; tlien unsteady or unstable in the physical sense ; thence, 
narrow at bottom and wide at lop, so as to present the form of iostabiUty. 

Plappery, sb. The various small appiutenanccs to one's personal 

Plappy, adj. I, Wild, unsteady; applied to a person. 2. Light; 
marked with lesity or unsteadiness ; of a person's ways or manners. 

This may. of courie. be simply a derivative (tarn finp, ' the extremity of any loose and 
pendulous garment or the like;* but it thctdd be observed that Sw. D.jiabba, z%\ut,fahher, 
a skiven. and Dan. D. Jiab^ a silly, pert, immodest girl, suggest the possibility of a more 
direct origin ; and also that Rietz distinctly refers Dan. Jlab^ as well as the Sw. D. words, 
and the Sc. faj^, a fool, or noodle, to Sw. D. JIabb, the lip, mouth ; and that to Lat. 




Flatcb, sb. One who wheedles, or tries to gain his ends by the arts 
of flattery. Generally applied to children. 

There can be litllc doubt llut ihi* U sirnpljr another fonn of Sc. ^atb or Jleicb, to 
whetdlc, flatter, or fawn. Cf. Sw. D. Jitka. to carets, fondle, fawn : O, Sw. Jtickra, to 
flatter; H. fiikra: \>^n.X>. Jltgrt, 0\A Gam. fltcbtn, Dutch vltijtn, come rcry near 
our form : while Old 5w. fiikart, O. Ocrm. ^#cAarf, Dut. vitijer, one who flatters or fawns, 
are cuentially the sanie as our word. Molb., in r. /Ve^r*. colUtes O. N.yfai/r. diHinmlation, 
whccdlmg. adulation, drceit, and its cottti»l'\vc ^adrari : Uin.Xt.jfags at Jlitgr. 

Flatter-cap, See Flatch. 

Flamii, V. n. To flame, blaze, shine out. 

* It ^aumtd out hau'f-way acrou t* rooad ;' of a certain mysterioui bUxe of H^t. 
* As wcxe and a weke 
Were twyned togideres, 
And thannc a fix fiammynge 
Forth out of bothe.' P. PJotifhm. p. 360. 

Flauxny, adj. Tawdry ; * vulgarly fine in dress.' IVh. GL 

Sw. D. /tarrmu(g\ ot flamma{g): torn aUkar pr&iandt dmgt; of a woman food of 
showy or gaudy drcu, — aitolhi-r notcwortliy instance of a Northern word preserved in the 
GcTcI. as wcH as in a Scand. dialect 

Flaun, sb. A custard baked in paste ; ' egg-pies' (Cotgrave). 

*Yx.ftant; Qerm. jtaJrr ; Dut. Wan/r. Of unknown etymology. Cotgr. say* — Finns, 
Jlawnx, CTiitards, egg-pics.* Rich. — * The origin of the word »ecnis to be the sound made 

by the fall of lometbing soft repscscnled by the syllable ^ad or Warf; Sw. ko-hladdt : Prov. 

I)«n. ko^ai ; G. kuh-jfatUn, a cow dung.' WcJgw. — Unsavoury, if true. But A.S. 
jUiu ojjiyHif, what is uudc soft, batter, is, of coune, the origin of our word. See Pr. Pm, 

Ftawnt, bimJ note. 

Flaup, sb. Idle, meaningless talk, flippancy. 

O. N. ^af>r, vana vcrl»a, incoiisiJcrantia ; fttipr, apinx, futilia verba ; Jteifra, effutirc : 
Hald. Comp. Sw. D. jffpa,jlal-a, to talk and tattle sillily, to Ullt stuff; H.Jteipt, Id. 

Flauping, flaupiflh, flaupy, adj. i. Given to light or meaningless 
words; thence, insincere, fawning. 2. Given to levity of conduct or 
demeanour, or to tawdrily showy dress or adornment 

The Sw. D. ^^]. fitpug, flepiig), give our form, but vary in sense. The xxoy^m Jttp, fitper^ 
fiaptr,Jt&p, Sec, current tn dilfcrcnt districts, give approximate senses, if not exactly cihi>- 
cident ; but, of courK, our adj. is due to our sb. Flaup. 

Flawtor, flowter, v. a. To flurry or make to flutter ; to put into a 
Slate of trepidation ; to alarm or frighten. 

O. N. /lyia, accderare. festinare ; Sw. D. /lUa uj, to make haste, I0 t>e in a flurry or 
bnstic; H. jlyta^ to qaicken or urge to haste ; ^/f/a. v. n., to be in haste or in a hurry. 
Both the O. N. and the Sw. D. vrordi scent to talcc the active and neuter sense alike, and it 
would iecm that oui word, if not sull, yet at an earlier time, has done the Siine. In Vorh 
Casdi DtpQti/iont. p. 154, I find — ' And then the thing that did cry like a hen, did/faip*^ 



with the wings against the bords of the floor;* where jfoto^rr seems to imply the signs of 
trepidatioa or haste made by a wingetl creature, ratlier than the haste or trepidation itscU. 
SfcU foHf(bter in Leeds Gi. ; Jlouier by Carr ; jlowtfr by Brockett. 

* Uis maister an' him 's had a few words, an' he 's md\y Jlougbtrrtd.' Lttds Gt. 

Flay, fley, v. a. To frighten or terrify, to deter. 

Morris, in the Gl. to Pr. o/Consc., refers this to 0. S.Jlaja, to put to flight, to tcrriff, 
given hjf EgiUson, and rightly. Jam. merely suggests that O, N./i/a is used in the same 
»cn*e at Jiny, but it is scarcely likely that a word in such general use in the Northmnbnan 
dialects from the thirteenth century doMmwards should be without sotae distinct QfirinAl. 
Comp. Sw. D. Jf3, to drive forth precipitately. 

Flay-boggle, sb. i, A hobgoblin, an apparition, a. Also a scare- 
crow. See Flay-oruke and Boggle. 

Flay -crow, flay-oruke, sb. i. A scarecrow; any dressed-up object 
set up in the fields to frighten the crows. 2. A grotesquely-dressed 

Flaysome, adj. Inspiring fear or apprehension ; qualified to frighten 
or terrify, 

• " A nnyjlaysonu thing ;" temfying to look at.' IVb. Ol. 

Flecked, adj. Pied, spotted, streaked. 

O. N.jfwia. to spot or slain, figekr, a spot. fitcioUr, spotted, pied ; Germ, fteci, fitcken, 
a spot, stsiu. \h.Jieclen, to stain: Dut. vltclti. plach: Din.Xi. fi<Bg«rtt, Jlagrit, not of 
the wmc uniform cotour, spotted, blotched ; S. G.Jieck, sb., Jlecka, vb. 

Flee, sb. A fly : the turnip-fly (Hal/ica mrnorum), particularly. 

The name is sometimes written ^«ii, which might seem to be due to the active flea-like 
ikipi made by the tosect when disturbed. But I tJiink it is more the Pr. of the word, thao 
any intended diHerence in orthography. 

Flee-by-sky, sb. A flighty person ; always applied to a female. 
Brock, says ' a siJIy, flirting, absurdly-dressed, giggling girl.' 

• A flowtcrsomcjfM-6#.ii-i>.' Wl>. GL 

Fleece, sb. Bodily condition, or fatness : applied to persons who 
arc or have been * fat-fleshed,' and signifying such flesh or fatness as 
may be easily stripped off; e. g. by sickness, privation, or * training.' 

• •• He carries a nrejletet ." he is very fat.' ]Vb. Gl. 

* ** He has shaken a bonny Jltect this last bout ;" he has lost much flesh this last iJl* 
neu.' /b. 

Fleeing-aither, fleeing-eather or ether, sb. The dragon-fly. See 

Jam. says ' we 6nd jitcndi naeddrt, i. e. a flying adder, given as synonymous with alltr 
topft* However this may be, the name now implies the dragon-fly throughout a very wide 
area in the North. Hall, quotes it with the word North subjoined, as also Adder-boit, from 

B b 2 


varioni dialects. Brockett gives it for Dilrham and Northiunberland, while Jam. girei 
Flmng-addtr for Roxburghshire, AAtt and Atbtr-4nll for Clydesdale, and AAer^cap or 
Natter-cap for Fifeshire. Brockett's short comment on tlw lume it this : ■ the Tulgar are 
airaid of being stung by it,* which is equally true in Clevel. (as is implied in both the names 
giTen above), and I doubt not elsewhere. Whether the idea now is not perpetuated by the 
name, as, in the first instance, the name must have followed the idea, is a matter of doubt. 
It is curious, however, to observe the different forms the original word (A. S. attar^ ator; 
O. Sw. ttitt ttttr; O.N. titr; O.D. rttw; Dan. tddtr; Germ. «Vw, venom) has assumed 
in the name of this insect, inclusive of the S. English form, adder. A Sw. D. name for this 
insect is troUsnall, snail being the name for a lizard (CleveL Ask, liak, or Haak), so that 
troU-m'dU seems to embody both the ideas involved in our two names, eatber and ask. 
The Sw. name, sldnda, contains a very similar idea to that implied in adder-bolt, 

Fleeizig-aBk, fleeing-esk, sb. The dragon-fly : (genus LtMluIa). 

Meeing-nedder. See Meeing-aither, and comp. * Tanging-nadder,' 

Flesh, flesh-meat, sb. Butcher's meat generally, in opposition to 
bacon or pork. 

' Ah deean't think at Ah've tasted ^*s& going iv tolf weda.* 
* Nobbut bacon an* taties; nzc ^esb-meat* 

FLesh-fly, sb. The common blue-bottle fly. 

Pr. Pm. * Flescbe Flye, Museo* 

Tlet, sb. Live coals, embers yet glowing, sparks of fire. Wh, GL 
adds ' Flaught,' as another form. 

These can scarcely be only variations in form. The idea in Flausht is of fire or flame 
in motion; in Flet, of fire as simply visible or evidently alive. The word w2«Mff in the 
first text of Lay. iii. 33, replaced hy Jure in the second, establishes Flet as an old word 
(Sir F. Madden makes it floor; A.S. fiet^ fixed residence, hall, floor), with the lenie ttill 
preserved in Clevel. 

FUok, sb. A flitch ; of bacon, namely. 

O.T)zti. flyhtte^ et start kimdstykke; /.ex. en snnedde: a large [»ece of flesh; e.g. the 
side of a pig. * 40 floclte flesk : 40 flitches of bacon; mentioned in an account of a wed- 
ding-feast; flyeke aj^ swyn, sueeidia.' Moor*s Sujblk Words also has^ic*. explained as 
* the flake or flank of a hog :* A. S. flieee or flice, Prov. Dan. flidsie, to shear off with a 
great knife, is, by Molb. and Outzen. adduced as cognate. Comp. Dzn.flakke^ to s{rfit into 
Rakes or sHces ; Sw. D. fldkka ov, to cut off flakes, or thin chips from wood ; with which 
£. Engi. fleacb oxfleecb^ a sawn plank, may be compared. 

Flicker, v. n. To shew or look more or less derisively, as a person's 
countenance does who rather makes believe than really tries to suppress 
his laughter. See Flire. 

Mr. Wedgwood says, * flicker, to flutter as a bird, or flame ; to fleer, or laugh wantonly 
or scornfully. From a representation of the flapping or tittering sound.' 

The sense and usage of the word, combined with the existence of the Sw. D. words^tA- 
kdrt to deride, to make a fool of ; jflikker, flekier, ridicule, derision, mockery ; O. Sw. ,/ubr, 
adulation, more or less insincere, of course, together with Rietz's reference of these words 


to jfckt, — see Wlaltdh, with the Dan. D. and Oerm. analogues to Sw. D,Jl$ia — lead me to 
adopt a rather different view, Fliggtr is another form ; see Wcdgw. in t. FU*r, 
' Hejliekm^d and Barred lahk a giming cat.' 

Flig, V. n. To fly. 

* An lamech droge is arwe ner 
And let titfl$g*n of V.t streng.' G*n. and Ex. 1. 478. 

k.^. fitSgan^JUdgan; 'N.S.^tgm;$ga; Dnt. sifwfm; Oerm.y?^f«R. &c. 

Flig, sb. A young bird sufficiently feathered to be on the point of 

^^Ti.jlyg, ready to fly ; of the young of birds, Molb., exactly corresponds with our word 
in form and seme, and resembles it in sound. Comp. Sw. D. ftyg, flygd^ fiygg*'*> id., and 
also fi^Z'/dr. Rictz quotes also A. S. flyegt, which, howerer, 1 do not find in Bosw. 
O.H.Jleygr, able or ready td fly, seenu to be the original word. 

*"Are thcv Jligs or goips?" feathered nestlings or mere goipini naked from the 
egg/ Wb^Gl. 

fligged, adj. Fledged, feathered, ready to fly. 

Wb. Gl. gives ^ig, v. n., to fly ; but Cr. GL, fliggt to fledge, with the examfdei 
* **\iK*% fiig^d and flown;" said of a person who has absconded.* An example from 
Lttds Gla* A nest of sparrows aXl^igg'd an* flown.' The word is a p. (>■• coincident with 
JUdgtd, Comp. TUgt and Pr. Pm, • Flygge as bryddys. VolatUU: 

Flipe, sb. The brim of a hat. 

Hzvi.fl'ip. the tip, comer or extremity of a thing; e. g. handkerchief, garment, collar ; 
Sw. D. ft'dbb, id. Comp. O. N. flipu a horse's under-lip ; N. S. flitpt, id. The word is 
nearly related to E.^ap,Jlabby^ Sec. 

* Touch yomJUpa: Wb. GL 

FUpe, V. a. To remove or take off, with a kind of brisk action, as 
dust from one's shoes, or a fly from the wall. 

Closely connected with Flipe, "E. flip, flap; X>zxi. flab, mouth. lip; Sw. D.J?oW, flap, 
loose-hanging comer or end, and expressive of the action of such a loose-hanging end or 
flap. Comp. Sw. D.flika a/, to undress oneself very quickly : to slip one*s clothes oflF, from 
flik, a shirt, or other loose-fitting garment. Mr. Wedgw. takes flick, flip to be ' forms repre- 
senting the sound made by a jerk with a whip, the comer of a towel, or the like. Flicks a 
smart, stinging slap: Forby ; a slight, sudden blow: Hall. Hence Dzn. flig, flip, the imple- 
ment with which a blow of the foregoing description is given, the comer of a handkerchief, 
apron, &c.' 

FUre, flyre, v. n. To manifest the feeling or spirit of mocking or 
scornful ridicule, without actually laughing out. 

Brockett's definition is, * to have a countenance expressive of laughter, without laughing 
out/ Comp. E. fleer. * We should have no hesitation,' says Wedgw., ' in considering it 
as a contraction offligger ot flicker, to latigh scornfully or wantonly, were it not for parallel 
forms with an n instead of an r: Sw. flina, to shew the teeth, sneer; Prov. Dan.^iiw, to 
wry the mouth, smile, sneer; Norse ^/Zuia, as well zsflira, to titter/ Still there seems to be 
a difference in sense between the forms in is and those in r. Thus, Dan. D. flint is * to 



kmile, or die to bugh loudly snd long, and with twtstingt of the face ;* as h tbc case also 
with Sw. D. Jla%, fiima and fiira : while ^ire is * lo smile (smidtke), or laugh sUly. as wh«i 
one is inclined to ridiaile or make a jest of another.' Molb. also quotes from Ihte, 
' E.Gothl.^f'ra* indicai riium pctulaniem ;' and N. jfira comes under the same rtnurk, and 
lliuB all these words exactly correspond to our Aire. Sec FUoker, 

FUrtigigs, sb. A giddy or flighty damsel. 

Flisk, sb. A slight blow or tap, as a fillip with the finger. 

Comp. jlick, fi\p^ JiUip, • FVuk^ to flick with a whip, to ikip or bounce. Hal. Tick, 
fiik^ flick ^fiiiky all represent the sound of a cut with a iwitch or the like; then rapid move- 
ment to and fro.' Wedgw. Cf. Sw. D. ^ftsAd, to btutle about, a derivative fmajltota, to 
6ow, to fleet 

Flit, V. a. I. To remove one's goods, household furniture, and gear 

generally, in the process of removing from one tenement or residence 
to another, a. To aid a person in such removal, by conve)'ing or help- 
ing to convey Ijis goods, Ac. 3. To remove, as tenants or occupants 
of a house or farm, &c., do. 

0. N. flytia^ vehere ; S. G. flytta, flyttja, transportarc ab tino loco In altcrum ; nevtr. 
positnni notat niigrare. Ihre ; V>^\\. ftytU, a. and n. ; Sw. flytta, a. and n. I look upon this 
vb. as essentially an active verb : as. comiitently with its O. N. derivation, it should be. Cf. 
Pr.Pm. ' Flyttin; amoveo, transfeto.' It seems almost always to imply the removal of 
something; e.g. of the out-going tenant's moveaWc property. Thus, a tramp, who is 
constantly on Uic move pcrionally, is never said to flit from one place to another; nor a 
* navvy.* who goes from one railway, &c^ to another in search of work. U, however, the 
employer were lo remove the narviea from one part of the work to another^ he would be 
spoken of as fllttizis them. Tme, the farmer or other tenant, who goes from one farm 
or residence to another, is spoken of as fiittins, as * thruiig wi' flitting* {IVb. G/.) ; but 
then ii Mmething beyond personal removing always implied, as there is in — 

* Dut, or thay (the children of lsrael)^y// oght far us fro. 
We shall them bond twyse as fast* Toufiul. MyU. p. 6a. 

As to sach instances as — 

* God gaf Lucifer most lightnes, 
Yit prowdly hcflyt his dcs 

And set hym even hym by,' Ih. ao, 
where the sb. d<M ( = Lat. grttdut, and thence grade, rank) is clearly the obj, case after the 
^t^Jtjt; and 

* For )»e fiite (of the cross) Hy made a pit* 

Ffor no man sold it ^)>in/iV;' Hari. MS, fol. 83, — 
there can be no room for doubt. 

1. * Aye. thomniflUttd hi» stock and graithing, an* his family an' a', a week syne.* 

3. *** Whose goods are those?" (to a man driving a waggon-load of furniture, &c.). 
•• Wheea, they 's Mile* Dale's. We '% flitting him fra' t' Deeal Hecad l* Staiiglio'." ' 

3. • " Weel. ye' re flitting then f The reply came from Hob oat of the chum : — " Ay, 
we'i fluttiog."* Phillips' yorhshirt, p. 3 11. Tlie author notices ihc * play on the 
vowel ;' anil Fgilss. remarks that the Western Icclaiiden sound tlie verb flulija. I*ro- 
fcasor Phillips docs not. however, give the rejoinder as I have beard it: — ' Wocl, an ibou's 
ganning teea. Ah 'II just awa* back agen.' 



Flit, flitting, sb. 1. A removal from one place of residence to 

another. 2. A flight, 9, runaway or clandestine departure, 

I. * Futhcr «ayi \' fiiuing 's to be Saturday 6rst, an' he wad like to ha'e yonr draoghi.' 
a. * Didst hear stoat Willy 'd mud a moonlight ^il it it? He 's sloped for seear.* 

Flit-fold, sb. A moveable sheep-fold, capable of use wherever it may 
L>e wanted. 

Flite, flyte, v. n. To scold, or engage in a quarrel of words. 

A. S. fiitan^ to strive, coateod, dispute, quarreL Pr. Pm. • Flyiin, or chydin. Cwk 

* Stynst of J>y ilrot and (jcnc Xoflyt* 

Sc scch hys blybc lul swcftc aiid swyhc.* 

B. Eng. AWt. Potmi, A. 35 J. 

* Thar thoo nowthcr^yW nc chydc. 

If thou tend rightc thou gettes thi mede.' Totimel, MysL p. 14. 

Fllto, filter, sb. A scold, a scolding or abusive person. ' 
Flithers, sb. The common limpets. 

1 look upoii tins a$ simply the CIcvd. pronunciation, with tb hard (fiX q( flitter — comp. 
Dowther for daughter, dither fur didder, dother for dudder. &c. — and flitter to be radi- 
cally the lame word as Dan. flitter, Germ, flitter, spangles, small scales of metal; and I am 
inclined to connea these words with O-h-flisja, to ilice off, ukc flat pieces off; U.flita; 
V^a.fliie, to split pieces off; Sw. D.flita, to shave or slice thin pieces or scales off. Kictz 
give* fli/lja. to cut chips off with a hatchet, and also as a sb., the chips so cut off; and 
refers the word to O. l^.flysja or fliija, just quoted, ' by a transition of the s into /,' (bvarviJ 
s o/vergHtt till t'). On thi* ground. FUthers ( ^fliiten) implies objects that can be sepa- 
rated, in the form or fashion, so to speak, of spangles or scales, from the places or matters 
on which they are found ; which is simply true of the limpet. 

Flither-girls, sb. The women, usually the daughters and other 
female connections of the fishermen, who collect the Plithora to serve 
as bait; often walking considerable distances for the purpose, and 
bringing back their spoils in baskets poised on their heads : while alike 
by their distinct pecuHarities of physiqttt^ and their costume, they seem 
to be marked out as a class apart — perhaps even, as almost a race 

Tlitter-mouse, sb. The bat or rere-mousc : (genus Vcspcrtilio). See 

Sw.fliuiarfnns; Gcxm. flf<ter-mav$, 

A name derived from tlie motion of the creature*! wings and its mouse-like body. Comp. 
O. N. flagt/r-mus, Dan. flagtr-muus ; flagre, to flutter. Boili tliese names, as well as 
Flitter -mouae, are as nearly synonymous as possible with rerc-mouse. which comes from 
A. S. breran, to agitate, move rapidly, and muj, a mouse. 

Flobbed, flobby, adj. Puffed up, turgid, i. As the l>ody is in cases 



of dropsy; 2. In manner or bearing; with conceit, nanicly, or self-appro- 

Probably a co-deriirativt with, or altered ixom, fiab, Jiabby, and its mdk also derived from 
the usual sense of that word. It is noticeable that Sw. D. ftahUgwr has a secondary mean- 
ing very like our Kcond sense; viz. '^ven to boastful or unseemly talking;* ar>d Dan. D. 
JIabnr comes imdcr nearly the same dehnition. 

■ *' She was not fat, butyfo66*rf up ;" of a dropsical person/ Wh. Gl. 

FlOBS-docken, flous-dooken, sb. The plant fox-glove (Digitah's 
purpurea). Also Fox-docken. 

Irish Celt, luss-nthor, literally great herb ; the name of the fox-glove or fairy-fiagcf . Fie- 
tioni 0/ th* Irish Ctlts, p. 93. The Welsh equiralait of luss is //y«; and just as Lltwdlyn 
in Shalcspcre becomes Fluellen : Uydd, Floyd, in E. attempts to enunciate Welsh 17. so Ittu 
or Uf% bccomcf Jlout, The word preseuts a curious instance, one of many such, of the 
retention and cotnpotition of a name long after its true meaning has been loil sight of. 

FloBS-Boave, sb. The plant cotton-grass : (genus Eriophorum). 
Flourish, sb. The blossom on fruil-irees. 

Cf. O. \i.fiur^ flowers, blossoms, blooms; jiuradr, abounding in 6owefS or bloom. 
Conip. the use of the word as a vb. :— 

* then Phcebus full falre ; ftouriahid out hit beames 
with Leanies full light,* Percy's ^o/. MS. i. p. J27. 

Flowter, adj. Excited, nervous; shewing signs of mental disturb- 

Brocks Lttd* Gl., and Cr. Gl., all give flautirrtd in nearly the uune sense; and the 
Utter also gives jf outer as a noun, with the sense of ' a fright * See Wl&vrter or Flowtar. 
Also comp. Sw. D. flojta, tu move alxmt witliuut any dcAnitc pur]K>se ; Jlojttt, a light, vain, 
frivolous, co<]uettish. or unsteady female; together with its corresponding %A]., Jlojud: 
Syuiisjtdutt, a coquettish girl, if not really worse. 

Flowtorment, sb. Loud and eager talking, such as would be heard 
from a person in a state of excitement 

Flowtersoxne, adj. Excitable, flighty, frolicsome or skittish. 

Fluffod, fluffed-up, adj. Flighty, conceited, tumid in manner. 

Eithci frum fi^tff ox fiut, fine or dowuy feathers, down, downy 01 cobeieot particles of 
worn woftUen material or the like ; or, more directly, from O. S.Jtiuga, to Ay, or some of its 
ScandinaTiau congeners. The sequence is not difficult in the former case; viz. from dowm 
ot fiuffxo »n object covered with either — a young bird, to wit — whidi looks f^ffy or pufftd- 
^P: thence, by metonvniy, to tumtd in manner, and ihctKC to conceited. But just a< 
^igbfy^ hoth in sense and form, is dcttved from A~ S. Jteogan, so fluffy or flufflMl, alike 
io sense and in form, may ipring from the other source itidicatcd. The Dan. equivalent to 
O. N. jijvga is ftyve, where the / of our word is fully rcpiesented, Comp. Dan, plov from 
O. N. ptogt and Clcvel. pleofT; while Sw. D. funiiih Jfwsrt* (pret.yfouv. sup. jiuvi), and^w, 

>ilvtiv, flugi) ; bes dcs traiuttionary fornt^ illu^rrated by ilic iiti[)cif. of O. Sw. Jtiuga ; vis. 
bgh {^\A.jiughu). Thus flnJfy would be a Northumbr. ecjuiralcnt to H.jOgl^. 




FluflEy, adj. Covered with down, or downy feathers. 

From _;? N^ = ^u#. Wcdgw. quotes Welsh Hvwch, motes, flving dust, or the like, and 
adds a Utile further on, * ruiidaniaitally the «iiip wiili A.S. Jiengtm, P\.V>.^egen, \o fly, 
ythencc Jfog.^olc^ whatever is light and flies in the air. I.anca^ire floair, v/ate cotton. 
Probably Welsh ^tt, pluf, feathers, dowii ; Bav.yl/wn, to float, or move to and fro tn the 
air; dieJ{atti,jlaw€n,J!ai%em,c\MJS that flies away in winnowing com. floe, or light duft 
that KtiJes on clothes, may be a parallel formaiion.' 

Fluked, fluky, adj. 

Maggot-eaten, eaten into holes by maggots or 

FliUces, sb. Properly the creature — animalcule or larva— found espe- 
cially in the liver of diseased sheep. Applied also to the large maggots, 
or gendes, found in dead animals, the larvas of the Flesli-flieB. Other- 
wise spelt, Flooks^ Fleuks. 

• The lirer of rotten ihcep always contains the well-known animal the jiulct, so named 
from its striking resemblance to a flounder.* £ooA oftbt Farm, li. 387. A. S. Jioc,jlooCn a 
Rat-fish, plaice, sole. 

Flumpy, adj. Short and fat ; squat. 

Probably coincident with lumpy, etuinpy. Comp. N. lump^ a block, a thick piece, with 
Dan. ilvmp, a lamp ; O. N. Uumpr, klumbr; Sw. ktump. 

Fluahy-faoed, adj. Rubicund, carr>'ing a high colour. 

* A person looks Jftssbtd, or fiuihtd in tb« fact when he has a flow of blood to the face.' 
Wedgw. Dan. D. Jtuu, to flow or stream forth in volume and force ; hlodtt fiu%tr ud a/ 
taarrt: the blood streams or flushes forth from the wonnd. Wedgw. alio alleges Dot. 
fiuyun; H.jluU, abundantly, and^us, liberal, open-handed. 

Fluster, flusterment, sb. i. A slate of excitement and consequent 
heal. 2. A determination of heal to the skin, in whatever form, red- 
ness, spots, perspiration, &c. 3. A puBing, high-flown advertisement. 

Rich. looks upon this word a» *a corruption oi Jlusb;* and Wedgw. as 'closely allied 
with Uusttr.* 

Flying-eagle, sb. A paper kite, the boys* toy so called. 

Comp. Dan. papirs-dragt, Sw. pappfrt-drakt, 

Poal-foot, sb. The plant coll's-foot (Tussiiago far/ara). 

Sw. D. /6laf(-tter; Dan. foiUfod: these words being supplemented, at it would appear, 
by the further names biuibof, htiiehov, respectively. Ci. K. coltf/ool. 

Fod, sb. A bundle of straw lied up after thrashing for foddering 
purposes only. 

This is, no doubt, Halliwcll'i /aif. The sound is that of our ho*d fur bold, fo'd fin />Jd. 
where the aound of the vowcJ as in the E. words is nearly preserved, though shortened 
in Pr. 

O C 



I. Smelling of damp or mouldiness; musty. 

Fog. sb. The aftergrowth in meadows when the hay has been cut 
and removed. 

VTthh/wg. Sec P«g. 

Foist, foisty, adj. 
2. Damp and mouldy. 

* To foist, fnU,Jizz2t, arc all nnginally to break wind in a noiselcM manner; .... Ocmi. 
fat, ■ fcnst ; DuL vent, vijU, flatus veotris. The orif^n ti plainly an imitation of the noitc. 
O. U./ita, to blow, al»o to break wind. Foitty, fiaty having a cloie, disagreeable fnicU.* 
Wedgw. AddSw. D./«,- U.S. fast; Bav./ru/; the verbs being, Sw.D.fati,faisa,faJatt; 
U. S- Jysien, fastin ; Lai. vusiW ; Gr. ^vcray. 

Fold-garth, sb. (pr. f*>d-garth). The farm-yard ; the enclosure pro- 
perly so called : otherwise, Fold-yard. 

Folk, sb. People, persons : a word in perpetual use, and very con- 
stantly as qualified by some prefix ; e. g. Houae-foUc, the people of the 
house ; Poot-folk, the people walking, or on fool, &c. 

O.N.^*; Dan. and Sw. /?/*,• A.S.falc: Germ, vol k. See. With SI. /w/i. pwrt. a troop, 
comp. O.N._fylki. The Scand. word is met with in intilliludcs of imtancct entirely IM- 
logout to the compounds noticed above: — Sw. foijoli. Dun. fad-failft infantry; Sw. ywii- 
/6llt=thc Antiquary's 'woman-kind;* Dio. gtandr/oUi ; ajftefotlit iiiarticd people; btttfolk. 
cavalry. 6cc. 

' Foli says' 

' fAxiiXfolki' or, • maist o' fdh' 

* Ff^ki is fit to say so and so ;* are already beginning to * talk/ and wcU dispoccd to * talk' 

* A deal o'faU hasn't gettcn their hay yet.* 

Fond, adj. Simple, in the sense of half-siDy ; foolish, weak, doating. 

O. N. /iiHt, S. G, fSfUj Sw. T^n*. Sw. D. /ant, a half-witted person, a fool. Wedgw. 
quotes GxcL/aoin, vain, foolish, idle; Lat. vtuius. Comp. Sw. D. fanta, to play the fool, 
with its variations, Jjanta, JJatuas^ and O. N. ftifia. Germ. D. /anzein. In Sw. D. /arUr, 
fjnHte,fjant<r,J}onii Din. /ante, a fool, or simpleton ; and Sw. D. f}»ntg, Jjantig, /}aHtwd, 
fjuHttd, fjynttd, Oaii./jantet, — wc have very close approaches to our fond, wliich, it may 
be, is really a participle. Wedgw. quotes 

* thou shall begin lo/ovu 
And dole in love,' 

from Chaucer: ^aAfottnyd is met with in WtcklifTc's BAt«: while 

• Herk, syn. yefan,' Toumti. MyH. p. 94 ; 
and * Soyn shalle we fan hym,' 76. p. 199, 

give ns the vb.. both as a, and n. See Bofoonded. 

Fond-cruke, sb. A crotchet, foolish whim, piece of absurdity. 

Fond-hoit, sb. An exceedingly foolish person, a fool twice ovec 
See Hoit. 

Fondnesa, sb. Folly, foolish or silly conduct or behaviour. 



Pond-plough, sb. Part of the procession which used to accompany 
the Sword-Dance performers. See Plough-stota. 

Pond-talk, sb. Spoken absurdities, foolish discoorsc. 

Pondy, sb. A fool, a simpleton, an idiot. 

Coinp, Sw.D. Jjanfig, /janitd, ^antg, /}untig, foolish, fond; and Sw.D, foHt*, J/amtf, 
,£oHtt Duu/anU, — all with the exact sense of our word. Note aUo — 

' Maria. Thus longc, where hare yc lent ? 
Jostpbe. Ccrtcs, walkyd aboute. lykc %fan^ 
That wrangwysley hase taken apon ; 

I wyst never what I menl.' Townd. MyU. p. 80. 

Foot-ale, footing, sb. An entertainment, or its equivalent in raone)', 
given by a person — workman or other — to his companions on entering 
upon a new place or employment, &c. 

Foot-falling, sb. Parturition, childbirth; the act, rather than the 
season, simply. 

Comp. ' Footing-dnu, the time when a lying-in woman gels up. Nor/. * Hall. Sw, D. 
has the same combination in the foTm of an idl.^o/fallen or Jbifiiit^n, applied to a per- 
son who is Umc and scarce able to move, or almost dtprivrd of the use of his feet by some 
other agency, as that of drunkenncsi. Thac is a cIok analogy, and our term wants some 
such analogy to explain it. 

Footings, sb. The first layer of rough or unsquared stones laid in 
the foimdation of a wall, on which is placed the first course of the actual 

Footy, faty, adj. Damp; with a bad smell such as follows firoxn 
being long damp. 

Vt-n./ugtig: Sw.Jvktig; A.S./itbt: }i.S. fycht, fvcbiig : Qtrm. /euehK dunp. decay* 
ing; fugtig luft, a damp or footy smell. Molb. Comp. Sw. D, fuhty fdk, O. N. fugl* fubit 
a smell, a stench : O, Qctm. fuhtjan, to give out a damp or bad smell. 

FooEo, fose, V. a. To clip the projecting ends of wool on the fleece 
of a sheep so as to make it even all over. 

The etymology of this word is probably the same as of /rou, to unravel, untwist, render 
fi*7zy or foxy. See Brock. Comp. Germ, faun, f<a*m^ to fuax, feaze, unravel ; and 
ftu. fixs, a fringe. The idea is snflicienfcly obvious. The orthography, however, is rather 
doubtful. Wh. Gt. gives It as /oo<iz ; and in the Clevel, Version of the Song of SolomoH 
occurs the expression, ' Yows at *s wccUfhoazid.' Wedgw., however, gives a totally dif- 
ferent form and fundamental sense ; viz. * Fora, to clip or shear. Forcyn, or clyppyn, 
toudeo. Pr. Pm. To f>rct wool, lo cut off the upper or most hairy part of it. B. Fr. 
farar dt la laine, lo pick or tease wool;' which, however, is a thoroughly diflcrent 

Forboden, p. p. of Forbid. 

* And in |'is commandeniait a/orbodetu vs alkjrnc mytbelenei and all CMwrncUycs, &c,* 
iW. Pkca, p. 5. 

c c a 



Foro-onont, fore-anenst, prep, 
of. See Anenst. 

Over against^ opposite to, in from 

Forby, prep, and adv. Resides, over-and-above, moreover. 

Dan. /orbi (prep, and aJv.) ; Sw. /orbi (prep.) ; Gcrni. vorb*i, pail, besides, ovcr-4iid- 

* 1^ ffTtt fyue )>at I finde hat he fick vsed 
Wat? fraunchysc, & fclajschjrp/eir-fii al \>yng.* 

Qaw. tmd Gr. Kn. 651. 
' Forhi a' that. Ah *vc aiiithcr thing agen 'tin.' 

Fore-eldors, &b. Ancestors or forefathers. 

Dmi. /oraldrtt Sw. fordldrar, parents. Molbech*f definition ii — ' Only in the pi. : the 
father and mother of a child when both are spoken of coinddently :' thtu, * hurt tar mistti 
htggt tint fvraidrt '* she has lo&t both her parents. O. N. fortUdrar has the same Uoiita* 
tion of sense; hut JbreHdri takes betides the seiue 'forefathers' or 'ancestors;* while 
Ihre alleges that majorts is the proper signification of S. G. furiildrar^ observing that the 
distinction i* clearly made by Sturlcson. In O. Dan. also the meaning is clearly ' ancestors' 
or ' forefathers;' thus, — ' arffi/cgodz oe loswrt, torn band bnjfdt tnttn arffuit tfthtr fadtr 
tlitr rnoder, brodtr, tiler tptbtr nogen bant foraldrt :' heritage and moveables which he haft 
derived from cither Taihcr or mother, brother or any one hii fore-cider ; where the same 
distinction that Ihre adverts to is obviously made. Another instance tjuoted by Molb. 
(DoH^ Gl.) f^yct foralderex gtmingbtr in the full sense which 'ancestral deeds* would 

' They *ve coomed o* quality /ir#-«/</*ri.' Wh. Gl. 

* Ah dcan't want to be wiser an m»hfoori^ldtr*. What did for ihey, 'O de« for me.* 

Fore-end, sb. The commencing part; that which comes near the 
beginning of a season or epoch. 

Cf. Dan. /orendt, the foremost part of a thing; antith. 10 bagiudt. Molb. Sec 

• The /ore-fnd of the year; spring.' WJ. GL 
' He framed wccK a' \.' Jbor-end o t' tahm.' 

Foreign, To gan. To go to foreign parts, to emigrate. 

Forkin-robin, sb. The common eanvig {Forficula aurictilaris). See 

Forks, sb. The centres in the timber-work of the roof of a shed, 
house, or other building ; commonly, * a pair of forke.' 

' The Fr. Jourtbtt, Jorcbti, Jortn were applied to different kinds of forked structures, as 
a galkiws. a piir of shears. For the same reason wc call sbean ihc tall gallows UKd for 
nu*ting ships.* Wc\lgw. in v. Forct. 

Forwoden, adj. In a wasted or desolate condition, whether by the 
presence and ravages of vermin, or by the consequences of simple 

O. Dan. /or*i/>. to waste, ravage, bring to iidii, or lay deaokte: — Amm tdl notri Umd 
/onda: he will uur land lay waste ; O. fi./ortyda. The simple word Is O. N. odla, eyda. 



3w. oda, Dan. mdi, to wute, connunc. ipend. A. S. forwyrd, destruction, is derired from 

_^inii*or\Hm, to become nothing, to perish, to die ; an ottcrlv difTcrcnt word in coot and 

* •* They arc lost an' fontfodtn V muck ;" dirty and diwrdcrly in the extreme.' Wh. GL 

' Fzit\y /bnooden wi' rats.' lb. 

Foss, force, sb. A waterfall or cascade. 

O. N. fnrs, /on ; Sw. /ors ; Dan. /os ; N. /mj ; Sw, D. JtM. The word exists with us 
in many local narocs, as weU as in local laagnage ; e. g. Thonusson*i Jba, FalUng^/bu, &c 
See Spout. 

Foul-flngered^ adj. Of thievish propensities, and given to indulge 

Foulmaxt, sb. (pr. fou'mmart or fummart). The pole-cat (Afusida 

' Properly the becch-nurtm, but commonly applied to the polecat. Fr. fouine, the 
foinc, wood-marten, or bcech-martcn ; /wft#, the foine. or polecat. Cot. From /««, /oiiu 
(LiX, fagina), bccchmast. Wall./auv, beech ; fttwine, the beech-niartcn. The K./oumart 
is a compoond of ft. fouine and marttt or marten, but the meaning of the former element 
being lost in E., the instinctive striving after meaning converted it into fulnurd, fulimart^ 
when applied to the strong-ui idling polecat, as if the name were taken from the /quI 
smell of the animal.' Wcdgw. Mr. Bell refers to the nin\e$ foumart, fulmart. fulimeri^ 
* as contractioiu o( foul marten, a name given it (the polecat) in contradistinction to the 
sweet nmrten' The existence of the name sweet marten, no less than the distinction for- 
merly made between ' beasts of sweet flight' and • beasts of stinking Jligbt, in which second 
class are placed the fulimort, ihv fiuhat ox fiteb, &c/ (Strutt, quoted by Jam.), and inric- 
pcndcnily of the old orthography, leads one to tliink that possibly the blunder of con- 
foanding the polecat with the beech-marten may not in reality have been made. Certainly 
a confusion of names exists. Sec Man. Voeab. p. 28J, and note to Pr. Pm., Fulmare. 

Pout, fowt, sb. A fool, a stupid lout. 
O. H.fauti, fatuus homo ; fautalegr, fatuus, insulsus. 

Pout, fowt, sb. A petted or over-indulged child j a mamma's 

The Lat. definition of Pr. Pm. Cocknay — which ' appean to hnply sun[^y a child spoiled 
by too much indulgence' (Note) — is corifotus, cueunellui, fotus; and the Lat. word twice 
employed in tlie definition surely gives the origin of Fout. 

Pouty, adj. r. Poor, mean, unseemly. 2. Hence (as applied speci- 
fically to an article of dress) misfitting, ili-made, awkward to wear or 
look at. 

Sw. fittiig, mean, paltry, of no moment or weight. miKrabIc, in quality or properties, 
namely. Prov. iormi, fatted, f6te,f6u. 

Pox-dooken, sb. The plant fox-glove {Digiiah's purpurea). See 
Floss -docken. 

Pra, ftav, prep. From. 

O.N./r.i. Dan./rrt; A. S., O. acim., and M.G.>a; JutU /rn.yrd; N. and SxU.yrd.- 
O, Dan.y^wi; S. O.yW; Sw. M.fra. * A with a stroke over it, as d. is sounded like av 



or ail ; c g. Jrd (irotn) read Jrav^ tap (pith, strength) tmip' Kuk'i led. Gr. by Dafcnl, 

p. 6. And still, before a rowel, it is usually sounded ^ov; berore a cofa.Jra$i orjVa, 

• " What's o' clock?" •' Fra yau tiv hau'f cfter." ' 

* Ah liiowght Ah suddn't ha gciten \Jrav 'im.* 

' Scheldt mtfra he fyie of hcUc.' Rd. PUas, p. 76. 

Pra'-by, frebby, adv. Beyond, above, in comparison with. 

O. T>3n. /rtmbi, in Jutl.^rtmW; 'a prcp.,' *ay» Molb., 'sometimes heard in lieu ot/orbi;' 
and in <uch senses as to ride, or drive, or sail past or beyoud one ; to pass one by, in the 
way of neglect ; and so forth. Wb. Gl, writes iifnMy oxfromb^, the latter form invoWiug 
a mistake. 

' This is gooAfrAby that.' Wb, Gl. 

Forward, bold; the boldness having rather a spice of 

Frack, adj. 
insolence in it. 

O. li,/reeh; energetic ; comp. fraJkinn, strenuus, fortis. See also S. Q./rak, 1. tumidua, 
insolcns; 3. alacer, itrenuui ; Sw. D. /rak, JraJkk, vigorous, actlTe, strong, bold; N. /rat, 
/r<ei, doughty, energetic; O. Ozn.Jrab, bold, iraliant. actire; Dxn.Jrak: Dan. D. frakktSt 
frag, /rag; Sv/ii% Jrtcb, fresh, souod, Tigoroua; O. Ocnn.yre^; M. Ocrm. irec^; Scot 
/rak, frttk. 

Frag, V. a. To stow closely so as to fill ; to cram, or fill to fulness. 

Cf. ^. frtigU^ frnugbt ; Qcrm.Jracbt; Dia.fretgt; Sw. frait. May i\o\ fraught point 
to a lost vb., except our word should be a sunririag form ? I meet with It only in Wh. Gl. 
Molb. seems to regard fragt, freight, as of Germ, origin, or. at least, introduction. Rietx, 
bo«'crcr. gives Jrakta tig. to be well off, well provided, in need of uothing: and frahthiji^ 
well provided, having well eaten, gotten enough, as I'rov. Sw. ; and firag corresponds closely 
in asagc. Sec Wcdgw. under Fnigbt, for derivatioo. 

* A iuM-Jrngg'd house.' IVh. Gl 

' •* Ah *s gctteii ma' kite vtcel/raggidi*' li»vc enjoyed a lull meal ; got a belly-full.* /*. 

FramatioD, sb. Facility or power of contriving ; skill or readi- 
mess of management ; handiness in planning and commencing any 
work, &C. 

* Wheea, he '5 nae framation wiv 'im ;' of a clergyman who certainly had not the knack 
of conciliating his parishioners. 

* There wur nae framation 'bout t' job ;' of a mainfcst lack of arrangement for duly 
entertaining the customary large gathering of fricods and ndghboun at a BurlaL 

Frame, v. n. To set to work upon or begin anything, in the way 
or work or occupation ; lo apply oneself in the way of essay or attempt ; 
to try one's * 'prentice-hand.' 

* Tofram*. To contrive, to effect " And he said Sibboleth, for he could oot franu to 
pronounce it right.'* Judges xii. 6. A. S. ^mtffUM. to fonn, make, effect. frtmia^ 
lo bring to pi&i, from yVtimm, Dan.^wn, forth, forwards.* Wcdgw. To this may be added 
S^.V. Jrdma, to execute, accomplish, disdiarge; of an ernnd, niistion, intent; O. Sw, 



frtrmja^ promovcrc; Dan./r*nim*, to forward, pnl in the way of being done, be the ciuse 
of a deed or action going forward ; A. $. freminn, fremman ; O. Germ, vremjan. 

' •* Well, how's that colt o' yours likely lo turn out?" " Whccal \framn wcil." ' 

' iuoh \>^ mai tuggcn : Enough he may say 
{m SO0 wiilc urtinrtUH.' That sooth will frame. 
Lay. ii. 543. 

The new servant *franu% well/ when appearing likely to fill her place well ; the appren- 
tice to a trade ^frama well,' or ' ill,' as the case may be, and $0 on. 

Pratch, V. n. To squabble angrily, qtiarrel, chide ^vith anoiher. 

Pr. Pm. ' ^flwiyw, as net] cartys.' * FnaU^frtiMre' Man, Vocab.C.IXl. 
to be derived frotn A. 5. frco0an./ntiir#.' Note to Pr. Pm. 

It seemi 

Fraunge, v. n. To indulge a frolicsome turn; to be 'up to any lark/ 

Cr.Ol. givn '/raunge, to fling, lo wince;' and also the noun in our sense, 'a frolic' 
Hall. <]uotcs /rangy, as a Line, word, meaning ' irritable, passionate, ill-tcmpcred. fretful.* 
Cotnp. \%\. frenjuUgr, procax; impudent, indecent, aadadous or insolent. Sec Wedgw. 
Framy, Frangy. 

Fraunge, sb. A frolic or freak ; the being engaged in ' a lark.' 

Free, v. a. To take off grazing-stock from the meadow-land in the 
spring, so as to give the grass liberty or freedom to grow against ihe 
coming hay-time. 

Freeholder, sb. A yeoman ; an owner of landed property, and 
farming it himself: a term antithetical to 'tenant,' and equivalent to 
' statesman* in the western part of the county. 

Frem, ftremmed, adj. Strange, unknown, unfamiliar. 

0. N. frmnandi ; O. Sw, JrvttnttuU, /rtxmette, JrhnuiU, frijmandt ; N. frantrnd; Sw. 
frammamit; D xa. Jremnud or /remmet : Sw.D. frammad, /rammed, friimmad (ihc btlcr 
word apjilitd precisely as our Eiig. ' little itranger' is) ; O. Gtmw. /ramadi,/ramidi,/r*mtdet 
/rtmid; K.^/remd,/rantd,/remed; Vut. /remmit. vrentttud. 

' The one was a near neighbour, the other nobbui i/rtm body.' Wb. GL 

Fresh, sb. i. The additional or new water in a stream which has 
become swollen after rain in the district it drains, 2. The swelling of 
the stream itself; a flood. 

Fresh, adj. i. In good health, in good condition and spirits; ready 
for exertion or work ; caji^cr, in that sense : applied to both man and 
animal. 2, In good condition, in the butcher's sense, fat, or approach- 
ing the state of fatness, 

1. • He's a d«per*t^*sA man, ov *is age.' 

' T* au'd meear 's 'i/i'ab as ivver : she 's good for a vast 0' wark yet.' 
>. ' Thac tKcas^ abootyi-n^; they done wccl sen they wur shifted lotiv tAnglands 



Presh-wold, sb. (pr. fresh-wo'd or -wood). A threshold, of wood or 
stone ; the flat stone that covers the ground in the Door-atead of a 
cowhouse, stable, or other like building. 

Conuptcd from tbrtibwoid: cf./uruu ihijsiy, Hab. ; a-/vrst, P. PI. pp. 176, 383; ind, 
for the convdjc change, tbro, from, Waitt/itid Qt. ; through, in Halt. A. S. Jw-sc-o/rf, 
^trw-toaldy ^torte- or ^yrsc-ioolJ, &c. Comp. rode-woid, Gtn. and Ex, p. 8, and arcbt-woid^ 
lb. pp. 17, 18. Both Mr. Wedgw. and Mr. Morris look upon tiic latier clement in the word 
ti A. S. weald, wUd: M. D. woid, wood; and the fomier remarks, with respect to the first 
syllable, * how much the idca« of threshing and treading ire mixed up together ; and indeed 
the primiiive mode of threshing was treading out by cattle. Bav. dreicbertt to tnmp.* 

Fridge, v. a. To rub up or chafe ; as when the skin is abraded by 
friction, or excoriated. 

Comp. Lat.^Vo, the sense passing from robbing or chafing to its effects. Rich, quotes 
from Skinner. * to/ridg* or /rig about, from A. S./rican to dance,* adding that ' it is from 
ll./regart, hzX. /ricare^ to rub.' His examples arc — ' Tlie little motes or atoms that fridg* 
and play in the beams of the sun ;* and, • The meet Jiridging up and down of the part* nf 
an extended substance changing their place and distance.' Cudwonh, Our vb.. however, is 
always active ;— ' Fridgt, to fray, to wear away by rubbing,* Can ; 'fridgt, to nib, to fray,' 
Hail. ; 'Jridgidt chafed, excoriated as the skin is.* Wh. Gl. 
Cf. * The bore his taylc wrigges, 

His rump also hcfriggts 
Against the hye benche.* 

Skchon. quoted by O. Cockayne, Su. Marhertu, p.Ra. 
Note zUoJHg'^hitao. See Trasgan. 

Frightened, adj. Apprehensive, fearful of a possible contingency. 

• Ah'i/rau/i'd it 's ganiun t* ihoonncr.' 

• •• Have you enough ?** "Ah 'i/rtttn*d there 11 be a want." * 

Priazle, v. a. To toast (rathei than roast) bacon or meat before the 
fire, or over the coals. 

Under the word Fricassee, Mr. Wedjfw. says, * TT.Jriam€r, to fry. L»,U Jrigirt, frixiim^ 
(torn the hissing sound.' Sw. D. haTe/roisa, to cixik in butter, and thence, to hiss, as meat, 
when it is being so cooked, does : and /ra, the hissing noise made by the meal : with which 
latter word RicU collates O. S.frtn, a hissing or rustling sound. 

• « Cou'd yc cat owght. Willie?" " Ay. Ah thinks Ah cou'd dec wir a bit 0' /HxzUd 
mutton." • 

Frog-fty, sb. Toad-spawn. 

' Fry. Properly the spawn offish. Ft. /ray, spawn offish or frogs. Goth.,^w», seed; 
O. N.>io/,/r.V. seed, egg.' Wedgw. 

Frontetead, sb. The site on which a house stands, or has formerly 

Froat-hag, froet-harr, sb. See Hag, and Harr. 



Frowsy, adj. i . Of a sour or forbidding countenance ; ill-tempered 
looking. 3. Ill-tempered, cross, peevish. 

S^./ht; O.S. freyja; Dan. /n;*; Sw. D. /roa; O. Germ. /rrftwi, /routw; M Germ, 
wotrutf, vrnu; N. YrM.fmutu ; Dut. vrttuw, &c. Hall, uys o( Jrow ihal it is ' ttill in uie 
in the N. of Engl, fox a dirty wonun. a sUliein. a lusty woman :' and the idea of a forbidding- 
looking unt follows easily, and thence our adj. and its meaning:;. It may be observed that 
^frft*,frv,Jroto, like qvinde, kont, originally implied a title of honourable distinction. Coinji. 
£ng. qutan. Our Clevel. "Wean preserves more of tlie original sense of qvinde ox hnu, 
tmumuch as it means a wife* or a female generally, without derogatory implication. 

Froggan, sb, A curved iron scraper or rake to stir asbes in an oven 
with, or on the hearth. 

Wcdgw. says, ' As frip and yhVA are fotuid in the teiue of light movcmeat to and fro, 
fnA and Jrvg s«em to represent movement of a heavier nature. The last-named root, 
Jrug, in the sense of to rub, to wriggle to and fio, has many relatives in Eug. friggU, 
■igglt, &c. ;' to which add our Clcvd. Md^o.^to chafe, to mb: Pr. Eng.>r(^. =futuo, 
tytob^Hy identical vi'wh frigge, to wriggle; Hall. 'But it appears most distinctly in 
\x,frugart, to wriggle up and dawn, rub, burnish ; and with inversioo of the r, \\\ furtgare^ 
to fumble, grope for. to sweep an oven ; furigont, a greper, also an oven-sweeper. 
fr.fatirgoH. E. fruggtui, /ruggin, an ovcn-fnrk, by which fuel is put into an oven, and 
llined when it is in it. Cot.' it may be added that Hall, quotes the form furgon also, m 
an arch, fottn, from Tundale. The forms /rp^on./rog^m occur in Inv. Fincb. Priory. 

Fudge, fudgy, sb. 

A short, stout person ; one of squat or stumpy 

Comp. Padge, a. Also Sc. fodgtl, /w^itf Jam. 

Fudgoon, adj. Squat, short and stout. 

FuU, adv. Used intensilively, as in the expressions full sair, very 
sorely; ftill soon, very soon, much sooner than usual, &c. 

Comp. */uU deliuble/ Pricit o/Coruc.; */bt synfbl," 75^ &c. 

Fullock, V. a. and n. i. To project, in shootinpf a marble, with lite 
impetus of tlie hand as well as of the thumb— a trick which is not con- 
sidered *fair.' 2. To give way under a pull, so as to come home with 
suddenness and force. 

The fonn Jiilk is given by Hall., and h secfnt not unlikely that the word is due to ih© 

came radical form ktfiieh. Lttds Gl. states that oar word has come to designate any unfair 
action, and gives as an example, ' Thah 's noan bown to fullock it through me ;' impose on 
or overreach me. 

Fulth, sb. Repletion, satiety, utter fulness. 

• Tak' an' eat ycr/uitb on 'i.' m,. GL 

Comp. Drith from vb. dree, tilth from ////, btaltb from bttdt and the like. 

Fun', Pr. of p. p. of Find. 

• h'« on'y atwjim' out.' 



Purr, sb. (pr. furrh). A furrow. 

A.S. Jvr.Jvrb; T>2n.Jurt; Sm.Jara; Sw.D. Jar; O.N. and O.Sw./r; O.Geim.>br&, 

Fortherly, adj. (pr. fo'therly). Forward, early; of the season, pro- 
duce, ftc. 

A. S.7brC, forth, further* directly, forward; Jbr^€r,Jitr^ir, (brther, more forward. The 
simple addition of ly fomu oar adj. 

FaBome, fosum, adj. Handsome, of a good appearance, neat. Sec 
Viewly, Viewsome. 

FostiliLgs, sb. A fat, gross person, properly a female ; any person 
of unpleasant or forbidding aspect. 

Hall, cays, * A big-boned person ; a fat gross woman. Exmoor. ** A fitsdU^^ ot rank- 
smelling woman." Howell.* Fustilarian, he adds, is used by Shakq>ere as ' a cant term of 
contempt ; a fusty stinking fellow.' Prt^bly our word is of like origin. 

Fu2Z-baU, sb. The fungus, of a round or nearly spherical form, 
which, when mature, emits its spores in a cloud-like dust on pressure 
{Lycoperdon praiensCy bavista, &c.) 

Gab, sb. To speak v^nly, idly, falsely. 

Dan. D. gabe : a word used to express over-free or chattering talk, says Molb., ' and he 
who indulges in such propensity is called a gabtr^ or gabfiab* He also collates our present 
word, as well as Brockett's * Ga6. gabbing^ idle talk, prating.' Closely allied with O. Dan. 
gabbe, to mock, make a jest of; O. N. gabba, O. Sw. and Sw. D. gabba (and gabb, sb.) ; 
A. S. gabban. 

* Thomas. In alle youre skylles mote & les for misfownding fayUe ye. 
Might I se Jesus gost and fleshe gropyng shuld not gab me. 
Novenus Apostolus. Lefc Thomas, flyte no more but trow and tome tti red. 
Or els say us when and whore Crist gabbyd in any sted.' 

Towtul. Myst. pp. a88, 289. 

Under the word gabble, Wedgw. quotes, — 

* " Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud 
Among the builders : each to other calls. 
Not understood ; till hoarse and all in rage 
As mocked they storm." — Milton :' 

and well remarks that the passage * shows the natural transition from the notion of taUdog 
without meaning to that of mockery, with which the idea of delusion and lying is closely 



Gabber, v. n. To talk idly, to repeat long tales without much point 
or sense, 

Cooip. Dm. gabbtrtn, to joke, to trUlc; ?r. gabrr : Pr. Pm. * Gabbar or lyarc' Sec 
oolc, (A. 

Oabriol-ratchet, sb. (pr. Gaabrl-ratchet). A name for a yelping 
souiul heard at night, more or less resembling liie cry of hounds or 
yelping of dops, probably due to flocks of wild gccsc {Attsfr sfgeium) 
which chance to be flying by night, and taken as an omen or warning 
of approaching death to the hearer or some one connected with him. 
Odimjagi of S. Sweden. 

• Gabridl« rache, hit camalion* Catb. Angl. Pr. Pm. * Ratebi, howndc* The name, 
then, U one of great aniiquity. Conip. Dan. btlrnkker, a sound heard iu the air, very like 
ihe baying of hounds ; and, when heard, taken to prcsa^^r death and wasting, Thicte, Ovtr^ 
trrtUlt§ Mrtung. p. 164 1. Dan. D. rakhe is a hound-whelp large enough tu yelp or bay, 
from O. N. racki, a hound of a large-footed ^>ccies, Ihre giT" rncfca, a bitch, coIUting 
M. LaL racha, A. S. raeee, Sc. racbt^ N. Fr. raccbez^ and noticing the prefixed b which 
appean in O. E. bracbtt or brachete. Dispensing with the said 6, our CIcvcl form appears, 
met with aUo in Sir Gaw. ami Gr. Kn. \. 1603, other forms being racbe^, racbcb^, brachts, 
bracbr^. As to the origin of GabritUe, Gabriell ot Gnbrief, sec below. For long I surmised 
that it must be the name or ;i person, and as such lake rank with the hosts of other names 
attached to the Wild Huntsman legend, but involved in more obscurity than the most of thcni. 
Sec Grimm. D. M., Art. Wutendt^ Heer, for these name*. Scaod., Germ., Engl., and French. 
h should be observrd that there is another notion in Ctevcl, connected with the lenn 
Osbrlel-ratchet. This couples with the name the figure of a mysterious bird, with large 
glowing eya, hookrd beak, arid an awt'id shriek, which appears to, acconi panics, or is heard 
by the death-doomed. With this comp. O. Dan. htl-rahke, a bird with a large head, staring 
eyes, crooked beak, sharp claws, which in days of yore was believed to appear only as a 
harbingei of some great mortality {intod sior dttf), but then to Hy abroad by night and 
shriek alond {DanDt Gloss.) Other furtns of the name ate Gabriel-ralcbts, retchts, or 
rttchtt, and Gabriel -botitub (hounds being simply E. for rncbes, rakker, &c.). Mr. lien- 
detKui, Folklore of the N. Counties, states that the Leeds Gabhle-retcbet is held to be * the 
souls of unbaptiscd infants^ which are doomed restlessly to flit around their parents' abode;' 
adding that, • in Scotland, such unfortunates are sujTiosed to wander in woods and solitudes, 
lamenting thdr hard fate ;* and that in Devonsh. a notion prevails that * the souls of 
unbaptised babies wander in the air till the Judgment Day.* This is another bond of con- 
nection with the Wild Huntanuin legends. Sec Grimm. £). ^/. p. 871. And yet another 
appears in the tradition yet cnrrent in CIcve)., that the Oabriol-ratchet origioatci in the 
ill deed of a gentleman who once lived in the district, and who was so inordinately fond of 
the pleasures of the chase, and so jealons about the hounds who had miniUcred lo them, 
that, on his deathbed, he gave orders they shou^ all be killed and buried witli him, that no 
one else should benefit by them as he himself would be no longer able. See Grimm, 
p. 873. For the element gabriel, the entry in Pr. Pm. under * Lycbe, dedc body,' gives a 
clue for its derivation, and dispels the notion of its being a personal name. The entry in 
question is, * Fuhum^ gabares, C. K. tt VG.' — C F. and I'O. being abbreviations used by ihe 
compiler to indicate two older vocabularies, severally cited as ' Mirivslcnsts in canipo fluruiii,* 
and * Uguitio in majon volumjne' — 'in Gabriel dtcit gahttreu, vel gabbm-at.' Gnbaren nr 
gabbaren, then, would appear to have been convertible terms with Gabriel, as well as mere 
variati-ns in form cf gt^»wes, just before given as identical in meaning with 'funttSt' and 
*dede body.' Comp. * Gabbars, vel GabtMrcs. cadavcra apdd .£gyptios pollinctorum arte 

n d 3 



dcUbuta. arefacta, ct a comi^ticne immunia. mummiei.' Faeciotati Ltxicon. Hence 
Gahriellf-racht appean to be simply gabbarts racbe, E. corpft-hotmd. Comp. Ilelrakkt, 
rcniembering that the prefix Utl is i)uc to litla, the Scand. goddess of death, and place 
tide by tide with it the Dan. liighvalp, liigbund, with the uulogotu folk-lore notioiu con- 
nected with them. 

Gad, sb. X. A tapering rod or wand of some length. 2, A tapering 
rod, fitted with a leather thong, to serve as a whip in driving a team, 
oxen especially. 

Sw. and 5w. D. gadd: N. gadd; O. Dan. and Dan. D. gadd — all meaning anything 
pointed, a thom, a prick, the Jling of an insect; M. G. gavii O. H. Genu, gart; Gael. 
gatb. Mr. Wcdg^*ood'» remark is, ' The lou of the r in gnJ and goad (which differ only 
in tlie nwrc or less broad pronunciation ol" the rowel') conceals the fundamental identity of 
the word with Germ, gtr/t, E. yard. The primitive meaning is a rod or twitch.' M. Q. 
gazd. or whip or scourge, does not imply poinleduess, but A. S. gad, gad, goad, a point of 
a weapon, tpcar. or anow. a sting, prick, at well ai the Scand. ctyniunt, Kcm« disposed to 
ignore the idea of length in favour of that of acutcncss. O. E. gad; as in Pr. Pm. * Gad, or 
gode. GfTusa, Scutica ; Oad, to mete wythe lond. Dtctmptda, ptrtiea^' the contrary. 

Gae, V. n. To go. Used especially in the imperative, and often in 
the preU See Ctoed; and also Gan, which is in much more con- 
tinual use. 

Conip. Sw. gJi , 
•Goi, leukr 

Dan. goat ; Sw. U. ga, ganga, pr. gdr. 
Oa' "way wi* ye ;' get away with yon. 

Oaed, geed. Forms of the pret. of Gao. 

* My A'o'dt Bud he gtud sharp I' he went, or morcd. with great speed. 

Gag, V. a. I. To strain or wrench; a limb or joint, namely, a. To 
apply a very powerful bit, such as is used in breaking young horses or 
governing restive ones. See Gag-bit. 

Mr. Wedgwood refers E. gag to the inarticulate sounds * made by one endeavonrfaig to 
speak while »ulTertng from impediment i,* cither natural or doe 1o external violence. Tooke 
refers it to A.S. ceeggian, to thul fast, to lock ; thence to block up, ur confine, from speak- 
ing. Wclih cegiaw, to choke or strangle, froin ctg, geg, gag, the nioulh, an opening of 
CDtratKe. is, however, the immediate origin of the word. Pr. Pm. gives ' Gaggyn, to 
itrcyne by the throte. Sufftxo' I am very doublAil if our gag. tu strain, is at all con- 
nected with this. I am more inclined to think that it ti not ; but that it is rather dependent 
on the sense which standi second in the dctinition. In this sense, Dan. D. Itiixt^tl (properly 
kittPt-ofl, siys Molb., the strap which ts fastened below the |aw4ione in a bone's head* 
coUar) serves to connect ilie word with Pr. Pm. * KnU, or kevyl, for hors. liiordal*, 
camus* and with Manip. Vocab. ' Keu-lt, sb.. a biakc for a horse's monlh; v\*., oi ohumtrt.* 
Mr. Way. m bis note, suggests the connection with O. E. ebiwyl (sec ChAft. Ohap). and 
quotes from Jam., ' Knot, a baiter brauj:ht under the j»ws of an unniMiiagcablc horse, and 
passed through bis mouth.' Now Levins' sb. kewle, likr our Oftg-bit, supposes a strain 
upon, or wrench of, the hone's jaw or mouth : and it is pouibte the idea in out fint roeai>- 
ing is thence derived: perhaps nioic than pij»>iblc. LeeJ* Gl. and lUU. give ktah (|ir. 
kceiUc). * a sprain. A hor&c going up hilt with a heavy load is in danger of getting " a kdak 
in his back." ' Tliis word ia uo duult coincident with our gng, and repruUucei the Dan. 



iniiial k. In the Mtne connection comp. * Kfch, to make a noiie in the thioat by rea«m of 
difficulty of brcalhing:' Wcdgw., kik in Sw. kik-bmste, Sec, with E. gag, 
I . * Ah trod iv a low^e steean an* gagg'd ma fecat sair.* 

Gag-bit, sb. A bit of a very powerfuJ description, used for breaking 
horses, &c, 

Qai'n» Pr. of Gam or Gaim. 

Gain, adj. i. Direct, and, in that sense, short and near. 2. Near 
at hand, and so, handy, convenient. 

0. N. gtgn, over agatmt ; O. Sw. gen : Sw. D. gfijn, direct, ' In our medijcval tongue,' 
lays Rietz. * we have many compound wgids due tu O. Sw. ^en, which do uui at this day 
occur in our standtrd language, nor arc met with in the dialects.' In Cleveland wc keep 
two or three of these compounds. See QoiQ-hand, Oaln-way. 

1. ' We'll gau the gaintst way-' 

' This road 'a a vast gaintr than the other.' Wh. Gl. 
a. ' Ay. iti gay and gain for t' ouxket.' 

Gain-hand, adj. Near, easily reached, convenient. 

The sufiix. band, is not nncommon in Dcvel. Comp. Nigh-hand, or Near^hand« 
and Maiat-haud ; as also * btndtn u'cbem,* Qtn. and Em. p. 53 ; ' benden Vor-bi/ * Cor bende,* 

n. p. 96. 

* it Ugs fair gain-band;' of farm lands with respect to the farmstead; of a road with 
req>ect to a house ; of a railroad to a town, &c. 

Gainly, adj. Conveniently near; and so easy of access. See Gain. 

Comp. O. N. g^gniUgr, commodns ; Sw. D. or O. Sw. ginligber, genlAtr, short, direct. 

* A gainly soort ov a spot.' Wb. GL 

Gainly, adv. Conveniently, handily, without having to go far or a 
roundabout way. 

Gains, sb. Advantage ; saving in distance or time. 

* He's gettcn rue gret gain* wiv takktn' t' I4W,' 

* There 'II be maiit gains that *n a way iv ony way ;' either time or distance being in 

Comp. Jull. gadning 'pr. ganning"), from vb. g*ta; er bun iiite din gauninght, da 
bederjeg. at du^ytr mig len bid igjen : if the girl [ send be no gains to you, I beg you will 
•end me Iicr hack again ; N. tfte iltjf gagn i da, or, 'ti di : there is no gain* in that. 

Gain-way, sb. A short or direct route to a house or place. 

Dan. gjtn-vtit a short cut. Comp. Sw. D. adv. gena-viigen, straight, directly, 
' Gan I* gaimeay I'rulT t' fields, honey.' 

Gaim, gam (often pr. gai'n), sb. Woollen thread, worsted, yam. 

O. N., O. Sw,, Sw., Dan., &c. gam; A.S. g*€am; Germ, gam. See. For Pr. comp. 

• There is gam on the revile other, my dame.' Toumd. MyU. p. jj. 

Gaim-windles, sb. (pr. gai'n-winTs). The instrument used for 



winding woollen yam into balls, consisting of a light rotating wooden 

Sw. D. gamvinda, gamvinnat garnvinga ; Dan. gamvindM ; Ocrm. garminndt. 

Gait, gate sb. (pr. geeai). i. A street in a town. a. A road, a 
way gone, 3. Way or manner of action or demeanour. 

0. N, gata^ Sw. gala, Dan. gadg, a street, a path ; Goth, gafvo, A. S. gedJ, gtil, Otnn. 
gassf. ' Tlic original meaning 6c«ms a narrow opening ; O. N, gat, a hole, an npcnitig ; 
gaia, to perforate.' Wcdgw. Note also, Sw. D. gat/, an opening, nieani of traniit; aUo, 
and thence, mouth of a bay or of a deep gulf; as noma gattet, todra goMt, in Fovo 
Sound; kattfgatt\ Hii>d. gat, an opening or passage. From the gal* which gave accrtf to 
the street proper, the name pasted over to the latter, unless wc look on streets as, in Ihrc*c 
words, ' apcrtur;*: her quas transitur.' From street, the iramition teems to be to road, path, 
way gone; and thence, * metaphorically, to the way, means, or manner of doing a thing. 

1. * Ah seed him gan oop toon's-g"a/#, lahk yan wad ;' of a country village with one sole 
street in it. It is suflicient simply to advert to the numben of streets in York, Whilby, 
Leeds, Hull, Lincoln, Boston, &c., distinguished by the name ' Gate.* 

a. '"He's ganging a downward getot;" declining in respect, abiUty, proq>erity, or 
circumstances ; or in morality or good conduct.' Wh. Gt. 

* Let him gan his ain gaU' Comp. Sw. ban gich sin $g*n gata : he wcDt his own gaU. 
3, • What for did yon behave in that gattt' WJ. Gi 
' Nae, nae ; it canna be deean nae gates' 

Gait, sb. I. Right or prisilege of stray and pasturage for cattle, &c., 
whether free on common land, or purchased, or otlierwise acquired by 
special arrangement. 2. Pasturage, simply, for a specilicd time. See 
Cow-gato, Ox- gate. 

Cr. Sw. D. go/a, gjUta, gjeta, ficc , N. gjata, to watch or tent cattle when grasing, to 
attend cattle to their pasturage ; S. G. g<xta : ' Oiata a m*d birJa, si quis pecus suum, in 
alien* sy\vh pasccns cuttodiat' <lhre); O. N g<etn. to watch, look aficr, derived from O.N. 
gd, t(i give heed or attention to, look after a thing or person. The connection ii rather 
writh this cUm of words than with Qedt or OfttO, a way gone, &c. Of course, in the days 
anterior to the creation of fences, and to the destruction or enclosure of the forests, the 
presence of tunic one to watch or tent the pastunng stock would Ih: indispensable : hence 
the Sw.D. (ormi gjtfart, tenter; gjttar-^jk, tcnting-boy : gjHar-uintt tenting-girl, &c. 

1. * All ithcr cuinnion-rceghts, an' gait for a hoondcr ihcep.' 

2. ' Gcit for tweea lahtle cooc, fur, mebbe, totf wcckf .' 

Gait, V. a. To set up clover in small sheaves, or bundles lied at 
their extremity, to dry into hay, by aid of the free percolation of air 
through the sheaf below the ligature. 

Jamieson's idea ii — * Ai the sheave is opened towards the bonom. both for drying it and 
nuking it stand, perhaps from Isl. gat, foramen, gata, pcrforarc ;* and Wcdgw., aftci quoting 
O. N. glita, N. gUtt, an opening among clouds ; glttfa, giytta, to peep, to make an open- 
>"g : 5^y"> ^/o/i, an opening, hole, clear place among ck>uds; goes oil to say — * Tlie <ns of 
the / (u in some foregoing examples) would give a root gat, git, signifying what admits 
the light to shine through, open, separated; caempUtied in E. gat-tootbed, iu Q. gaiter, 



giUtr, % Uttic«. partition with open interstices, and in O, N., PI. D.. atwl Dnt got, t hole.* It 
is curious if there be a conocctiun between the niuch-vexcd ' gat-tolhJd' and oli north-country 
word gait, to ict up in single thcavcs ; but the idea is cvidcutly the same in cither word. 

G-aitmgs, sb. Small sheaves, or bunches tied at iheir lops, of newly- 
cut clover set up to dry; single sheaves of corn set by themselves instead 
of being stocked. 

Oaitago, gatoage, sb. i. The charge per head for pasturage of 
cattle. 2. The pasturage itself. 

Oallac-handod,gaulio-handed,adj. Left-handed, awkward generally. 

Al»o written KoUook-lianded, sollio-haiidod, KAoliah-handod, and gauk-honded, 
which may be cither a contrictcd form or ilepcnilrnt ii{x>ii Oauk oi Gaw^k. Conip Vv.gaucht 
aad our Kng. gauAy; aUu Sw. D. kajtbandtd. kjevbtindtfr^ kevhandt; Dan. hubandtt ; 
D. Dial, kavhaami, itavhaandtt ; N. kjnvbcndt ; but the cotmection is obscure. Mr. Giitiictt 
derives gavebe from gaivA, and gawk from aw/A; Pr. Pm. ' Awie, or wronge. Smiiter; with 
the prefix jf*.' It is (<»siiblc, however, that O. N. lieidlgr, obliquus; Sw. D. skalg, firjiiig^ 
awry, crooked, nuy be nearly connected with gallAO, as well as with the Scand. pretixcs 
just noticed. For the omission or addition of s, comp. Germ, or Germ. D. link, gUni, ilink^ 
left ; Sw. klandtr, O. E. ulander or iclautuUr, E. tlander ; and kjiilg, ijalg, with :he natural 
tendency of ihc / to be mtrgcd in the following consonant, as iu our au*d, bau'd, oau*d, 
cau'f, Sw. D. tdv, cah', &c., is not far from kjav, kjev, kav, on the one hand, nnr, witli 
the / retained, from gatUio, gaUoo, ultimately gawk, on the other. Comp. the parallel 
forms, O. N. Juifr, N. skjtiv, D. rJ^jixv, Sw. D. sAjet/Ot skjatva, left hand, with N. kjtiva, 
Dan. D. in. kau, ttn^ Sw. D, kaja, kjava, kjn, kjep, &c. The Sansci. word is iovja^ which 
Bcnfey surmiics was originally kb'avja, 

Gtalloway, sb. A stiff pony. Any horse under the size of an ordinary 
draught horse, and especially if generally used \sith the saddle, is called 
a (HXLoway. 

Jam. thinks this word ii * properly Scotch,' and to be unuUy connected with the Scotdi 
county of the same name: but, he adds, * it may be merely the S. G. and Germ, word 
wallacb, corresponding to E. gilding, from galla. O. N. gtlda, castrarc* Ihre, however, 
thinks that the name originated from the Wallachiaiis, who, he says, were the first lo use 
horses of this kind. On this ground there is no reasoo why the Qalloway should Ik limited 
in site—' not more than fourlcea hands high.* Youatt says ' a horse between 13 and 14 
hands in height is called a GaUou/ay, from a beautiful breed of little horsci once found in 
S. Scotland, ou the shore of the Solway Firth. There is a tradition in that country that the 
breed is of Spanish extraction, some horses having escaped from one of the vessels of the 
Grand Armada thai was wrecked on the coast in question.' Hut even as early as temp, 
Edvrard 1, this district abounded in horses, as he adds. ' it supplied that monarch with a 
great number of horses.' Comp, the terms, * an AJdemey,' ' a Shctlander,' &c. 

OallowBdB, sb. Men's braces, or * suspenders.' 

* Braces are in scMite parts of England called Galluun.^ as in Germany tdiigti*, as the 
implcHicnt by which the trowscrs hang.* Wedgw. 

Qally-bauk, sb. The iron bar across the chimney a Htde above the 
fire, from which depend the pot-hooks or Bekkon-orooks. 

Literally gdUawi-hnlk : as it were a composition of the Dan. galgt, O. N. gaiga* and 


Dan. bjaUtt, O. N. hjaUei. Comp. tlic Worend word gAUstdng. which I Micvc hu the cxacl 
meaning of uur wnrd, liniply nibstitotiiig t/ang for bau't. A poor fellow afflictcU with 
cancer ii mentioned ( Wdrffut ocb Wtrd. 47.1) as baviag hanged huntclf ' p& gall-^tdJigett vid 
grujvan ;' upon the giill-it&Hg by the hearth. 

Gam, sb. i. Spordvcncss, playfulness; of young animals, &c. 
Mockery, ridicule. 

Comp., for both tense and iound, S. O. gammam, I. laetitia; 2. im'»io; O.^. gamam 
jocus ; Dan. gammon, i. fuD, sporl. playfulocu : 3. roockciy. }eiting at aooiher : 
N. gaman ; O. Otrm gaman ; A. S. gamen. 

I. * Or aD t' young things at ivver Ah seed, t' young fox bciU owght for gam,* 
* I am to fare and bright. 
Of nic comniys all thl« light, 

This gam and all this gle.* Tommtl. MfU. p. 3. 
a. ' They did nowght bud mak' gam' o' mc' 

Comp. O. Dan. tht jomfncfr giorde off benne gamttun : the maidciu then made game of 
her. Miilb. Damk. Gl. 

Gamashos, sb. Gaiters, or leggings, to be worn over the stockings ; 
properly short ones covering only the instep and part of the leg; but 
often applied to longer leggings that are worn over the modem Irowser 
instead of the more ancient hose. 

* From W. g(tr, the ihauk. is Lang, garamucbo, a legging, and thence (rather than fVom 
It. gamba, the leg) It. gamascie {(vx gramtneit, as Sc. gramasbtit Ji>u-)< ^^- gataaeb**, 
E. gamahts. A further comiption converted gambagis into gambadQ4t! Wcdgw. 

Gammer, v, n. To love play rather than work ; to idle or trifle. 

0. ^.gambra, to trifle, to gossip or prate idly. See also Oam for the derivatives, to 
which might be added, O. Dan. gamtrun or gamen, i. pleasure, making oneself glad; 
opposed to sorrow or heanness : 3. jest, joke, fun ; opposed to earnest or scriousneif. 

Gammer-Btags, gammer-stang, sb. An idle or rude and wanton 

Gammlsh, gamsome, adj. i. Playful, frolicsome. 2. Inclined 10 
take one's pleasure or amusement, whether ' in sport' or otherwise. 

1. • As gamsomt at a young fojt.' 

a. * ** He 's rather a bit gammisb:*' with a turn for ipoft or pleasure, and not too devoted 
to bosiDna only.* Ht. Gl. 

I. To go; the form gan being by far the most 
in contradistinction to to ride, or to stand up. 

A. S. gan, or gangan ; O. N. g'inga, ganga : O. Sw. gamga ; Sw. D. ganga ; O. Germ. 
gangan ; O. San. gangan or giut ; Fris. gan ; Sax, gAn. Grimm considers M. Germ, fan 
a contraction ot gangtn^ O. Germ, gangan. Bopp, fouoding on Sanscr. g^ looks upon gin 
as the primitive form. Rietc. 

I . * Gan tha* ain gate ;* do as you like yourself. 

* Gam ycT ways ;* go away, or go on. 

* Gan tiv t' grand ;* to relierc nature, exonerarc atrcnm. 

* Gan awa* yanun ;* go off home. 

Oan, gang, v. n. 
usual, a. To walk 



' G<vt all ie nowght ;' to wute away, of a person wuting with sickneu, or of anytKing 
that lo(cs bnllc greatly by keefnng ot exposure. 
J. * He can nowthcr gan nor stand.' 

* Arc you ganging or ritliog V 

* t'ns uses ybing men all new gctt. 
And he world hii all Jiwkeward srlt, 
Thurgh Bwylk nncomly pomp and prydc, 

t?al Hi fchcw wheKr hai gang or ryde.' Pr. o/Comc, 154O. 
' And seicncf tuk him m the way 
And put him in sa hard asuiy 
That he miclit nouther gang na ride.' Barbour. 81. 

• Sometimes he went, sometimes he ran.' Percy's Fol. MS. i. 40. 
Comp. S. Jiitl. ban kam gdngtmi; and N. Iioma gangaad* : he came on foot ; to come 

afoot. * 7770- kaam gangind en mailer mand: there came on foot a miller man. Kcnipe- 

G^ang, sb. A way or road; a terra not applied to a highroad or 
Turnpike, but ^^^th a limitation of meaning conveyed by the prefix, 
making it a definite piece of road, or way. For instance, By-gang, 
Cross-gang, Down-gang, Out-gang, Up-gang. Wh. Gl. 

O. N. gdngTy Dan gang, the act of going, the way or means of going, the way gone, &c. ; 
D. Dial. j'fMf «, a narrow road, or lane, leading to a Tillage or faniistead. The passage or 
entrance from the stable to the chaff-chamber (aAtzrrfs, only found in old-fashioned farm* 
steads, however) is called ganget, tlic gang. 

Oang, ganging, sb. A set; the complete number of anything; 
usually limited to an animal's feel or their belongings. 

Dan. D. gang, a set ; applied to the number of traces requisite for a pair of horses, to 
trace-ropes, and to the seals or Hamea, pcruioing to tlie collar or Borfoxn ; not otberwise, 
Molb. says. 

' A gang o' cau'f 's feet," or • nowi's feet/ 

' A ganging o' shoes ;* when a hone Is shod all round. 

* ij gtitg" et diniidia dc fclies dc fraxino.' Pr. Ftncb. lij. 

Oanger, sb. A goer, usually, if not exclusively, applied to a horse. 

S,G. giingare, cquus tolutarius, qui tolulim inccdit. ' In poetry, and in writings of old 
date.' says Molb., Dan. ganger means * a horse, a riding horse, as distinguished from a 
charger or war hotse {itridibeng$ten) ;' and he adds that it is ' a current saying of a horse 
that steps well, at den er en god ganger^ that he is a good ganger.' Comp. example : 

* As good a ganger as ever went upon four legs/ Wb. Gl. ; explained by the Gl., but 1 
think mistakenly, as simply ' a good trotttng-horse.' 

I, A vagrant, whether a beggar 

Gangerill, gangrill, gangril, sb. 

or a pedlar, &c. 2. A toad. 

From Qang, Oanger — comp. O. N. gamngumaSr, a ragrant or beggar — in reference V* 
continued moving forwards or about, to vagraiury. in other words; and tlien transferred 
to the load, from its seemingly idle, listless, vagrant-like mode of locomotion. 

Gangings-on, sb. 

Proceedings, doings, course or Hne of conduct. 
E e 


Small, thin, poor or puny. 

Comp. the Essex word — Hall, gives it as £a[tem-Counite« — fan/y-fvi/td, thin-bodied 
and thin-bdlicd. TV. Pm. gives ' Gattmte, slctidyr, GracilU,' n welt u * Gaumt, Icne.' Mr. 
Way suggesti, from A. S. gtmani, p.p. o( gewanian (tabescere). 

Gantree, gaiintree, sb. i. A wooden frame with legs, or stand, 
to support barrels. 2, The timber framework which, in lieu of an 
embankment, is empk>yed on some railways to support the permanent 

* From Lat. eanibtrius^ 1 hone of barden ; then applied (as 10 modem languages, a hone. 
au, or goat) to a wooden support for various purposes. Cantberiui, a prop for a rioe, 
rafter of a roof, trestle, or hont to saw timber on. LitUcton. The Germans use bock, a 
goat, in the last of tlicse senses. In like manner we speak of a z\othct-bont ; and Fr. 
ebrvalft, a little horse, is a painter's easel (G. rsr/. an au), the frame which supports hU 
work.' Wedgw. 

Oapi sb. An opening at the Bank-top through which a path or 
track winding up the steep Bank-side finds its way on to the open 

O. N. gap, an opening, a chasm ; N. gap ; S. G. and Sw. D. gap. 

* Hunter's Gap ;' * George Gap ;* both in this parish. 

Ckipe, V. n. (pr. gecap). To bawl, or shout loudly. 

Jutt as Y., gapt^ from the action it implies, takes the ♦etue,— ' to erpress artonishmenf 
throu/h wide open mouth and suring eyes.' so also in the present case there is a derivative 
meaning of the latne kind, and not unJoiown in the Scaiid. D. Thus. 5w. D. gapa takes 
(he meanings to talk big, to talk fast ; and Dan. D. gab$ the same. From O. N. and 
O, Sw. gapa» Slq. Sec Yowp. 

* lie gerap$ an' hoUets lahk a ploughman 00 a moor.* Wb. GL 

Gar, V. a. To cause, or make ; to lead to or induce any given 


O. N. gera, gora ; S. G. gora ; Dan. g;mrt ; N gjrra ; Sw. D. giira, giro, gar. Sic. It 
should be remarked that an equivalent usage to that of onr word is rare in the N. 

* It was fit t* gar a man hang faisscT.* Wh. Ql. 

* It gan me great pain.* lb. 

' For my part I shall garr two oxen and two horses mamtainc me all mjr lifetime.* 
y»k Oud4 Dtp. p. 151. 

* Bere we hym funhe unto the kyrkc. 
To the lombc tliat I gard wyrk. 

Sen fuUe many a ycrc.* Tovmtl, MyU. p. 333. 

Garb» v. a. To bedeck, to array in a gaudy fashion ; almost invari- 
ably implying tasteless or vulgar finery. 



Garflte, &b. Entrails^ garbage ; sometimes with a more limited sense, 
as denoting only the edible portions from the inside of a goose or other 

From garbage (corrupted into gnrltish), by the interchange of b ftnd /. Comp. O. H. 
garmir, ilia ; N. gan, the head and guts orsnuU £sh. 

Garlands, sb. i. Wreaths of ribbons enclosing a white glove, for- 
merly borne at the funerals of young unmarried women. See ArvaL 
3. Hoops bedecked with ribbons hung at the mast-head of whale-ships 
returning to port after a successful voyage. 

Garael, sb. Hedgc-sdcks ; usually applied to dead slicks and under- 
wood from a hedge and its bank. Brock, says, ' small branches cut for 
the purpose of mending the hedge ;' and Wh, GL extends the meaning 
to whirls or furze set apart for burning. Spelt also, Oarcil, Garsil, 

Gardael, arborcf , at quibui sepcs construutitur ; gdrdsel gArd, hedges constructed of tree* 
and boughs of trees. Ihre. Sw. gtirdalt, edder. nialertaU with which a fence is nude; Diii. 
gurdsti, nutaials (ot malciog a fence, whether of spray or brushwood, or of wattle wodc 
(Molb.); S. Jut\. gardstl : O.Sw. ^(cr^sto, materiabi for hedge-making. The Sw. dialects 
give instances of compounds faniMrd with this word : e. g. garjul-tto, the line or mark in a 
held which b^ng remains to shew where an old hedge has oocc stood ; gardul-Uokt the 
fragments of licdge-stakes, &c., remaining after the destruction or removal of a hedge-fence. 
These Scand. word*, one or other of then), seem to tike in all-sixed hedging niatcriali. from 
trees, to brush: which may account for the somewhat varying, or fluctuating, meiuing of 
our word. 

Garth, sb. i. An enclosure generally; the specific object of the 
enclosure being specified by a prefix, as Stag-garth, Kirk-garth, &c. 
2. An Intak', or enclosure {on sufferance) by a cottager from the 
common, as a substitute for a garden. ' 

O. N. garfir; S. G. gar J; Sw, gOrtie; Sw. D. gartt ; O. Sw. f<crK g<^\*f: O. Dan. 
garth, gaar, gaard : Dia. gaard; A.S.geard. Molbcch's remark upon ^aarcf, applicable 
to all the above-givcn words also, is ' Originally — but now obH>lete — an enclosing (with a 
hedge or fence, namely), a hedge, a pUce or spot enclosed with a hedge {inhegnt/) ; hence 
ahilJgaard, an orchard ; kaalgnard, kale, or vegetable garden {kail-gartb, or yard in Sc.) ; 
kirhtgaard, churchyard (our Kirk-garth) ; urtegaard, vegetable-garth ; hmnstgaard, 
fowl-yard, &c.' TTic word, in sense 2, often takes the prefix ' Potato.' 

Gauby, sb. A heavy, vacant lout, an oaf, a simpleton ; one awk- 
wardly silly rather than simply a fool See Gauvey, Gauvison, and 

These words are all nearly coiuiccted with O. N. and Sw. gapa, Dan. gahe. Sec. O. N. 
and O.^ is equivalent to. to stare with open mouth, to gase with stupid astonish- 
ment; whicii b nearly the meaning also of the Dan. word; wliencc the piov. saying, dtn 
ene abt faair dtn andm til at gab*: if one be an ape, he sets another to gape. Comp. 
N. gap, a gaby, an oaf; Sw. D. gapugtr, of a heavy stupid lout with gaping mouth aud 

E e 2 



staring eyes, ind Dan. D. gabrnar, a Oauby or Gftuvey. It may be adJed that in very 
many instances, especially in prov. Pr., the sound of Dan. b pasics into thai of v ox f, 7*hui, 
in lukke et gnb, to stop a eap, Molb. givt-s ganv a» tlic \nov I'nnu, or kiuiiJ ui gab. In like 
manner, Kok gives g;^^ as the Pr. of gtebbt, gjnjf for that of gabbf; gojh (or gobn, 
■ Oowpen; iob/(ot bob, hope. Bcc, Hence Oauvey and Oauby are, it nuy be laid, 

Oaufer, sb. A kind of tea-cake or crumpet, of a square or rect- 
angular form, made of batter. 

' And w<ifre% pyp>'ng hoot out of the gleedc.' MUUt'm Tal*. 

' Thcie were probahly the Fr. gavfrts^ whence the word iwi/ir, gu and u being 
convertible. a.ft Walter from Ouahier. They are ucually told at fain, and are made of a 
kind of batter ptnircd into an iron iiutrunient which shuts up like a pair of inutfers. tt U 
then ihnist into the lire, and. on withdrawal, ihc wafer' — or Oaiifer — * is taken out and 
eaten.* Note to BcH's Cbaucrr. 

* Gofer. A species of pancake pressed into a square form by irons.* Limeoliub. Ot, 

Oauk, gawk, gauky, sb. An oaf, a stupid, an awkward fool. 

Conip. S. G. gdck, gici, a fool, foolish, stupid; O.S. gick, gikkr; Sw. gnct; Sw. D. 
gaJtkig, foolish, buffoon-like; O. Germ, goucb: M. Germ, gocb, gUgf ; Germ. D. gtekig ; 
A. S. geoc, rath, foolhardy; Welsh coig. Mr. Wcdpw. would connect pror. E. gawt, 
gtnoky^ an awkward person, Fr. gaucbe, with O. V.. awte, K. mvhvard. See his remarks 
under Awk. The assumed connection between Oauk or Sc. gouA^ and Oowk« ft cuckoo, 
receives no confirmation from the words quoted alwvc. 

Oauk-handed, gawk-haudod, adj. 
Sec Gallac-handed. 

Gauky, adj. i. Awkward in mind, foolish, blundering. 2. Awkward 
in body or motion, shambling. Sec Gauk. 

Gaum, V. a. To understand or comprehend ; to give heed or pay 
attention ; to consider ; to know. 

O. N. gaumr, S. G. gom, N. gaum^ care, hetd, attention. O. N. g<yma, S. G. goma, 
N. gauma, O. Dan. gtme^ Swiss gaumen, gomen^ A. S. gyman, geomian, O. Germ, gou- 
rtun, Dan. D. gaut—^W, to give heed, attention, forethought, or the like. Rietz conncrts 
Sw. gomma, to take care of, to lay Dp; Sw. D. gajmn, gorna, gimma, with this word. 
Comp. the thought ta the words,—' But hit mother k*ft all thoc sayings in her heart.* 
Luke ii. 51. 

' " Ah dlimot gaum ye;" I do not understand you.' Jfl. G/. 

* It 's te nae luc speaking : he dizn't gaum iiae nuir an nowght.' 

The form in P. Ptovghm,., King Born, Towntl. MyU., Rd. Piects, u y#wi», ybemg or 

'lie hit t>ise twa wcic icmes all ^e tcne commandcmentes forsoihe he fulHlles.* Rtl. 
Pifcfs, p. 7, 

Gaum, sb. Attention, heed, observance. 

• Ah pav' 't nae gaum ;' I paid no aticntion. 

• Nivver heed : he'll give ymi rue gaum;' he will pay no regard to what you say. 

Left-handed, awkward, clumsy, 



Comp. O. Djmi, ' Tb« gamtct fedher gaff Ug ry giim^ /or Jtemt oe ganun tba boU Ug 
Ihem :' to the aged then gave 1 ito gaum, but held them alt for jest aiid Koni. 

* £m gt/aigi gaum at nur:' but gave me no gaum. Flat. i. 554. 

Oaumish, adj. Intelligent, acute. 

Gaiimleaa, adj. Stupid, unintelligent, vacant or half silly. 

Gaup, V. n. To stare vacantly, to stare with open mouth, as at any 
novel or surprising sight. 

0. N., O. Sw., Sw., Sw. D,, N- gapa, to stare with open mouth, to gase with stupid 
astoimhmcnt. Comp. N. gaptHj of one who gazes and itaics xt any new thJug. 

Gaut, sb. A narrow opening, whether in a row of houses, or in the 
soil, sufficing to afford a passage, for men, &c., in the one case, for water 
in the other. Spelt also Oawt, Gtote. 

Comp. Sw. D. gdte, a strait or confined passage between two bouses, in which sound as 
wcU as sense b almoit exactly coinddeut wjtli ihat of our word. Rietz gives the word ia 
question ai connected with gatt, gat, or gad; O. N,, N., and Dan. D. gat, an opening, or 
hole through. Comp. Hind, gat, a pass or dciilc. There are several Gauts or Gotea 
at Whitby ; as KorfcmiiUf auf, Fish-gaut. tVb. Gl. 

Gtouve, V. n. To stare vacantly or wonderingly, but with the wonder 
of stupidity not intelligence. See Gape, G-auby. 

Gauvey, gauvison, sb. A simpleton ; one that is half silly, or with 
less than his proper proportion of wits. See Gauby. 

Gauving, adj. Awkward in manner, given to stare in a stupid kind 
of way. Probably the pcpl. of Gauve originally, but by usage passed 
into an adj. 

Gavolook, sb. (pr. geeavlok). A crow-bar, an iron bar of sufficient 
dimensions to be used in moving weighty masses of stone, &c 

Gamett quotes Wel»h gajiaeh, a fork, as the origin a( Oavelock. Besides which we 
have O. N. gajiok, S. G. gajiak (which Ihre refers to W. gajlacb), and A. S. gn/Huc, 
gaueloc, all meaning a javelin, ot missile of that description, the >tu(^ uf which could of 
course be used as a bar or lever. It is observable that OaTelock is not applied in the case 
of a Urge and heavy crow-bar : that is simply a Bar. 

Gay, adj. i. Fair or fine to look at; hence, fine, considerable in 
size or quantitj'', worthy of consideration or regard, a. Lively, cheerful, 
brisk ; hence, well in health. 

1. ' A gay dcnty morning,' 

* A. gay bit o* land ;' a large piece, a good deaU 

* " A gay few ;*' a gnod many.' IVb. Gl. 
1. • I am quite gay^ thank you.* lb. 



Gayish, adj. Fairly or reasonably good. 

• A gayiib crop.' 

* A gayiib uniple ;* a fairly good ipcdmcn, not open to objection on the score of 


Oayly, adv. In good health, very well, satisfactorily or prosperously. 

• We *rc all gayly, thank you : how 'i yvntVV 

* They teem to be getting oa pretty j'oy/y ;' with ft fair d^ree of p ro ip e rity . 

Gear, sb. i. Equipment in general, the special kind being usuaUy 
indicated by a prefix, as lUU-geor, Horse-gear, or -gears, &c. ; 
dress or array. 2. Property in general, goods of whatever kind. 
3. Matter in hand, or business. The general idea of what is made 
or being made, seems to run through all the significations of the 

Mr. Wedgwood collates O. N. gtrfi, and A. S. gunrwa^ babilimentt. adding. * whateTer ii 
required to set a thing in action :' bat I am more disponed to adopt the rtew which gives 
what may be called a passive sense to our word, that which has taken, or is t&king, sooie 
niakinj;, preparing, or acquiring, previous to use or employment. And it should be ob' 
served thai gtarwa itself is Englished by Boiworth with the word * preparation.' as well u 
'clulhiog;* while gedro, geam^ giorw, ageanvOt gart, ready, prepared, paratus. only 
comes by that meaning in virtue of the peculiar or proper leruc of the p. p. which paraiuM 
is. Comp. O. D. gitrd, gerd, 0. N. g&tf, which has the meaning, l. of business, work in 
hand, what is going on. precisely like our tcnic 3; and, 2. a sum prepared, and then paid 
for a given purpose ; quoted also, in this Utter sense, by Molb. as parallel to A. S. g*ara, 
provisio, apparatus, impciisa. And this second sense, moreover, hat many more points of 
resemblance than of discordance with our first. Fonhcr, Sw. D. gore, a doing, business, 
that which is being done or carried on, very nearly correspoods with our word in form and 
part of its meaning ; and its secondary meaning, * that which is nude by hand, as spinning, 
knitting, Ac' brings it nearer still. The word, as an O. E. word, early gave riie to a 
derivative verb, and the part. ^<rr</, in the senses, arrayed, dressed, equipped, disposed, &c., 
is of constant occunence. 

1. ' ^e bar ber to hit baft M braste all her gert;' of the ship. 

E. Bug, AUU. Poems, C. 1. 148. 
' I tarry fuUe lang fro' my warke, t traw : 
Now my gert wille I fang and thcderward draw.' Towul. Myt. p. a6. 

* Miche wat] }»e gykl gtrt >at glent >e' alofie.' 

Sir Qaw. and Gr. Km. L 569. 

* AUe \>e godlych gtrt )>at hym gayn fchulde |»at tyde.' lb. I, 584. 

tn both these latter instances the reference is 10 the various pieces, Sittings and vestmentl 
which went to the full equipment of a knight in complete armour. 

* Wait while Ah gets ma' ^for Icgither, an' Ah '11 be wi'ye iiioo;' wait UDtil I collect my 
tools, &c. 

2. ' Ill-gotten gtar.* 

• How are they off for gmrV Wh. Gl. 

3. * pen ar ^y synful hemself and sulped (polluted) al togcdcr, 

Bo^ god and his gtr*.' E. Emg. Aliu. Poemt, B. 15. 


Noab. The top uid the taylle both wille I make, 

The hclme and the castelle also wjlle I take, 
To drife ich a tiajlle wille I not forsake, 
Thii gtrt may never faylle, that dar I uudertake.* 
* Nae, Ah *U nxt meli : let him waik hii am gtar.' 


Toitmtl. Afyst. p. 7J. 

Oee. The word of command to horses in a team to turn to the 
right ox from the driver ; substituted for the older word Hee. 

Jam. spclU this word jtt, and refers to Sw. gSi * as signifying both ta budgt, atid to Itim 
round,' which it certainly true, with the limitation that It is to appHcd in respect of the 
motion, or going, of matters which move only in the war of tnming. Still there is little 
doabt that the origin of gee is in gS and its etymons. The occasional \ue of a particle 
or word in addition — as gee-baok — suggests the possibility that gee may be an elliptical 
mode of expression. Sec Hauv, Hjrte, Hee. 

Geen, gien, gi'n. Forms of the preL of Give, 

Gtold, adj. Barren or not producing young at the usuaJ or expected 
season ; of cows and ewes. See Drape ; which is the word more com- 
monly in use. 

Sw. D. galJur, banen, of a cow the year she bears no calf; otherwise, gold, gall, gatla, 
gild. Of ewes also; gold *. O. N, gtldr; O. Sw. gajdtr ; Vi^w. gold; as tn gold ko; 
Dan. D. gield: as tn gieldko; N. gitld; Sw. D. gald-4to, gaUkyr, galiku or giUl-ku, &c. 
Comp. our Oeld-oow. 

Geld-cow, sb. A cow that does not produce a calf in due lime. 

Gon, giniy v. n. i . To grin ; i. e. to part the lips so as to shew the 
teeth, whether in displeasure or anger, or in mirth : hence, to shew signs 
of displeasure or discontent. 2. To snarly to give vent to discontent, 
to repine. Sometimes Gtom. 

Here again the orthography Is uncertain. I scarcely think there ii but one word simply 
resulting by metaih. from grin, but rather that there are, in reality, two words; the one 
cotncideot with Sc. girn. and E. gri'/i, and the other descended from O. N. gina, hiarc, os 
deducere ; gin, rictus, oris diductio. Comp. gin-klofi, a spasmodic tension of the mouth, or 
grin, and especially Sw. D. gtmidx, To cry. repine; gjoftnas, to grin, try to bite, as a horse 
docs; which Rietz connccls directly with O. S. gina. Note also O. Germ, gtnon, ginen, 
and A. S. ginan, with Gr. f^aivuv, to gape, to open, as the month in the act of grinning. 

I. * Thoa gtns lahk a Chcsshire cat eating brass wire.* 

a. • He gina all t' Hesh off his back the day liv an end." Wb. OL 

' A ginning sort o* body.' Ih. 

Gep, V. n. To seek intelligence or knowledge of what is going on 
in a furtive manner ; e. g. by listening or eavesdropping. 

Probably a derivative from E. gapt. Any one listening closely or intently is apt enough 
to do so with his lips parted, pouibly with a mouth sufficiently wtdc open. Comp. Sw. D. 
gtpa, to chatter or prate; giptt^ to talk without discretion or thought, to chatter; both 
ft equcntatives from gapa, 

• They are always watching and g*pping' Wh. Gl. 



O'erse, g'eaa, sb. Grass. In the pronunciation of this woid the r 
is, in effect, dropped, and a faint sound of i — not unlike the Jutland 
* help-vowel' — is heard before the short t. 

Conp. A^. gan, gtan, gnu. 

Oorsing, g'essmg. sb. Grass land, or rather land in grass; pas- 

Oert, greeat. Porms of great. 

OoBling, sb. A gosling, or immature goose. 

S«. D. gadimg : O. S w. g/ttiinger ; Dan. gasiing. As godtng fracn goou (A. S. gA), to 
our word (torn the dimiuutivet of Sciiul. gds^ gas. Sec, 

Qet, sb. (pr. gitt, g hard), i. Offspring, what has been begotten by 
any one. 2. A breed or variety among creatures that are begotten. See 
Mak', as applied in nearly the same manner to things without life. 

0. N. gtta, to beget, to coaodve ; A. S. g^tam, gitan ; O. N. gttnadr^ that which i* 
goUcn, produce or olTspcing. 

1. * To Abnhun I am in dett 

To safe hjin and hit gttu.' Tounui. MyU. p. 73. 
* haac. Fader I 

Abraham. What, son? 

Itaae. Tliink oa thi gtt: 

What have I done?' Ih. p. 39. 
J. • •* Ha* jt seen Willy R.'j new pig» ? •* " Ncta. •S ihcy ony partk'lar git t** * 

Gett V. aux. See examples. 

* We Ml git ihorcn by nee't ;' thall hare finished reaping by night-tiine. 

* G4t sided up ;' gel everjihing put in order. 

* Gtt peed, honey ;* (o » young child. 

Cf. ' En Sigmumir gal tkridit upp :' bnl Sigmnndr managed to crawl up (got crept up) 
00 the shore, namely.' Ftatfy^ i. 559. 

* Ef Ol^/r gtsti vMHit Lumbma bryggivr :* if OUf shoutd succeed rn winning (could gtt 
won) Loudon Bridge. Ih, U. la, a6. 

Get, Ablo to. Able to reach a given place. 

* Ah wur gannan te Whitby to-moom, but Ah know n't an Ah la) be yahht* h gaC 

Get a-gate, v. n. To begin or make a start with a piece of work of 
any kind. See Agait. 

G©t away with, v. n. To get forward with a piece of work; to be 
doing it quickly and well. 

Get one's life. To. To be fatal in eflect, induce death. 

* Ah '* dou'tful *t 'II g4t hit lift' of sorrow, cilamity, sore sickness. &c. 



Get the length of, v. n. To get as far as, to reach, this or that 
place or distance. 

*it 'i as much as he can do to get the Ungth o t' gardcn-rnd.' 

Coinp, saa gik bun ti par agerltgngdrr ber og ftytteJe korene : so she went the length of 
a couple of Aelds and shifted the kye, Gamlt Damke Mmder, 2nd 5cr. p. 139. 

Qetherer, sb. The f>erson whose business it is to rake the com as 
it is mown into separate lots or bundles for the Binder to bind into 
sheaves. See Bandster. 

Oetten, p. p. of Oet, 

* He, Godd and man bathe in a personne, was sothefaitly of ^it bleujrde nuydcne, Godd 
gttynt of his ffadirc before anjr tyme.' Rel. PUcts, p. 4. 

* Wrangwisciy to haldc J>ttt at cs gttym.' lb. p. la. 

Qew-gow, sb. (g hard). A Jew's-harp, or trump. 

O.N. giga: Sw. giga; Sw. D. gajgii; Dau. gig$; Ocnn. gngt; a kind of itringed 
musical iiutmment ; a 6ddie. 

* Sir Thomas Brown states that a brass Jew's-harp, richly gilded, was found in ao ancient 
Norwegian om. If so, Sutherland may be indebted to the Norwegians for its favourite, 
almost national instrurocnl.' Nous 0/ Travel in z86o. p. 15 1. 

Oih. sb. A book, such as is artificially formed on a walking-stick, 
or may be due to natural growth. 

Comp. E. gib, to start back or aside : Dut. gijptn, of sails, to turn suddenly ; E. gihi, to 
turo from one side or course to another, of a boat under sail before the wind when her 
course is altered without tacking, the sails being shifted from one side to the other. Comp. 
also O. Fr. regiber, to wince, start back ; Sw. gipa, to wry or twist tlic mouth. 

Oib-fitick, sb, A stick with a hook at the end, whether natural or 
formed by hand. 

' Noo, lads, it 's owihcr scheeat or a taste o' mah gib-stiek ower yer shoothers.* An old 
Dales yeoman's account of the way in which bis sons had come to be * sae riglcr at 

Gi'en (pr. gin or geen), p. p. of OiTe. 

* A gtm bite 
k soon put out o' sight.' Wh. Gi. 
Gif, conj. If 

A. S. gif. gyf. (bre'i remark on S. O. j*fy doubt, hesitation, is * habent Ungoa; cognatac 
parttculain dubitativam k/^ia; A. S. if, gif; Ang. if, <]nibuKum coarenit M. O. J€(baif Jan, 
ct gau,' Another common archaic form was ytf. 

Oiff-gafir, sb. The interchange of familiar or unstudied conversation 
on cursor)' topics. 

One of the fre^ticnt instances of reduplication of consonantal sounds with a change of 
rowel Comp. O. N. gifr^ babbling, tattling, and A. S. gaf-sprac, a babbling, 




Oiglot, giglot, sb. A giddy, laughing girL 

* <7i^. Jig, GigUi. The fiuKlaxncntal Ida h rapid, reciproatiag, or whirting actioa. 
whence the O. E. gig, a top. 

" To M« great Hcrculet whipping a gig" Low'i Labotir Vtst. 
To jig U to more nptdljr to tnd fro. Fr. gigme. gig'- a jig. or rapid dance; gig*"'' ^° 
mn, ieap, )«aip; gigun, i li^i, vemtQe ^, ^gigiot or j^^K. G'f^" Forttnu, iocoo- 
fUnt fortnnc. C/a^fine. Swiss gagtin, to joggle ; g'^'f. a girl that cannot sit itiU.* 
Wedgw. Cf. abo Sw. D. giltkal, to raise or build up any thing or strocture. so that it ^U 
be Hkdj la topple dowo if touched; gM*l. that which is u raited or put togethtf. Note 
alio giga, to pat up firail or tottering fence-work. 

^Ider, gildert, sb. A snare or running noose, made of horsehair, 
and used for catching small birds. 

O. N. aud O. Sw. giider, a snare, a gin : O. D. gUdrr ; as Rdvtn gaatr a fa gamge paa 
tei gilder: the fox doesn't walk twice into the same snare; Sw. D. giUra, to ki plden; 
Sw. giUer, a snare, trap. gto. 

• Falsebede or olcyr, or o^er gdtry: Rd. Piteat, p. I J. 

Oilevat, guilerat, sb. (pr. gahlfat). i. The tub or vat in which 
new-made ale or other liquor is set to fenncnl. 2. The fennenting ale, 
&c, itself. 

• N. gil. ale in a state of fcrmcntalJoo ; gil-iar, gii^ion, the tub in which the wort fcr- 
ments: Dut. ghtjlen, lo boil, to dfervesce ; gyl. gyt-bier, beer in which the fermcnuiion it 
going on. 7" iwr %taat in '/ giji : the tecr femients ' Wedgw. Add aUo Welsh fftl^ fer- 
mentation. Gam. p. 165. Probalilj the Sw. D. gei, gaj, gii, bruJc, excited. &c.. with the 
ftring of etymons given by Ricti, is nearly conneaed Hill, gives ■ GaU, a tub used in 
brewing; gail'cUar, a tub for wort, spelt gaiiirr in Hallamsh. Gl. p. 147 :' with which 
comp. N. gU-itar ; * gaij-ditht a vessel used in pouring liqvor into a bottle or cask f and 
abo ' gttile, t>f liquor, as much as ts brewed at once ; guH'/at, a wort-tub : gyt*, wnrt.* /U> 

Jii a the Shropshire form. gUgfatta in Finch. Pr. Imt. 

Oill, sb. {g soft). A half-pint 

' GytU, lytyDc pot, gilla, vel gitliis, vcl gillungulos. Pr. Pm. (?i27o. vas fictile. Gloss, in 
Due. Vaicula vinaria qu« mutato nomine gviilonti aut flasconei appellantur. — Paal. Db- 
conus in Doc* Wedgw. 

Gill, sb. {g hard). A ravine, a narrow valley or glen, with pre- 
cipitous or rocky banks properly, and usually with a stream nmning 
along the Iwttom. 

O. N, gd, montis fauces, cliasma profundius. geil ; N. gH, gjd, gjyi, a deep and length- 
ened glen or fissure in a mountainous district : Sw. D. gUja, a mountain pau. or glen ; 
M. OcTm. giti. Comp, Hind, gii, a pais ; Pcrs. gilih. id. A word of continual occurrence 
here, and furnishing a name to many different ('.iniilics, ihongh second in number to the 
' Dales.' 

OilUver, jiUiver, sb. A loose or wanton woman : WA. Gi. adds 
• in the last stage of her goo<l looks/ which is probably only a I0c.1l 
restriction of sense, if really existing in any entire district. Cr. (r/. 



simply gives it * an old woman of loose habits,' wilhoul reference to 

* looks.' Hall, gives ' gtiUvert a wanton wench/ 

Can suggests * corruption from gil'fittrt^ Is it not as likely to be in reference to the 
gillyjlawer — gilloftr^ gillofr* — in its rcduti<lant or pattet stage? Or the connection may be 
with Oiglet./t7/(?) 

Gilt, sb. A female pig of any age under maturity. When herself a 
mother she becomes a * sow/ 

Sw.O.gyllta: l. a spayed low ; 3. a. young, lialf-grown sow pig, which has not yet 
borne pigs ; also gyUt. gibUta, gylltir, &e. 0. N. gUta, gyltr, gitlta, a sow : Dan. D. gyli^ 
a jToang sow, the first time she goes with young ; A. S. gUU; O. Oenn. gaiza, g*iza, &c. 

Qimmal, sb. A narrow passage between two houses. W/t. GL 

* Ginnel' occurs in the Zegds and Cr. Gl. with the same signification. 

O. N. ginui^ an opening, fiuure, gap ; Sw D. gima, gimman or gimmm, ibe mouth of an 
oven; gtman, an opening into a hoop-net. But O. N. gimald, with the »amc signification 
as gima, gives our exact form. For Gintul, comp. O. N. gina, to gape open, as a deft, or 
the mouth, does ; g'Ma, chaima nubium ; A. S. ginan, geonan, to yawn, gape, be wide open. 

Oimmer, sb. A female sheep, from the time of its first being clipped 
10 that of its first bearing young; otherwise, to that of its second shear- 
ing ; usually termed Shearliug-giminer. gimbur, gtmhla, an ewe Iamb; O. Sw. gimmtr, ovicnla, quz primtim cnititur ; 
Sw. D. ^mi^, a young sheep that has not had a lamb; ti. gtmhr, gymhr; Dan. D. ^»m- 
tmr, id. Molb. quotes our Kngl. Ibrnis fiom Brock., and Ihrc gravely suppiijes that Ray 
must have been joking when he suggests ' possibly from gammir4amb. Gammer is a con- 
tiactiuii of godmother, and is tlir usual compcUatimi of tlie cunmiun sort of women.' Rictz 
adduces Syr. enter, a lamb, and bids compare Gr. x^f^pot, x^f^f^' ^ ^hc-goat. 

G-inmier-bog, sb. An ewe-lamb, from the time of its being weaned 
up to the time of its first shearing, or Clipping. See Hog. 

Gimmer-lamb, sb. An ewe-lamb : a term applied until the animal 
is weaned. 

O.N. gimbrurlamb; N. gimhrtlamh; Sw. D. gimmerlam, gSmmirlam, gommaldm; 
Dan. D. gimmtrtam. 

Gin, conj. If, in case, even if, although. 

* Gin is no other than Uie participle gtvm, gi'en, gi'n,' Tooke ; — a statement as much open 
to doubt as the similar ones made in the case ofgif. It is likely there is Ihc same relalion- 
dlip between gin and an *> if. in case, that there is between giX and if. Couip. S. G. and 
Sw. oji, if; as, an om $6 vote: what if it were so. Note also M. G. an, and O. N. aid. 

Ginner, adv. Rather, more willingly. 

The derivation of this word would suggest a different orthography — girnrr or gtmer — 
but that thence would arise the sound go'nner — like Bo*d for bird, Wo'd for iporrf, &c. 
Comp., however, the Pr. of girl, — Ge'l; and gen, to grin, snarl. The wofd is diic to 
O.N. gjarn, gim, willing, ready; Sw. D. gern; A. S. geom; O. Germ, gerni, grm. 
Sw. D. presents also the forms gertn, gerun, gjiirun. 

* Ah 'd ginner gan than slay.' Wb. GL 

P f 2 



Gim, V. n. To grin ; lo snarl ; to give vent to displeasure or dis- 
content. See Oen. 

Give, V. n. To yield on tension, to stretch ; of cloth, leather, &c. 
To give way, or move a little, to efforts to shake or dislodge ; of any- 
thing fixed : as, a stopper in a bottle, a nail in a wall, &c. 

' New glovef always g^V " bit.' 

* Ah can't stor it. It wceant giw nae nuir in novght.' 

Give again, v. n. i. To relent, soften in feeling or intent. «. To 

1 . * ** Ah ihinki he *t ommoit gCn agtuM atraat it ;** rdeated, relaxed bis opiniotu on the 
nbject.' Wfc. Gi. 

a. * Ayc» it gi'tt agaim;' it thaws ■ little. 

Give back. v. n. To recede or shrink from, an encounter or at- 
tempt, for instance. 

• He *t not o' t* loort l' gi' bad : he 'd de« ginncr/ 

Give in, v. n. i. To tender or make an offer ; as, for a contract, or 
a farm, or a given piece of work. a. To throw up, or rather to give 
notice of intending to quit, a farm or house, &c. 

Give out, V. n. To cease or fail, as a supply of any given article. 

Give over, v. n. To leave off, to discontinue : of continual use 


Glaazen, v. n. To glaze or put glass into windows ; to ply llie craft 
of a glazicr. 

The adj. glasun, A. S. giasen, is used by B. Jonson ; and in the West of Engl., according 
to Hall. Pr. Pm. gives * Glasyn wythe glaue. Vitro,' 

Glazstener, sb. A glazier. 

Gload, glod, sb. The kite (Mi/vus rfgalis). 

Glease, v. n. To run rapidly in sport or frolic, as children in pursuit 
of lljcir companions in any game. 

This word woulJ seem to be nearly related lo O. K. gtnct, \o glance ai an arrow Innied 
aside ; Pr. Pft. ' Glacynge, or wrong glydyogc of boltys or arrowii.' 

Coinp. * Her fygurc fjTi, qucn I lud fontc. 

Such gtadande glory con to me glaet. 
As lyticl byforc hcr-io w«ti wonte.' 

E. Eng. Allit. Poem*, A. L 170. 
Or it may be more directly comtected with Sw. D. gUsa. glyta, glna, &c., to glaiKC. dart 
tlirotigh, u a ray or glram of light dues ; O Gmn. gtizan; A. S. gluian. Tlte traiuition 
in meaning would be simple enough, in order to arrive at that of our word. 



Qleafilng, sb. i. A sharp or rapid act of pursuit. 3. A suit at law, 
or rather the damages incurred by the loss of it. 3. Loss or damage 
generally. Wh. Gl. 

I. • 'M have had a good gleoitng after him ;" a sharp run in pursuit* Wh. Gl. 
3, ' " He has had to bide a bonny gUasmg :*' sustain heavy charges in a law-iuit.' Ih. 
Cocnp. * Uxor. It were a fowUe blot to be hanged for the case. 
Mak. I have skapyd, Jdott. oft as hard a gltue' 

Towtul. Afysf, p. 106; MC also p. aoi. 

Gleg, V. n. To cast side-looks, 10 glance furtively. 

Cf. O. N glyggr^ an opening, a window, the eye ; Sw. D. glugg, glogg^ id. ; tUta umrur, 
glugg : look askance, cast side looks : kasta meda blichar. It would appear that our vb. 
has been derived directly either from this, or from the vb. gloggva^ viderc, quoted by Ihre, 
Note N. D. g1*g- The Leeds form is gUg ; a word used of a horse who tumi his bead 
sufficiently to enable him to see his driver, notwithstanding his blinkers, 

' They go prying and gtegging intil every body's ncuk.' Wh. Gl. 

Olent, glint, sb. A glimpse, or mere passing sight or glance. 

Grimm, says RJctz, in v. Glinta, or gldnta^ ' supposes a lost strong vb.. glintan, giants 
giunitm, to shine, glance with light, and probably this word which remains with us is the 
word in question.' Sw. D. glinia. gliinla^ implies I. to ihp. to slide, or fall from slipping 
on smooth ic«; and 2. to slip from one. to miscarr)'. to miss. O. E. gltnt bears both the 
meanings, to glance or shine, and to slip or fall : thus, — 

* Miche watj Jw gyld gerc ^at gltnt ^er alofte.* 
Sir Oavf. and Gr. Kh. 1. 569. 

* . . . red rychc gold naylc) 
^Bt al glytered and gleni as glem of the suone.' 7&. 604. 

* fc gyltyf may contrysiyoun hente 
& be Wrj mercy to grace l>ry}t ; 

' Bot be to gyle ^at neuer glfni* 
At in-oscente is saf and ryjt.' E. Eng. AUil. Potms^ A. 1. 668. 
The editor explains the word in this last passage by * slipped, fell ;' but it would equally 
well bear the meaning, turned aside, which is nearly coincident with thai of our Clcvd. vb. 
gUnt. Comp. Welsh yiglmtio, to slide. Tlie sb. gltnt occurs in Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn, 
I. 1 390 : 

* peune ho gef hym god-day, and wyth a gltnt lajed, 
& as ho stod, ho stonjed hym wyth ful ttor word^.* 

' Ah nobbut gat a gUni ov 'im.* 
Qlep, V. n. To stare vacantly or as in astonishment. See Glop, 

GlifF, glift, sb. I. A short or hasty glance; a mere passing sight 
3. A glimpse of something startling or terrifying; thence, a fright or 
startling, or scaring. In Wh. Gl. Glift bears the second meaning, and 
GlifT the first : but there can be no doubt the words are essentially 

Note the usage of O. E. vb. a, and n. gliff* ghfi- 

' pc god man glyfie with t>at glani and gloped for noyse.' 

E. Emg. Allit. Poems. B. 1. 849 ; 


ihe «<Me »» iticcd, « 

A* hit ODD ^j6iadc a dovn.' 5ff- Gnr. wf ^. £«. L 9365. 
* Sr Gavs jBc ^jt/fta 00 the pme vzth a gSade wSc' Jfer*.lrtiupL3ii. 
Note a]«o ^ advcfbial fonn, ^jfi*- Conp. Dan. ^ifpt, t» warn, to wink, to si^p; 
E, ffi», aod al» S*. fli:^. Lov Gcnn. gUfpm, Sec See Wcd^. io t. OA. 
I. * Ab aobbot pt a i^;^ oo 't ;* a waat paMiog ^ancc- 
3. * " Ah pt a anr /^fV^ > £0* * ><*« >caiii^ or -bw OTnrth ip g," as the pfaosc 

CHint, V, n, i. To glaiK:e, or shine bn^sdy but tiaiKsientif. 2. To 
glance, or turn on one nde after impacL See Glent. 

J. * T Ao€<oonm gUmtaJ tX 'm wmgk, bhk ram aff a dndi's bode' 

Cooip, ' Oawajrn pzj^j hit (the bknr) bjd^ aod ^i«tf with no meoibve* 
Bot stodc stTlie a« >c ttoo. f*h* 1 ftnbbc aoHr. 
I^at nt>ekd h ia rocfae grooiule vhfa rotes a hu n Ji e t h-' 

Aer Gow. ad Or. £■. L M^a. 

CHip, sb. The result of negligence or want of care or vigilance : 
a word occurring in the phrase ' to give glip/ in use among bojs, and 
meaning to let one escs4>e or pass uncaugfat in the course of any boyish 

O, N. gtoPf gl*>pt iocnria, incoosideraiitia ; gt^paz, unprodenter £ucre ; gi*^, &ihire, 
nnhtck ; Dan. gtif, glipp0* a*. — At gaa* glip a/ mogtt: to £ul. or miss attaining a thing. 
U.D.glipt. Cf. ^ It ^urb ynn^MfU glt^A ; or johIm giijim : if throogfa beedlessiiess 
foa blonder. Antr. RiwU, p. 46. 

OUflk, V. n. To glisten or glitter, 

Comp. O. N. giyua, to glitter, sparkle ; Sw. D. glua, N. glisa^ glyf; O. Geim. gUxai, 
* It gUa^d lahk a piece o' gUss.' Wb, Ql. 

Gloaming, sb. The transitionary state between light and darkness 
at evening ; twilight. 

A. S. glomuttg^ glommung. A word verj nearly connected with Chaucer's gUmib*, and 
with gloumbt in E. Eng. Allii. Pomu, C. 1. 94 : 

* Oure lyre lyttes, he sayi, on sege so hyje 
In his glwande glory, and gloumbit fill lyttel, 
pa) I be nummen in Niniuie and naked dispoyled, 
On rode rwly to-rent^ with rybaudes mony ;* 
where the idea is to take serioui or considering notice. And here we nuy comp. Sw. D. 
glomma, glSma, to gasc at one attentirely, or with itedfast eyes ; gUmug, one with great 
eyes and gazing with them intently. From intentnets or seriousness of observation the idea 
seems to pass to that of frowning or sullen looking on or at : as when Fortime 
* . . . whilome woU of folke smile. 
And glombi on hem another while.' Cbaucer. 
Mr. Morris obsenres, Ol. to E. Eng. AUit. Pornu, that * it seems to be connected with 
O. N. giampa, to glitter, shine.' Rietz connecU the cognate glomma with Sw. D. glc^ to 


shine* to glitter ; O. N. gloa^ A. S. gtdwan, O. Germ. gUjem, E. Dial, jrfov, to itare, Sec. ; 
and, through some cognate form to glommn, we get Dan. D. g'/wm, fear^inspiring, scowling ; 
gittmtiuHdt, nearly answering to oor g^uxn, g^ampy ; N. S. gtummm, to look sullen or 
rengeful ; g'/«m. thick, of the water or ihe atmosphere ; gloomy, therefore. Mr. Wedgw. 
adds, * ProT. Dan. gittmnu, Swiss glumun, to glow iu a covert way, as coals beneath the 
ashes ; E. gloom ; a «>nd!tion of covered light : glomtng or gloaming, the time of day 
when the light shines obscurely from below the horizon ; like a person looking out from 
beneath his brows.* 

Gloore, glore, v. n. To stare with fixed look, to gaze intently. 
Spelt also Oloar, Glower. 

Sw. D. gUxra, to stare, to gaze intently ; N. glorot to stare. The original meaning of 
O. N. glora is to glare, as with excess of light, to glow as burning coals; in which sense 
N. S. gtwrtHj Dut. glortn, Swiss glorm, glartn occur. 

• He gloortd wi' baith een.' Wb. Gl. 

Glop, V. n. To Stare open-mouthed as in astonishment. 

O.^.glaptt, to stare, gape; "S, glipt, glayp*, to gape, stand wide open; Syr.D. glipa. 
Rietz considers these words as allied to gli<^, N. glupa, &c., X. to gulp down, to swallow 
with an effort ; a. to have the mouth open. Mr. Morris collates O. Fris. glupa, to look, to 
peep ; Dan. glipp*^ to wink. Compare also O. N. gUpa, caliginem oculis infundere. The 
word also takes the form Q-lep. Note — 

* ^e god man glyfte with )>at glam, and glo^d for aoyse* 

£. Eng, AlUt. Poems, B. 1. 849 ; 

of Lot, at Sodom, when required to give up his guests, where glopfd is explained by, 
* was terrified, frightened, amazed.' Our usage supplies an equally applicable sense ; 
as in, — 

• What are you standing and glopping at?' Wh. Gl. 

In Toumtl. Mysl. p. 1 46, where glop* occurs as a sb., the sense is that of glad surprise. 
Relieved by the suggestion made to put all the ' knave chyldren of two yerys bredc, and 
withe in' to death, so as to be sure to include the one dreaded one, Herod exclaims — 

* Now thou says here tylle 

A right nobylle gyn I 
If I lyf in land good lyfe, as I hope. 
Thus dar I the warand to make the Pope. 
O I my hart is rysand now in a glope J ' 

whereas before his expression had been — 

* My guttys wille oute thryng, 
Bot I this lad hyng. 
Withoutt I have avengyng 

I may lyf no langer/ 

Qloppen, V. a. To startle greatly, to terrify. 

See Olep, Q-lop, from which this is a derivative. 

• Thou wenys to glopyne me with thy gret wordes,' Hall. 

For agtsten, Aner. RiwU, p. 212, the Titus Version reads glopnen, in the sense of 
terrify: — ' (?e ateliche dcouel schal glopnen ham mid his grinime grennunge/ 



Olor, sb. Ulter or mere fat. 

Hall, gives ' (7/»r, soft coarse fit, not wdl set. Applied lo bacon.* He also give* 
* glcar-fat, ttntneiiscly fat.' and adduces the expression, 'not all glory-fat' from Fletcher'i 
poems. O. N. goUr is the ' leaf* of a sbcrp, or accumulation of fat about the kidneys and 
ncighbunring parts ; aud goUyrskmH, the pericardium. By metathesis thii becomes glvr, 

* " All of a glar and a jdly ;" trembling with adiposity.' Wh. Gl. 
■ " G/or-fat :" loose fat,' ' Ih. 

Glor-fiit, adj. Excessively fat See Glor. 

Olum, adj. Sullen-looking, gloomy. Sec Q-loaming. 

' As glum as a thunder-cloud.* Wh. Gi. 

Olumps, sb. Sulks ; the condition of being sullen or gloomily out 
of temper. See Gloaming. 

Glumpy, adj. Sullen, out of spirits and temper. 
Glut. sb. A large and thick wooden wedge, used in splitting blocks 
of wood, &c. 

Pr. Pm. ' Oyte, or dote, or vcggc (clete or wegge). Cinun*.' • Gluts, wedges. North.' 
Hall. Cf. N. D. glytta. Possibly connected with N. glott, an opening, a space bctwceti* 
a rift; Sw. D.gluft; and ihcncc with O. Dan. glut: — £m *r aliiJ god ton glutten /yldwr : 
all is good which fUls the glut ; the relationship bdng like that which characterises Dike, 
a ditch, and DtkOi a bank. The original coonectioo may be with A. S. difiamt diofioM^ 
Sw. D. Hiwa, to cleave, split. 

Gnag, nag, v. n. To assail pertinaciously with reproaches or re- 
marks tending to irritate, but all of a petty nature. 

O. N. gnaga. rodcre ; nagga, litigare ; nagg, vilis ct trdiosa contcntio ; Dan. nage, 
to gnaw, to annoy; Sw. and Sw. D. gnaga; Sw. D. gnagH^ gtaga, gmapa^ Stc; A.S. 
gmagam ; O. Qerm. nagan ; Dut. knagen. 

* He 't atla's knaggin* an' knaggin', fra moom to necght.* 

Comp. ' GvbbtH gnov pd nuj frh mSra te kvaU:' the old fellow gnaggtd at me from 
mom till even. 

Gnarl, v. n. To gnaw, as a mouse does. 

Comp. Dan. D. gnaidt^ gnaJdrt, lo gnaw, or nibble, or rasp Mrith the teeth at the edges 
of a thing : as, mvan bar gnaldret a/atm : the mouse has gnarled (nibbled) at the cheese. 
The word is a frequaitativc oi gnaga, gnava, Bcc, 

GncuT, sb. A knot in, or from, a tree. See Knarr, Knorr. 
Gnarr, v. n. To growl, as a dog. 

Sw, kuaria ot knarra, to giumble, to growl ; Sw. D. gnarktit gmirka, gnnrrdit gnttrratt 
id. ; N. S. gnarrtn^ to creak, to mumitir, to grumble ; gnurren, to gnimble, to bellow, to 
growl, Comp. O.N. knurr, monTiur ; knurra, to murmur, to growl; Dan. hmmnt and 
A. S. /,Hyrran, to gnash. 



Onipe, V. a. To crop, or nip off with the teeth, herbage, &c., in 
short lengths. See Knipe, Knep. 

Thii form is giren in Wb. Gl., and by HaII. It is no doubt identical with Knipe. 

Goal, gole, v. n. To blow in strong currents or blasts, as the wind 
does when acted on by bome peculiarity of local configuration, or of the 
buildings, Ac, it meets with in its course. Also spelt Goul, and some- 
times pr. gawl. 

O. N. gola, to blow, as the wind does, in blasts; Sw. D. goia, or gaJa^ to blow softlv oi 

Gob, sb. The mouth. 

Gael. ^06, the mouth ; * ludicroosly applied,* Wcdgw. The real meaning seems to be 
an opeiting, especially a wide one; and the word is probably rundamentally allied with 
gapt, O. N. gapa, Dan, gab, &c. 

Gobble, V. n. To reply insolently to anything said, but with llie 
insolence of sullen discontent rather than passion : probably implying 
as much the action of the mouth, as the words employed. 

* To gohbU* says Wedgw., * is to eat voraciously, from the noise of liquids pouring down 
the throat. In Dat. gobtltn, Fr. degobUUr, O. N. guhba, to vomit, the term is applied to 
the rusb of liquid upwards instead af downwards.' Similarly, our word — unlus it be taken 
at allied to O. N., and Sw. D. gabba. Sec, to mock, treat with scorn or insolence — will be 
formed from the peculiar oral action employed and the sounds origioatlng in it. 

GobBtring, sb. A bridle. 
Go'-'cab-ye. An imprecation. 

God-'en, godden. A salutation, contracted for ' good e'en/ or ' good 

' I give you goddtn.' Wh. Gl. 

God-shild, interj. (pr. God-sharld). God avert, God forbid. 

God shield, God defend, or God protect, origiiully. 

* }p\M ill J>ai ever mar coiityuuely 

Haf parfite payoe Jiar, withouten mercy, 

Fra whilk payne and sorow God us ibUdtV Pr. o/Consc. 1.9469. 

* God scbildg hise sowle fro hellc bale.' Gtn. and Ex. p. 73. 

* God sMd the, son, from syn and shame.' Towntl. Mytt. p. 44. 
Id Chaucer the phrase occurs in our neuter seme of God forbid, pp. 66. 103. 

God'a-pexmy, sb. Earnest-money, given to a servant on concluding 
the hiring compact ; customarily half-a-crown. 

S. O. Gudspeaning ; O. Sw. Go\>s fanningar ; O. Dan. Gudsptttntng, GudzpenniHg, 
eamcit-moncy giren on completion of a bargain or contract; Dan. Dial. Oudspengt; 
Sw. D. Gtiu-p«rming, eantest-money given to a servant on cooduding an engagement to 
serve a master for a term; Germ. OoOn-fttmiftg ; N. S. Godisg^; Fr. demur dt Ditu; 


It. denario di Dio ; Detutrius Dtiy m Da Fresne : also HtiHgts G*i$u$ p/aming. Ihre 
quotes the following curious passage from ' Laurent. Petri Dialogus de missa :' * &Krv- 
menUt or oss gifunt likawis som en Gudspenning, tUtr, torn tw nu mje^ m fisttpmmmg tiU 
sdmjo oeb kerlth :* the sacrament is given us like as it were a God's^tetuiy — or* as we DOW 
say, a festing-penny — unto concord and charity. See FestiBg-penny. 
• " I draw you to recorde, lordes alt :'* 
With that he cast him gods penny.' Perc/s Fol. MS. i. 1 79. 

Goke, sb. The central portion of anything ; as the core of an apple, 
the inmost part of a hay-stack, the yolk of an eg^, the harder or more 
solid mass in a boil or ulcer which does not come away like the fluid 

Comp grindU-coke, defined by Wedgw. as * a remnant of an old wom-down grindstone ;' 
by Hall, as * a worn-down grindstone.' It is essentially the core — so to speak— or mitral 
portion of the original stone, and reduced to its present shape and dimeosifnu by wear. 
This word eokt, colk or colke, and our Qoke are simply forms of one and the same word. 
The following passage is. then, instructive : — 

* For alle erthe by skille nuy likend be 

Til a roundc appel of a tree, 

l^at even in myddes has a coiie ; 

And swa it may be tille an egge yholke : 

For als a dalk es even Imydward 

pe yholke of t>e egge, when it es hard, 

Rygbt swa es helle pitte, als derkes telles 

Ymyddcs t>e erthe.' Pr. of Cons. 6443. 
Coiie here, then, it is fully evident, is a central hoUow, tike the 'dalk' in the yolk of the 
hard-boiled egg, or the receptacle of the seeds of the apple. The next step in tense is to 
that which would, or which actually does, fill up the place of such a central hollow. Thus 
the word comes to mean the hard yolk, or the yolk in any condition, of the egg itself, the 
central remnant of the grindstone, the innennost portion of a hay-stack, the Bitfurt or 
core of an ulcer which remains when all the matter else is discharged ; and even the entire 
round ovum or pellet of roe from the spawn of a fish : for I think there can be little doubt 
that KeUc is essentially the same word as eoike or colk. Mr. Wedgwood quotes GaeL 
eaoebf empty, caoebag^ a nut without a kernel. Comp. Dut. kolkt a pit or deep hollow, 
and Sw. D. kSIp-djup, of the same meaning, which Rietz thinks may very possibly have 
been in its original form kdlk-djup. ' Roten at the eolit' occurs in Toiumd, Mytt. p. a8x. 

Qoldens, gouldens, guldemi, sb. The dry, charred stems of the 
ling left after burtdng the moor. 

The orthography of this word is uncertain. In Cr. 01. it appears as Ung-eoUin's, ex- 
plained ab ' burnt heath or ling, probably ling-coalings, the Ung being burnt as black as 
a coal.' Of the ling, however, nothing whatever is left save the thicker part of the main 
stem, which is black enough for a space next after the fire; but eventually the charred part 
gives way to the inBuences of rain and weather, and the colour, from black, becomes brown 
or yellow, or is even bleached to an impure white. Here the initial consonant is certainly 
not c, but g. Cf. Dan. en gold bede, a barren heath ; gold grund, infertile land. 

Gk>merill, sb. A fool, a natural bom. 

Here the word sounds both Oaumerill and Qommefel or Qom'rel. Brock, gives 
goHHerilAndgoHtill: Hal), the form gonnerbead i while Jam. also wntagampbnU, The latter 



refer* to Sibbald'i derivation of the word from Fr. goimpre, goi»/r*t and then to Grose's 
• gamnuTt to idle ; gomirili, a sflly fellow ; and ganurstangs, a great, foolish, wanton girle/ 
Pouibly, what vriuacrt is relatirely to wise, that Qomerill or Gaumerill is to g&um. 

Good, adj. Used to qualify words expressive of quantity or number ; 
as a good few, a good little ; meaning, respectively, a tolerable num- 
ber, neither very scanty nor very numerous, and a quantity that is not 
very large without being at the same time really small. 

* Gndi, adjectivis adverbiisque additum, significationetn intcndit. Sic gvdi nog cft. 
oppido satis.* Ihre. in v. Gud (Deus) ii. This is curious when set side by side with the 
usage above noted. 

Goodies, sb. Sugar sweetmeats for children; the 'suckers' of the 

Sw. D. gutter, sweetmeati ; Swiss gutiii, sugar sweetmeats for children. Comp. Sw. D, 
giHi!t, raisiiis. 

Goodliko, adj. Having a good appearance, goodly, well-looking, 

O N. godliir, bonus, prTsUns. eximtus : Hgills. Sw. D. godlH, g^'*. goodly. exccUenl. 
' There 's many a goodlike nought :' Wh. GI.,^a variation upon • Nulb fronti fides,' ' All 
is not gold that glitters,' * Ninnutn ne crede colori,* &c. 

Gorp, gorpin, sb. A featherless or unfledged bird, as when just 

A word of uncertain derivation and orthography. Hall, gives gor, Westm., and garhii, 
Yorks. ; Jam. fnives gorbet, gorbling, gorling, gordlin, gorbel, gorb and garb : bcsidci 
gorlin-bair, the hair on young birds before the feathers come ; and gorlin, bare, unfledged, 
Wb. Gl. gives gorp^ gorpin ; but neither Ltedi CW., O. Ql., nor Brock, give the word at 
all. Nuticing the word garfwa, to curry, to dress or prepare leather, Ihrc says it is derived 
from Germ, gtrben or garben. He then adduces Finn, cnrvari, with the same meaning* 
adding, that in the same tongne ' canvoan means to clear of hair, which conducts ui to 
earwa or canifan^ which in that tongue means bair, Jvr.' Probably Gorp* G-orpin, &c., 
arc connected with carwa and its rcUtives, even if garfwa, gerhnt, giirbtn be not : the idea 
being of down or/wr opposed to fcafhert. 

Gossamer, sb. The soft white downy filaments seen suspended on 
the herbage or floating in tlie air after a continuance of fine summer-like 
weather in the early autumn. 

The Germ. tomrrur'Jaden, summer-tliread ; tomimr-Jfockev, summer-locks or flocks, ex- 
pressive of the light filmy form of the substance — cf. ubna-jloch, a snow-flake ; somniir- 
lotbf, summer-web — our Clcvcl. Uuawipe or Muaweb, as also Afarirn/aden, unter litben 
Frauen ftiden, Marien-garn, all point to the idea ol a fabric, of what is spun or wrwen. 
Hence Carr's suggestion that tummer-goose, as a North prov. name for gosionur, may indi- 
cate the origin of the word, is not an unreasonable one — iummer-goou^ that is, tummer- 
gauze; and thence, by an inversion of ttic compoaent elements, goaamer; or gosiortur, as 
Mr. Wcdgw. writes it, with the explanation ' properly God-sununei.* The names Afarien 
/adtfi, vnsfrcr lUber Fraurn fxiden, arc derived, he adds. ' from the legend that the gossonier 
is the remnant of our Lady's winding-sheet, which fell away in fragtttents when she was 
taken up into Heaven. It is this Divine origin which ts indicated by Uie first syllable of the 

og a 



E. word/ Comp. the like practical ellipsis of the legeod in the Genu, rumes tUr sommtr, 
fiitetndt sommtr. Still. Gos^GotTs is not in itself lati&factory, wid the form tumnur-gooM 
maxes decidedly against it. Goose, corrupted from gtmzt, and contracted into gw^ u in 
gcsiing^ is clearly more probable. 

Gtotherly, adj. 

Kind, of a kindly or warm-hearted disposition, 

Cf. M. O. gadiligga, a friend ; O. Genn. gatvlinc, gettJmg', M. Germ, getelinc, gttUing, 
a frieiid, comfunioTi, chosen or kindly as^ndate ; A. S. gadeling, a companion. But ope- 
ciftlly comp. Fris. gaddiU, N. Fiis. godlike M. Germ, gttelik, N. Sax. gaadlieh, suiuble, 
agreeable. Note also Sw. D. g'dding, gadung ; Dan. D. gantuHg or ganding; 'a word," 
»ayj Molb. {Dans.k D. Lex.), * of frequent use and various applications, almost inrariably 
in conjunction with the verb to be, and taken to signify what it serviceable or profitable, 
what is suitable, or according to one's manner of thought, taste, or convenience : as. det 
tr tmn gopiningt or det er just min ganning : that is just what I like.' Add U.gade, gadtng, 
a fclkiw. an equal, a mate ; gifte; te gietes; te gUfnaU r after one's convenience or liking. 

' A heart-warm, gotberly set.' Wh. Gl. 

In the passage, Totvnel. Myst. p. 8, 

' Gedlyngti I am 1 fnlle grcte wat, 
A good ycmau my master hat, 
Fulic wellc yc allc hym ken ;'— 
the word gedJyng scetns wrongly explained by * an idle vagabond.* A. S. gadeling supplies 
its real origin, with perfect suitability as to sense ; riz. mates, comrades. Comp. the term 
of addreu used two or three lines before — * fdowes.' 

Qoupen, gowpen, sb, i. The hollow or containing part of the 
hand. 2. The quantity that can be contained or held in the hollow of 
the hands. Also called Oowpen-ftill, 

* Gbpn, manus concara. O. N. gaupn. Apud no*, utphirimuin usurpatur pro tanto quaiv 
turn simni manu capere possis.' Ihre. Sw. D. gUpn, the hollow hand when the fingers are 
about half closed ; also, a handful, both hands employed. Rietz. Other forms are gofpeM, 
goiken, gvjn, gi'Pa, giffrn. Also R. Jut!, gohn (pr. gown or gufii), the two hands laid 
together and partly closed. Molb. {D. Dial. Lex.) gives S. Juil. gwe or g»vtte, the huUow 
hand, and other forms, gan/, gimben,gi»bn, besides these two from Vcndsyssel.^i'anqv.g'in'n. 

' *' Double gtnifpens;*' as much as the two hands put together will contain.' Wb. Gl. 

* ** They gat gold by gowp'n*;" soon became rich.' lb. 

With this last comp. det er in/ godt at grave gull med gobn .' it is not well to dig gold by 
gowpem, quotrd by Kok ; and at gribe guld pud ginmer: to grip ho'd o' gou'd tij 

Qoupen-fUll, sb. The quantity which can be contained or held in 

the hollow of the two hands placed together. 

Comp- S. Jutl. en gohnfull bakkeis' : a gmopem'Jull o' 
gi^hen-fitld. Swab, gauftt^ a good handful, &c. 

chop. i.e. of chafT; Vendsys. 

Gowk, sb. The cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), 
O.N. gankr: Sw. gok; Sw. D. gattk, gok, gauk; Dan. g9g; A. S. geae; 

; Na 

M. Genn. 

goneb : Nats, gauch. 



A fool ; one who is awkward in mind and body. See 


Gowk, sb 

Growlandf sb. The com marigold {Chrysanihemum sfge/um). 
also Oolland, Gouland. 

Comp. gulle-hlommor, the Sw, D, lumc for the same flower. This is coiiucctcd by 
RieU with guld, gold. Either it, or gul, yellow, furnishes the derivation of the present 

* " As yellow as a gotvland ;" jaundiced.' Wb. Oi. 

Grace, sb. Benefit, advantage, good results or fortune. 

A cnriotu tue of the word, not yet quite obsolete, Comp. barde ^ra» => misfortune. 
* First he wounded me in the face ; 

My eycn were safe, that was my graet* Percy's Pol. MS, i. p. 359. 
' For the devil is oft disguised 
To bring a man to evil gract.' Plovmtan't TaU, p. 189. 
•"Ye've kesscn yer gre't coal, than?" "Aye, Ahhci; an' Ah'f gettcc nae jrocf wir 
It nowthcr." ' Wh. OI. 

Gradely, adv. See Graithly. 

Graft, sb. i. The depth reached by one act of digging, a spit. 
3. The portion of soil, peat, &c., turned up by one application of the 
spade. See Spade-graft. 

0. N. grbftr, S. G. griji, Sw. D. groft^ Dan. grmfl; litcnlly, that which is dug, exca* 
rated. Sec v. a. Grave. 

1. ' Ah *B duggeit a' mah garth tweea grafis deep.' 

a. * Get a grn/t up fira' t' bottom, an' leuk what *t 's like.* 

Grafting-tool, sb. A long, narrow, concave spade, or digging instru- 
ment, used in draining, 

Grain, sb. A separate, linear portion of a thing, whether still at- 
tached, or detached from the rest ; as the branch of a tree, the dne of 
a fork. 

O. N, grtitt, Sw. grert, Dan. green, a bough, that which grows separately from the rest 
of the tree. Sw. D. greu is the angle (yinitl) which two shoots or branches of a tree, 
springing from the same point, form with each other ; also the crotch ot fork of the thighs. 
Tlie O.N. vb. n greina, to divide, separate; not including the idea of to wvcr, necessarily. 
Rietz collates tcpivuv, to dilcruniiutc, by separate. 

' And as he rode still on tlic pUine, 
He saw a lady sitt in a grain*.' Percy's Folio MS. 1. 75. 

Graining, sb. The fork, or division of a tree into branches. 

Comp. Sw. D. grra, grajn, the fork, or angle made by two coincident shoots of a tree, 
or by the thighs ; grnnar, the two thighs, with the angle between them. 

Graith, v. a. To furnish, provide or equip ; occurring most fre- 
quently in the p. participle; as, bonnlly graithed, ill graithed, both 


applied to dress or clothing; a well graithod table, a table nicely or 
handsomely set out, &c. 

O. N. grtiSa, to straighten out, unrold. prepare, wofk out, make ready ; N. grmh, 
grria; Sw. D. grr/{d), graj{J), grtda, grta^ id. Comp. the vuioiu mniUnp or the O. £. 

' I shall grayth thi gate. 
And fiille wcllc orJeyn thi sUte.' 7*ounw/. Myai. p. 47. 
Fnl gTayt*ely got) |>U god nun (^Noah) and dos gode; hcstes 
In diy) drcd and daungcr. bat durst du iion o\>vx. 
WbeD hit (the Ark) wat) fettled and forgrd and to Vt fuUe grayWd, 
pta ccpo dryjttyn hem dele dryjlv J'Tse wordc}.' 

E. Eng. AUil. Poems, B. L J4I. 

• Wbai GuenoTc ftil gay grayV«ii in Jie my<ld» 
DrcBscd on t>e dere d«.' Sir Gaw. and Or. Km. L 74. 

• There godc Gawajm watj f^ay\>td, Gwcnore bysyde. 
And Agravayn on |>at o^icr syde Miles.' Ih. I. 109. 

• A cheyer by-fore t»c chemn6 .... 
Watj grayPed for »yr Uawan. gnyMy with clo|>e>.* lb. I. 876- 

Oraith, graithing, sb. i. Equipment of any kind ; fumiture, cloth- 
ing, &c. 2. In a more general sense, belongings at large. 

See Oraith, vb, Cf. O. N. reidi, the tackling of a ihip; N. greidt, grtia, id.; Sw. D. 
grtja, grtjtr or grajtr, effects, furniture, collection of goods and chatteU ; Genn. gerri, 
naval tackling ; Dut. gfreidi. gerti^ fumiture. chatteU. goods, equipment ; Germ, geraih, 
implement», goods. 8u., whence Dan. grraad, bua^gtrttad, houftchold goods and fiitntture, 
with which comp. QeveL TeA-ffrAithinc for tea-equipage at large. In O, E. writen the 
word sectni often 10 stand for dctpatch, quickness, or readiness in that sense. Thus, 

' T^e raryn, dorst I lay, wtlle com agane tone, 
He ntay happyn to day com agaiie or none 
With grtUh: Tomui, Myti. p. ja. 

Oraithly, adv, Decently, in order, mensefUlly. 

See Qraitfau The word in the O, E. writers seems often to take the meaning, readily, 
preparedly or speedily, rather than any more like its lucsning with ut Thusi— 

* ^is gret clerk teltes ^ui in a bukc. 

** Behalde," he says, " grayibtly and loke, 
Herbes and tresc >at h^u sees spryng. 

And take gudc kepe what |)«e forth bryng." * Pr. o/Coiue. 1. 644. 
Still. Ottr meaning also ii met with : — 

• A cheyer by-fore he chenuKi, l>er cliarcole brained. 
Wan grayjittJ for Syr Gawaa. gray^Iy with closet.* 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Km. I. 875 ; 
' And sy^ hm al ^ nie, as hem best senied 
Bi vche gronie at hit degre gray^y wati scnied.' Xb. L IO05 [ 
that ii, decently, iairly, fitly. 


Grane, v. n. To make the sound which accompanies a great effort, 
such as lifting a very lieavy weight, or ihe like : not infrequently sounded 
as gaim. 

Sw. D. grAna, to emit a dull sound from within ; whether of person or thing, as a tub, 
a door ; O. N. grtnja. to nimble, bellow. See Gnng, HalL There seenu to be a distinction 
bctwcai this word and gman, the pqil. of which, in Pr. o/Cotuc. I. 798, takes the fona 

Oraas-widow, sb. A woman of loose character, a prostitute. 

HalL gives as the definition of this word, ' an unmarried woman who has had a child / 
and in Moor's Suffolk Words and Pbram, Gracr-widouf u ' a woman who bad a child 
for her cradle ere she had a hosband fnr her bed ;' and corresponding with this is the N. S. or 
Low Germ. groA-wtdeuf*. Again, Sw. D. grds-iinkat or -tnka^ grass-widow, occurs in the 
same sense as with us — * a low, dissolute, unnurried woman, living by herself.' The 
original meaning of the word seems to have been (see Ihre) ' a woman whose husband is 
away,' either travciting, or Uving apart. The people of Belgium call a woman of this 
description back-v/edewe, from iMchm. to fed strong desire. * Similarly gnamJia seems to 
come from gradtanka, from gradig. esurieat.* It seems probable then, nrom the ety- 
mology taken in connection with the Clcvel. signiBcation, that our word may rather be 
from the Scand. source than from the German; only with a traiulation of the word eitJka 
into it* English equivalent. Dan. D. graienke it a female whose beiroihcd lorei {Joittnan) 
is dead; nearly equivalent to which is Gtrm. strobwittive, literally straw-widow. Compare 
* man of straw.' 

Grave, v. a, (pr. greeav'). To dig, to use a spade, or Spit, for 
either digging or paring purposes. See Spit, Turf-graving, Grove, 

O. N. gra/a .- O. Sw. gra/a, grava^ gra/wa ; Sw. gni/va ; Sw. D. griiva. grava ; Dan. 
grave; O. Geim. graban; N. S, graven; A. S. grafan; M, G. grabtut^ — all meaning to 
engrave, lo dig, 

* Ah 's bin gT0favin* t* w'oll deca i* t* priest's gaarden.* 

* He 's awa* *t peat-moor grttavin' peats.' 

Groaeehom, sb. A flatterer or sycophanc. 

'The farmers have a cow's hom, Hllcd with grease, slung to their carts, for oiling their 
axletrees.* Wh, Ol. The allusion seems apparent. 

Great, adv. Used augmentatively, as in tlie expressions, great foul, 
of great or huge size ; groat likely, very Ukely, extremely probable, or 
' lo be sure.' See Hall, in v. ' Great-like/ 

* A gnai-foui ox/ W*. G/. 
' A grva/-foul cart-rut.' 

Great-likely (pr. grete-likly). Very likely, almost certainly. 

Gree, v. n. To agree, come to an understanding or concord. 



a. A greedy, covetous, or 

Greed, sb. i. Greediness or avarice. 
avaricious person, a miser. 

The word occurs in both meanings in Chaucer. O. N. grddr, greedineic, in both 
Sw. D. grdden ; O. Sw. gradh, greedincM after food ; grajiu\g), greedy. 

1. ' The devil will grip hiin for hU gretd.' Wh. Gl. 

2. ' A close-fisted grttd.' lb. 

To cry, to weep: 

Greet, v. n. (pret. gret or grat, p. p. gretten). 
silently, rather than with any loud outcry. 

O.N. grata (prel. grit); O. Sw, grata (pr. grtt or grettf); Sw, grdta; Sw. D. grata 
(imp. gret or grit), grata (pr. gret), grdta (pr. grot); f)m. gradt; IA,Q. griitm; A. S. 
gratan (pr. grit, p. p. grattn) ; O. Sax. griotan, &c. 

Grenky, adj. Out of sorts, unwell, complaining ; in the latter sense 
especially. See Cranky. 

O.N. krniUrr, sick, wealdy. out of lorti; O. Sw. hrrtnk*r i Sw. D. krank; N. hnmk; 
Dan. krank; Germ, and Dut. krank. Comp. Sw. D. kratikiig, poor, indgnificanL 
* Ah fccIs grtnky a* ower me.' Wb. Ql. 

OrilT, sb. A deep narrow glen or valley ; a ravine, but on a small or 
gentler scale. 

The jdei involved is probably that of a space hollowed out or ezcarated. in which lense 
— the excavation or hollowing, however, being on a smaller scale, as well as actual or done 
by hand — we have O. Sw. grip, gript, grift, u well as Sw. grijt, a grave, an excavation in 
the earth, and grofa, to excavate or hollow out. Comp. S. Jutl. grov, Dan, grmjit 
O. N. grdf. Sec. The word is pmcrved to us in more than one local name. Skiiu)ing> 
grave, on our coast, in a document of the date 1272 is written Skinnegrive: SktM€rgretve, 
41 Kdw. Ill; and otherwise Skiantrgre/e, Scc. Mulgravc, again (often corrupted into 
MnJ-gr^ves) in Domesday stands as Ghf, and later forms are Mulgreve. Mongrtve, &c. 
FaUgrave near Scarborough is another instance of the occurrence of the s«nie word, and 
justified by local configoration at at Mulgrave and Skmoinggrove. The kxal Pr. grove, it 

Grime, sb. Soot, or soot-like matter. 

Sw. D. grima, a spot or speck of toot on the face ; N. grima, a spol or smut, especially 
on the face: Dan. grime, id.; O. Sw. grima, a inask for the face; O.N. grima, id.; 
A. S. grima, id. : N. Fris. grime, a roatk, or black spat, or smut, on the face : Dan. D. grim 
or griim, the set black, or hardened soot, on a pot. It seems scarcely possible to doubt the 
close couuection between Qiinie in its sense, soot, smut, black, and grima, a mask. The 
transition seems to have been from an artificial covering for the face or part of the face, to 
any incidental and removable discoloratioti, apparent discoloration, or cause of apparent di»- 
coloration of the face or countenance, and whether in man or beast. Thus N. gritna, Dao. 
grime is a halter or bridle, tliat is, a dark band covering part of the horse's head 1 but they 
also signify a dirk coloured patdi on a creature's head : whence aUo Sw. D. grimig, applied 
lo cattle with white stripes on a dark head ; albeit Dan. grimet means, with a white head 
and dark stripes or blotches. The last step is to the black oc smut 00 the face ; and tbcoce 
to the black or stnut ftKlf. 



Qrime, v. a. i. To blacken, or daub with sooty matter. 2. To 
blacken metaphorically, to defame or vilify. 

Moth give* O.Dan, grirw, to Macken. d.iub with blick; and Molb, {Damh Gloss.) 
quotes grijHet, blackcitcd, murkcd with black; from burning, naincly ; as applied lo trcci 
iitiiatc on boundary Un» and having bumt or blackened spaces on them to mirk llicui out 
from others : as, ocb sa copp atb then mosse, som thet gr'imitb tr<rix staar, wb sa Jra lb*t 
trot, &c. Rietz has no dcubt that a corresponding word — grirna — signifying to make 
black, smutty or dirty, to pollute, has once existed in tttc Sw. tongue. But I do not know 
any analogous usage of the word to that presented in our second senie. Cf. Block, to dc- 
hine, sUudcT, Tillfy. 

Griming, sb. A slight covering with a matter that can be sprinkled 
or scattered evenly and slightly, as snow ; a sprinkling. 

This word ii probably due to the (apparently) original conception of the word grimt. 
Sec Grime, sb. I scarcdy thiuk that it is iniraediatcly connected with O. N. brim in its 
mere sense of frvina, except in so far as that is connected with grima, ras eongehius ; but 
rather with the thought of a disguising, but, at the same time, remorablc caveriug. 

Grimy, adj. Slanderous, given to blacken or defame a person. 
* " A grimy toiigue ;" a slanderous tongue.' Wh. Gi. 

Grip, V. a. To take hold firmly, to grasp or seize quickly and 

0,U. gr{pa,\o hold light with the hand; O. Sw.. Sw.. and $v.D. gripa, Dzn. gribt^ 
to catch hold, grasp, hold light witli the h4nd ; O. Qcmi. gri/an, cri/an ; /i.S.grifaH. 
In N. grifa, vowd-iound aud sense are both exactly as in our grip. 

* He wur ]est fallb' off t' cart when Ah gripp'd turn by his dacs.* 

* Qrip ho'd, nun.' 

Grip, sb. A trench or ftirrow hollowed along the surface ; a channel 
or small ditch. 

O. Sw. grip, an excavation made by digging, a grave ; Sw. D. grip, a ditch, channel, hole 
dug; Sw. grop; Sw. D. grvh, a ditch, channel; Vaw. D. grrA, grov : O.N. gr6/, gruf; 
O. Germ. gr6ha ; A. S. gr<xp, grep, a grip, furrow, ditch. Note Pr, Pm» ' Growpc, where 
becstys, as nete, standyn.' Sec Cow-srip. 

Gripe, sb. (pr. grahp or graip). A dung-fork ; or, more generally, a 
fork which may be applied to digging purposes. 

S. O. grepe, a three-tincd fork for stable purposes, &c. ; Sw. grtpit dynggrtpty id. ; Sw. D. 
grehd, ding-grep; Dan. grth^ mmg-grtb. 

* A three-grained, or three-grain grabp.' 

' I grapt dc fcrro pro finiis.' Fincb. Pr. p. lii. 

Grip-hold, sb. (pr. grip-ho'd). A handle, or any projecting part of 
an object which may be conveniently and firmly grasped. 

Comp. O. N. grmp, a handle ; Sw. D. grep, id., dorr-grtp, tlic handle of a door ; N. grip. 




Qrob, V. n, i. To search or examine by ihe sense of feeling, as 
with the hand in any dark place, or where the assistance of sight is not 
available ; a pocket, e. g., or a dark hole, or drawer. 2. To be desultory 
or unsettled in occupation or haunt. 

A very near connection nf E. gropt^ ittclf cbsely connected with a large number of wtwil* 
in various languages and dialects, the primary idea in all of which ii graiping. taking witli 
the hands, whence aUo, feeling or fumbling with the hands as in preparation to lake oi 
catch hold of. Conip, Sw. gral>ha; Urrl. kraban, the open hand ; Sw. I), grabbatag, krab- 
haiag, a taking with the whole hand ; besides many other like words, all dehralivcs from 
gripa. Clomp, atso, — 

* The text (pain) 11 iwi mykel myrkncs 
That it may be graptd, iwa thik it c»,* Pr. of Come. 1.6566; 
where the idea is more than possibly a transitionar)- one to that of feeling, from that of 
grasping ; ai certainly in ' Gropt and fete 6esh and bone and forme of muL* T bi ww / . Mytt. 
p. l8j. See also Anar, RiwU, p. 314. 

Grob, sb. A small-sized, insignificant-looking person; one whose 
appearance is the very reverse of imposing or personable. 

Comp. Welsh erob, cru/b, what is shrunk into a round heap ; a hunch, # 

' " A labile grobi" a dtuiinutivc person.' WJ. Ol. 

Qrobble, v. n. (pr. often, almost as if written groflle or gmflle). 
I. To poke about, as with a stick in a hole, or among a number of 
objects. 2. To feel about among a number of things for one in 
particular. 3. To loiter or hang idly about; to be long over one's 
work, or any job in hand. 

• GrAJIt propric fodicare nntat. sed usorpatur fere de its, qui, aliquid qttxsituri. res somini 
deorsum rcrtunt :' properly signi6es to dig into, to stick in— fodicare latut, *to give one j 
dig in the side' — but is uiually applied to the action of persons who, when looking For an 
ubiect, turn things upside down. Ihre. Comp. Sw. and Sw. D. grahUti^ to lake hold of a 
thing, but uncertainly, as if not qnitc able to grasp it. There is an Eng. D. form grabble. 
The O. Sw. form u twice interesting, as not only being a parallel word, but also as giving 
the /form of it. like the Clevel Pr. 

Grose, v. n. To save up money, amass substance. 

M. Germ. gr6zen, to become great, sustain accessions ; gr<EUn, to make great, add lo. 
Sw. D. grota, to exalt or magnify above measure, exists, and is considered by Rietv 10 l>e 
analngnui. at least, to the Germ, words above quoted. Our word is one which does not 
appear in Hall, or the Northern Qlossanes generally. Wb. Gl., however, has it. 

Grosor, sb. A sa\ing and thriving person, one who has the gift of 
accumulating money. 

Grossy, adj. ThriWng, vegetating rapidly and vigorously, full of 
growUi. Perhaps an oral corruption of Growthy. 
Comp. Dot. grrme, rigour, growth ; Dan. gfwU, growth of plants. 


Groimd-work, sb. The preparator)* work in laying the foundation 
of a building, on which the mason-work proper is laid. 

See Pr.Pm. nole to GrowntU, where the grouHii-werk of Kotlicringay Cestle ii men- 
tioned, but u }ht foundaiiotu rather than in the scdk given above. 

Grouty, adj. Soiled, dirty-looking, begrimed. 

The complete meaning of this word is doubtless ' smeared or coated with sediment,* 
grouts, grotiridi; and thence — as sediment is usually thick, nmddy, dirty — the genctal 
meaning given above. ' Duf. grutie, gruytt, drtgs; the grainy or lumpy matter left to 
decoctions or infusions, as the grains in beer, or tlie grout* (corruptly gromndi) in colTcc ; 
.... grouty, dreggy, thick, muddy. Dut. gruy/en, to mud, or clean out canals.' Wcdgw, 
Comp. also N. grui, diegs ; gruttn^ thick, muddy ; Sw. D. groasej, dregs ; gronJig, turbid, 
thick, dreggy: the stock, in these latter words, being gmt, grud or gry/, gravel, small 
ftones, grits ; the connection between which and the smaU sedimentary matters which coa- 
stitnte ' dregs' is not hard to recognise. See Wcdgw. in rv. GnVs, Groitf Orot/t. 

Grov, grove, sb. The Pr. of Groove. 
Gpovo. Prct. of Grave. 

Comp, O. N. grafix^ preL gre*/; Sw. D. griva, grov; Dan. grave, grov: M. G. gr(J>aM^ 


Groven, growen. P. p. of Grave. 

O. N. gra/a, p. p. grafmt. 

Grow-day, sb. (pr. the <m} nearly as in how). A day peculiarly 
suited to promote vegetation, mild and warm after showers, or during 
their continuance. See Grow-weathor. 

* A dcsper't fahn grouhdny for seear !' 

Growthy, adj. (pr. grQthy — the like the in both, and the sound of 
the M almost merging into that of ss. See GroBsy.) Full of growth, 
luxuriant, growing rapidly and to a large size ; of vegetables, growing 
crops, &c. 

Grow-weather, sb, Weather such as to promote rapid and vigorous 
vcgclalion, moist, genial and warm. See Grow-day. 

* Gr6drar-ve4r, act tepidtu, humtdtis : varmi og /ugtig vtJTt torn «r btqvtmi for jord- 
Vixxumi: warm, moist weather, such as is calculated to promote vegetation' (Hald.) ; also 
Dan. D. grade-ve'ir, and tt grmdtligt vtir , .ind the S. Jull. expression, det er got gr»tU 1 « 
mjr: there's a vast o' grow i' l' weather. 

* lu tahm wc bed a lahtlc grtrtvwtatbtr* 

Grub, V. n. To be affected or injured by grubs ; of growing crops. 

" T' com '« iMxtgrubbtd i* niony spots t' year,' 




Qrue, adj. Grim or morose-looking ; lowering, dark, dismal Spelt 
Grou in Wh, GL 

Wtdgw. giro * Grow, to be troubled. — B. To groso mx gry, to be a^hb; grrmmmm, 
fearful, Ukath»otnr. — Hall., DaD. gru, horror, terror; grv«t to ibuJdcr at; Gcmi. gramtn^ 
to hare » fear uiiitcU with ihutMcring ; DuL gnuuvn, grotnoelet, horrerc' 
•So ap-cucd tor grcme he grytd witfa-innc, 
Alle i'C Mode of hU brcsl blende m hU face 
^at at he ichrauk for ftchotne ^al \>c ftchalk talked.' 

Sir Gaw. and Gr, Kn. 1. ^370. 
Add Sw. grujvn sig, O. Sw. grvjva tA, Sw. D. gnnta %ej: to be troubled, to shew sigm of 
trtiubtc til countenance or manner, to be * down in the mouth,' look diinul. Sec. ; O. Genn. 
griten, ingruen. Mid. Germ, pilitwn, id^ N. grwa. grw, to be in dread, to be fri^teocd ; 
Sw. D. gnuam or gruvsam, dejected, di&mal-looking, frighteaed or horrified. 

* He looks as grou u thuiidrr.' Wb. Gl. 

* " The sky looks black aud grou ;'* threatening raiu.' Ih, 

• '* A grou morning ;** a dull morning.' /&. 
The adT. gryh occurs in Toicntl. Afyst. p, 137, 

Orufff V. n. To express discontent or vexation : hence, probably, to 
grunt, to snore, which is the meaning given in JVA. Gi. 

Identical with O.E. grtieb, only with a guttural pronunciation. Coinp. Clcvel. ttaruif * 
ihrongh, Blafter => slaughter, Fleuff* plough, thof' though, 9vS=^umgh,Scc. Note abo 
Sw. D. grtiffii or gruffa, to gnint, to uticr low sounds of discnntcni cither in the way of 
gmming or ciTing; and conip. Sw. D. gntbbla. to muticr. give half-audible cxpreuioa to 
dUcontent or veiution. Sec Grulchyn, gruebyn. Mumiuro, Pr. Pm.; and Fr. grmgfr, to 
griere, repine, mutter ; also groucbier, grottebrr. 

* For }>ae trow luthyug bot ^at )>ai se, 

Dut grocbes when ^\ dredful thyng here.' Pr. of Conse. 1. 396. 
' Obex jif my lege lotde lytt on lyue me to bldde, 
O^cr to ryde, ot>er to rcnne, to romc in his enide. 
What graytied me be gryebcbyng bot grame more leche ?' 

£. Eng. Ailit. Poemt, C. I. (1. 

* Johnc. be thou buxom and right bayn. 

And be not grucband in no thyng.' Tovnul. MytL p. t68. 
In B. Bug. Atlit. Poems, B. S09. 

* Loth Libed to longe wyih tuAych wordei 

I at )tii hym graunted to go, and gru^t no lenger,' 
we have the pret.of^TurA, which appmi^imatn to our gruff. Cotnp. * No man wu hard! 
tft gruccb* (cfxr to make pryuy noyse, mutirt — Vulg.), ajenus the tones of braet,* 
Wicliir; and, * let them wander up and down foi meat, and grudgt if they be not satisfied,* 
r*. lix, 15: the latter quotitHUi retaining the old word In exactly the same sense as our 
crufT, while in the former it has given way to 'moved his tongue;' the Greek word in 
the Sept. being itp^$*i in Ex. il. 7, and (ypv(* in Josh. x. 31 : * And none moved bis tongue 
(gructicd) agaiiMt any of the children nf Israel.' 

, Grund, v. a. To grind (pret gnind or grunded ; p. p. gmnded 
or grunden). 

Orund, groond. Pr. of Ground. 

• Can to grund i' to relieve luliirc. 

' Tew («i i" grund i' lo be xuxious to put feet to the ground, of an iiUant, 


Grondage, sb. Ground-rent for leasehold property. W%, (?/. 

Onm'stan', grazin'lstan', sb. A grindstone : the first form merely 
that of pronunciation, and possibly the second also; grindle-stono 
being the uncorrupted form. 

The feno grinddstcates occurs in two of the MS. copiet of Aner. RiwU: grindstomt 
in the copy (vioted from, p. 33J. 

Qmnt, V. n. To grumble, to vent one's discontent ; to speak dis- 

He that U tick ' mei wd ^enchen bute euer on of his secnesse, and gronen uor his eche 
(ache), and gnmtm uor his sticbe (stitch, pang) more ben nor his sunnen.* Ancr. JZnsib, 
p. 336. 

Gnmtle, v. n. To emit a low sound expressive of indisposition or 
discontent See the word in Halliwell. 

Guider, sb. A tendon or sinew. See also Leader. 

Gnisord, sb. A person strangely or grotesquely dressed, for the 
purposes of disguise or pastime. 

Fr. guis0; Welsh ^tws; Br. giz^ kiz; Oerm. wns^, &c. Comp. duguiu, to change 
one's fashion or semblance. 

Gutter, Eaves-, sb. The eaves-trough, or trough affixed below the 
eaves to receive the water from the roof. 

* In X petris plumbi emptis pio i gutter' Finch. Pr. Inv. 

Gtimption, sb. x. Intelligence, readiness of wit and hand. 2 As- 
sumption, impertinence, petty insolence of speech. 

See Gaum, from which this is a derivative. 

I. * He was a man o' some gumption ;' of intelligence and information. Wb, Ol. 

3. ' G'i' OS noan o' yer gumption.' lb. 

Hablixnents, sb. Corruption of habiliments. 

' Noo yc'vc getten ycr babliments on. Ah 'II awa' an' knoll t* bcU ;' the clerk to the 
clergyman about to officiate at a funeral, of the surplice, scarf, &c. 

Hack, sb. A pick-axe with one arm, described by Wk. GL as ' half 
a mattock ;' by Brock. ' as a strong hoe used in agrictdture.' 

Dan. bakh, pick^axe, mattock ; Sw. baeka^ a hoe, a chopping tool used in agriculture. 

Z^ GtOttAMT Kit 7SZ 

Hffcto, T, a. f . To drcsi^ to trim or mike neat or smut. 2. To 
dr^M Of tnjB the groBDd. 

f/w, %ir, to Lftddc ^bw : fisz, sndr; Sv. Uik. Sv. D. liiin. id.; Aii < Mi p a 
IIk<mu h^9 «M hmkt, k LkJc, n ytiutJit to tLe nimj^i c oi the *"-**^ or knackdag 
iu/UvOMOtL SM}* tiK I>auu aaod Sv, vordt codpct aJw isbe ■■"■■"■g of ■ i iM' ime or ftfo- 
MHMudMitf ~M M liK CMC aJto vi^ E. ^noM^ T3a» a» alto tnc ctf OrvcL A. HMklias» 

VMClitlm, baekl#, cb. 1. Feathen, wool, hair; the natural oovering 
of any feathered or hatrf creatttre : tptdaSfy ^iplied to te long pointed 
ttaHHmrn of a cock'f neck. 2. An artificial covering, dotbes or eqnip- 
metit« witli the implication that their qoalitf is good. 

T\tK yf'uttxxy idea in thit word seems to be oT what wiB admit of tcpiration into its 000- 
stitucut fibres or qiusi-fibres. as tfae flax docs onder the batMt ot batehd. BcDoe it 
i4Mt$x* to ffiean w^mA, tuir, or Ceatbcrs. The faacUes of a cock's nedc moceorer are not 
Mi)r MV**^'^^ ^'^'^^ ^*^ other, but also into tbeir own constitnent rajs or fibres, io a 
dtmrreiit way Ut/in the other feathers, the webs of which oatnnllf adhere, thoa|^ sli^tljr. 
Ui «uti r/t^uT. In refcrcttce, howerer, to our second sense we must notice A.S. batwlm^ 
b*utU, boiiU, bacta^ a habit for 1 man of war, a doak, a mantk ; a coat, cassock or mdcr 
Ipinnnit ; a word (probably doe to a diiferent soorcc, and perhaps suggesting the propriety 
of diilin;;utshirig Haokle with this sense, from the present word. 

a. ' ** He hat a good baekU on his back ; be does not shame his keeper ;" (A one who is 
stout and well-lo^fking.' 

* Under ureondes hudul;' under the doak, that is, semblance, of a friend. Amcr» RMt, 
p. MK, 

Hafflo, V. n. i. To stammer or hesitate in speech. 3. To hesitate 
in reply as if unwilling to speak the truth; to prevaricate. 3. To hesi- 
tate in action or decision, be slow or reluctant in making up one's 

Hall, gives brfflt, to hesiute, to prevaricate, and Wcdgw. connecU also Halliwell's ht^, 
111 stand liigK''*'K* haftren, unsteady, wavering; and bufflt^ to waver, to blow unsteadily, 
with ciur word; also Out. baptrm, to summer, hesitate, stick fast, and S/w.bappla, to 
tlanintcr. To this add Sw. D. bapld, to do what some one dse has just done, to try 
to liiiiluto any iiiie in word or deed, but all in a helpless, blundering, hesitating sort of 
way ; bappla, id., and also to stammer, to hesiute in speaking ; babbla^ to stammer, to 
stitnible. CiilUlc R, bobbh. 

I, "* To baffl* am) snaflic :" to stammer and speak through the nose.' Wb. Ol. 

J. * A boMing sort o' body ;' a summering, prevaricating person. 

3. * Uotn baffit about it, but finish it at once.' Wb. Gl. 

nagi Hi). A white fog or mist such as sometimes occurs coincidently 
with froHt : whence IVost-hag. 

IVihapa dcitrndcm on the same root as O.N. bagaU, Syt. bagd, Dxa, bagd, ba^ ; 
N. hiigi, A. S. bngtj, bagU; O. Germ, and Qcrm. bagtl, hail ; N. bagta^ to hail, to fall in 
df(i|v, to triiklc ; bigh, to fall in fine drops ; bigl, drizzling rain or snow : the teiminatioa 
W or / being added to convey the idea of spherical or globular form, the other drcnnutaoces 
irinaiiilng the same. 



Hag, sb. Wood, or coppice : often as growing on wild broken 
ground, or on a broken or rugged bank ; a hanging wood. Cr. GL 

Hall, uys, * A certain dirinon of wood imended to be cut. In England, when a set of 
workmen undertake to fell a wood, tlify divide it into equal portions by cutting ofT a rod, 
called a Hag-staff, three 01 four feet from the ground, to mark the dirisions, each of which 
is called a Haff. and is coniidered the portion of one individual. . . , The word wa* alwn 
applied to a small wood or enclosure. The Park at Auckland Castle wax formerly railed 
the Hag.' Wb. Gl. gives • Hag, a coppice ; supposed, wyi Mr. Marshall, to be the wood- 
land »ct apart by the lord of the soil as fuel for his tenants.* In cither case the reference is 
to the act of cutting, or chopping, as almost appears on the suiface in the sentence quoted 
by Jam. from Dumb. Stat. Account :-~~* The oak woods are of such extent at to admit of 
being divided into ao separate ba^s, one of which may be ait every year.* Comp. Sw. 
bygge, fdling of trees; and O.N. biiggva, Sw, bugga, Sw. D. hagga, bogga, Dan. bugge, 
to hew. Note also Germ. bng. I wood, forest, thicket, grove, the conaections of which, 
however, are with E. bmv, btdgi, &c It is more than possible that there are two words 
confuted together in our Ha^, one corresponding to Sw. byggt, and one to Genn. bag. 

Hag, sb. Wild and broken ground, such as may be met with in 
boggy, and therefore uncultivated, lands. More generally, a broken or 
rugged bank. 

Jam. defines bag as ' Moss-ground that has formerly been broken i^> ; a pit, or break in 
a moss;' and refers the word directly to biiggva, hugga, to hew ; Sw. D. hagga. The idea 
of hewing, chopping, certainly passes on easily to the abmpt edges or nocks induced by the 
action, and theuce naturally to such a broken surface as is intended by the word Hag. 

Hag-berry, sb. The fruit of the bird cherry (Prutius p<i<itis). Some- 
limes applied to the shmb itself. See Egg-berry, another fonn of the 
word; and * Heck-berr)*/ HalliwcU. 

Sw. hfigg, the bird cherry, the shrub; Dan. bag or b<*gg^ id. The fratt fs called 
haggt-bar or bagtbar; a/ bvis sa/t laves viin: from the juice of which a sort of wine 
is nude. 

Hag-olog, sb. A chopping-block ; any largish mass of wood used 
to chop other wood on. 

Sw. D. bagga, to chop, hack, hew. Comp. Germ, baek^lotzi Sw. D. bttgg-ttvlbe ; 
Sw. buggkuhb, buggbloci^ buggbock, buggUoek. Sec Olog. 

Haggle, V. n. To hail. 

O. N \siiS boglar, it hails ; Sw. baglot Dan. bagU^ A. S. b<tgdan, bagolaiif to bail. 

• It baith haggled an" snew." 

* It baggUi sair.' Wb. GL Comp. Dan. (Ut baglmU starkt i morget .- it hailed severely 
in the morning. 

Haggle, V. a. i. To cut unevenly, or so as to leave jagged edges. 
2. To tease or worry, to banter. 

Probably a derivative — as joggi* from jog. Sec. — from bag. lo hack, chop ; a mode of 
cutting not conducive to regularity or evenness of edges. &c. ; whence^ the second meaning 
follows. Rict7. gives Sw. D. bugg-ol, mocking or bantering words, in which the analogy 
is comi^ete as to sense, the 0/ twiog simply a prov. corruption of on/« a word. 



Hagsnar, hagsnare, sb. The stub left in the ground from which 
coppice-wood has l)ccn cut ; a projecting stump or knot of a tree. 

I uke this definition, with slight verbal alleration from IVb. Gl. \i it had bc«n ex- 
plained ai the dnigiiatcd tiubi cuUcctivdy — that ii, if it wcic applied to a locality where 
coppice-wood had been lately cut down — the derivation and precise meaning would have 
been apparent. Sw. snar or mar is a coppice or wood where the underwood and trees 
grow close enough to make transit difficult ; N. uiaar, sneer, id. The prefix bag would 
limply imply the act of cutting or chopping, in this particular ciK. lately past or done. 

Hagworm, sb. The common viper, or adder (Pelius berus). 

O. N. boggormr, Sw. buggorm, Dan. bugormt the riper ; coluber htrvs, Molb. and 
Dalin. Wb. Gl. desaibcs the Hagworm as * the common snake of the woods ;' HalL as 
* a snake ;* Cr. Gl. as * a siuke, or blind worm, haunting the bag or hedge. A. S. b<xf, 
sepes;' Brock., as 'the common inike, Cotuher natrix:' — mistakenly in every case, as I 
believe. The CIcvel. usage of the word is simply in the sense of riper. The common 
snake (C natrix. Bell's Natrix tor^vata) is called the Orasa-an&ke, and the slow-worm cv 
blind'Wonn {Anguis JragtHs), is also specially distinguished. The word Hagwonu— 
striking snake — is dcscriptircly accurate. 

Hair-breeds, sb. Small gradations, slow degress. See Breed. 

• " She *s dying by bair-hrads ;" by very slow degrees.' Wb. Gl. 

Hait, hayt, hyte. The old word of command to the horses in a 
team or ihe plough lo turn towards the driver, or to llie left: now 
replaced by Harvo or Hauve. Also spelt * height' in Halliwell. 

* The Northumbrian Htck^ says Mr. Oould, Scuut, Sec, o/Ictl. p. 185, * is the Icelandic 
botgr, pi. baiktr' For hoit. hyto. however, Sw. D. hit, &.y/. a word exactly equivalent in 
sound, use. and sense, luggcits another origin. Comp. Dan. bid^ hither, this way. 

' Sir, lang time he had cast an eye 
At winsome maistriss Property, 

But she wDtild neither byU nor rhec.* Joeo-Str^ Disc. p. 29. 
* This carter smoot. and cryde as he wer wood, 
Z/ioy/, bfok ; hayt^ Scot ; wlut spare ye for the stoones ?' 

Frert't Talt, ii. p. 98. 
* Harrer, Morelle, io furthe, i^te. 

And let the ploghe stand.' 7Wm/. Afyst. p. 9. 
HalliweU's explanation of ' neither height nor ree ; i. e. neither go nor drive, said of a 
wilTu] person,' is enoncotu: it simply means will not obey instructions, even so far as lo 
turn eitha to the right hand or the left. 

Hake, sb. A greedy or pertinacious askcr or beggar; a grasping, 

avaricious person. 

Ihre gives bait, nebulo, dcceptor, und remarks that Spegelius in his Oloss.Suio GoA^ and 
Serenius in Dteiionar. AngL, quote en gamma! baJtt, an md bake, as a term of derinon or 
revilcroent, and that Eng. an old bag is similarly a|^Ued ; t»ut that according to its dciira- 
tion and original a[>piicatinn there certainly was nothing of contempt or repulsion involved 
in the latlei word. He then mentions the term UttJbake, as applied to men poucssed of 
great powers o( body and employing them to the oppression or iiijary of others; U. N. bdi^. 

a powerful, coarse fellow; haki, a sea-king; Sw. D. bcUte, an energetic, resolute man. In 
these words, as it would seem, we have the origin of our and S. G, bake : the ideas of jicr- 
tinacity, greediness, regard lc«5ncts of moral or other restraints, arc each of them involved 
or implied in their various meanings. Possibly, the original Uiought may have been con* 
nected with bak*, a hoolc 

Hake, v. a. (sometimes pr. heeak). To persecute with enquiries or 
petitions, and so to tease or pester or worry. 

This vb. and the next may possibly be coincident, though their connection is obscure. 
This may be a derivative from »b. Hake. lu the example the conuectioa would seem to 
be with bakf, a hook. 

• He kil«f my very heart out.* ^Vb, GL 

Hoke, V. n. i. To loiter, to go about idly, to lounge: thence to 
hang about pryingly, to sneak, or aim at getting at infonnation, &c., in 
an underhand way. 

Comp. Sw. D. biiJktn, to stay, to delay. 

• '* To go baking abont ;" prying, seeking indirectly for news/ Wb. Gl. 

Hale, V. a. To pour or empty out, as water from a vessel by in- 
clining it to one side, or otherwise. 

S. G. bttUa, baila, i. to incline, tilt ; as a vessel : 2. to pour out. as liquid from a tilled 
vessel; thus, biiila watn pd ndgiU : to pour water upon anything; O. N. balla; Dan. bride 
or b*xl(U, to incline, to pour out. or take out by dipping, or let run out slowly by inclining 
the containing vessel; to fill another vessel by pouring from an inclined containing vessel; 
as, at btld* valdffi n/osten : to pour the whey from the cheese ; at bttdt olie i tampan : oil 
into the lamp ; a/ beldt em over med vatsd : water over any one. The word has an cxten- 
live ajrpUcation ttirough the shades of meaning connected with inclination or leaning: as, 
'Btigen er saa brid, glasser Uaatr aaa beldi : the Udder, the gUiss, is on the brink of a fall ; 
Mdr, a sleep place down which one can easily slip or fall ; and so on, inclusive of Clevel. 
Hdldj inclination, proclivity. 

Hales, sb. The handles or ends of the plough-stilts : usually in the 
compound form Plough-holes. 

• Hat, paxillui. clavus. in primii ligncus.' Ihrc. Hal, tyrbal, fgrbal, a peg, tether 
peg. Molb. Dial. Lex.; O. N. btell, a crook or hooked peg ; Sw. D. bhl, bel, a wooden 
peg ; N. ^<e/. a tether peg ; Celt, botl, pin, peg. Comp. Sw. D. battdbel, the equivalent of 
our Hale. 

Half-baked, adj. Deficient in intellect, silly, slow or stupid. 

Comp. the Dan. idiom ny-bagt, new-baked, as applied to any mushroom quality or 
dignity : as, ny-bagi excellence; en ny-bagt riddersmand, a new>bakcd nobleman, ice. 

Half-marrow, sb. One who, in connection with work, is looked 
upon as but half a ' man ;' an apprentice not yet out of his time ; one of 
two whose joint work is looked upon as a unit, the two being both boys 
or under age. See Marrow. 

Comp. Dan. D. bal/'tutttmaHd or balv-ne/smand, a man who borrows another man's nets 

I i 



and gives him hatf the proceeds of ihc fishing in ackiiowlcdgmeiU ; O. Sw. h^JitntfnJkarr, 
Sw. D. balnabontU, ouc who works another manV farm on the conditjon of bkiug haH the 

Half-nougM (pr. haaf-nowght). Half-nothing; anything— price or 
consideration— too absurdly small or inadequate to be worth men- 

Hail. writM this half-nowt, and explains it by ' half-price.' It is simply ba!/-nothimg. 

* " What did you give for it ?" " Oh I jest about haft-HOutghi-'* ' 

• Ah 'd ding iha' au'd hetad aff fur baaf-notLgbt, Ah wad V spoken by a man initaled to 
the very verge of violence. 

Half-rooked, adj. Silly. WL GL gives as the meaning, 'ill-trained, 
only half-nursed ;' but the idea is that of deficiency of wil, rather than of 


Half-tliere (used adjectively rather than adverbially), 
half-silly, simple-wilted. 

• Puit silly gomeriU T He 's nobbut hovf'thrre.* 


Hallocked, adj. Teased, worried, bullied. 

Hald. gives balhh ; from hallr, bowed, iiicUned, and oki, a yoke ; as * subjugatus, sub 
Jugum tniMtu ;* with the example, ofi be/nit sn er ballnht itrdr : the oppressed one often 
rtTcnges himself; whence, probably, our word. 

HaUoctdng, adj. Idling or wandering about desultorily. 

* Hnllneking. gcnciaUy coupled witli itoit : " A gurt luUacktng stoit.** To go baUaci- 
Uig about, iK-andcriog up and down giddily without a direct aim.' L*eds Gl. Hall, gives 
* HaliacJting, idling, feasting ; making oierry. Haliackt, an idle fellow. North ;' and Jam. 
gives ' Hallokit, or ballacb'd, I. crazy or half-witted : 2. giddy, foolish, harebrained ; often 
implying the idea of light behaviour.* Cf. the latter word with oar hallooked ; and 
Halliwell's ballackt with Janiiesou'i baloc, a light, thoughUcss girl, which he toiuiccts with 
A. S. balga, levi&. inconstans. as a possible origin. In the Kastrm Counties btdking ttg- 
nifies not only heavy, lunil>cnng, as in the expression ' a great hulking chap,' bat also 
loitering Uzily or heavily, as in the expression * hiilking abotit ;* and thus it may be co- 
ordinate with hall ftokl Tig. 

HamoB, sb. (pr. heeams). The appendages of iron or wood fitting 
over the collar of a draught-horse, or Barfom, and to which the traces 
are attached. The * seles' of the South. 

• Atteles, the bavmes of a draught horse's collar.* Colgr. * Ejrteles, tomes.' Gl. on G. dlr 
BiheUiVf. Mr. Wedgwood sa^'S, ' the origin of the word batne is seen in the Wall, ^iw, 
a spUnt, or thtii piece of wood, corre^x>nding to Germ, lebiene, a splint, band to keep thing* 
doie.' He also quotes Fl. btum, a horse-collar ; and Jam. gives the form km-bammt, 
b<ums or a collar for a cow. from Kilian. While * btmaborougb, a coar$e horse-collar, made 
of reed or straw. Devon.' given by Hall., remains to shew relationihip to bAie, scbifnt, &c., 
one is disappointed at 6nding so few traces of the form Home except in our own older 
tongue and its dialects. I believe we 5iid a conocctiun of the word in Prov. Sw. bammtl, 
^linter-bar. twingle-tree. which is connected by Rieti with bnmmla, to head down, ttt 



pollard, or poll; O.N. bamla, a small i>dIc or stake; Dan. bamnul, N. hammel, splinter- 
bar. Probably also, hambe {Dami. Gi.), described by Molb. as 'an unusual and to himself 
Doiamiliar weed, which seems to signiiy either eross-piecu 0/ wood^ or curved or crooked 
(hooked) pieces, employed on ^uays or shipt' boiwarks/ may be tiearly related. In the 

* We are 10 bamyd, 
For-taxed and ramyd, 
We are made hand-umyd 

Withe these genllery men ;* Toufiul Myii, p. 98, 

the word hamyd is probably a rb. derived from the sb. bamt or bam (btm in a postage 
qnotcd by Jam.), and implying forced to submit and labour for others* profit, as the dranght- 
borsc is. See Borfazn. 

Hammer, v. n. To stammer, hesitate in speaking. 

The two words hammer and slammtr arc frequently joined together in uce ; and the Idea 
b simply that of repetition, as with the blows requisite for driving anything home with 
a hammer. It should not be quite overlooked, however, that S G. and Sw. happla is to 
ftaramer ; and that bampa and bappa^ lo happen, to cbaaoe, are coincident, as also that Ihre 
recogniies the connection between E. bomptr, to entangle, and Sw. happla ; while from 
bamptr to bammtr it a very easy transition, in our dialect especially. 

Hamp, sb. An article of clothing, which may have been worn next 
the skin, or, at times, over the under-clothing. 

Dan. D. btmpty a farmer** jacket, or smock, toga rustica ; O. Sw. bambtr, bampner^ 
hampM, vestis, indumentum (Ihre) ; thence, klosters bambtr or bamptur, monastic habit ; 
hUedb i eiosfers bampn allar abitum, clad in the cloister bamp or habit ; jStxtiar bampfit 
a suit of feathers : O. N. &nmr; N. and Dan bam; A.S. bama, boma, bom ; S.¥t\%. bam; 
M. O. bama, ham, &c., generally an envelope, involucre, covering; more specifically, the 
xfeufulintt or afterbirth, that in which the fcetus had becii eiivelopcil. Comp. also with 
our word Germ, b^rud, shin : sUgbtmd^ victory-veit ; giuttes-bemdt luck-garment ; goIdn4 
ktmd, Beow.; fridbemtdt; all mentioned in Qrimm. D. M. pp. 105a, 1053. I believe the 
'Word which occurs in Sir Gaw. and Gr. Knight, p. i J7, 

• Hrrnt wel haled, hose of J»at same grcne,' 
ift a very dose connection of G. bemd, A. S. bama^ See. I have met with the word Hamp 
in two versions of the wcU-known Brownie rhyme, current here ; the one givexi first asso- 
ciated with Hart Hall, in Glaisdale : — 

* Gin Hob mun hae nowght but a hardin' bamp, 
He 'II come nae mair nowther to bcny not sump.' 
The second ts from a mdition coiuected with a locaUty in the county of Durham, and is 
defective :— 

* A bamp and a hood 1 
Then Hobbie again *U dec nae mair good.' 

Hampered, adj. Beset with difficulties. But. besides this meaning 
which is common in all parts of England, ilie word bears another 
which is peculiar,— beset or overrun; wiih vermin, namely, as rats, or 

Mr. Wedgw. looks upon this word as connected with ' Put. baperen, to stammer, hesi- 
tate, falter, stick fast ; baperwerk, bungling bad work ; haptring, stammering, boggling, 

I i 3 


hindrance^ obitade. The nasal Pr. gives Sc. iomp, to ftunmcr, tbo to luh is 
read with difficulty ; and E. hamper (in a factitire sense), to csBse to stick, to imprJr, 
entangle/ In B. Eng. AlUu Potms, B. 1. 1 384, speaking of the pfamdcrinc of the Temple 
at Jerusalem, and enumerating all the fair and costly things taken, h is said that ill dicae, 

* Wyth alle )>e rrnmentes of >at hoos he bamppnd togcder :* 

may not this word, cpringing from a totally different origin, fnnush the origin of ovr wordf 
Transfer the idea of things packed together in close contact, from inanimate objects to 
living ones, and we have just the thought implied in oar H«mper. Rich, snggctts a eoo- 
nection, through a metaphor, with hamelt or haiitbUt to lame the hams ; and tfana derins 
Its general signification. 

* *' They 're a sair bampertd family ;" home down with expenses, or by the itsahi of 
improvidence or misfortune/ Wh. Gl. 

* We 're sairly bampend wi rattoni/ 76. 

Ham-shaolEle, v. a. To restrain or impede the motion of an animal 
by fastening its head to one of its legs. 

' They have bom-ibaekltd and knee-haltered me till there is scarce a thing I can do ;* 
sp<jkni by a steward suspected of malpractices, and consequently acting under stringent 
reslrainti, in reply to some application from one of the tenants. See Faar Maid t/Ptrlb, 
ii. 331. 

Hand, bear at. To lay to one's charge, or hold one guilty of a 
thing ; thence to owe a grudge to, to bear one in mind as having done 
an injury, possibly with the wish or intent to return it 

To b*r* OH band is used by Chaucer in the sense of to charge with, to accuse, albeit oo 
mifttakcn grounds or with intentional falsehood. 

* I bare bim on bond he had enchanted me ; 

My dame Uugtitc nie that subtiltee/ Prol, Wife ofSa&*» TaU. 

* And wenches wold I b^en them on bond* 

Whan that for seek thay might unnethes stonde/ lb. 

* This false knight, that hath this tresoun wrought, 
Beretb bit on band that sche hath don this thing.' 

Man o/Laum TaU, 
111 Townel. MyU. the word_fidily is joined : — 

' Nather in dcde ne in saw can I fynd withe no wrang 
Whcrfor ye shuld hym draw, or btre falsly on band 
Withe ille.' (p. 305.) 

a. Eh tf Iwr herr M HI banda at )>u ^hzM afnokhmim manna \w/a lids ; but if it 
hliould occur to you to think you have need of a few men's help. Flat. t. 115. 

Hand-olout, sb. A towel. See Clout. 

C«mp. Dan.D. baandklader, bankiar, bandkVr; Sw D, hanlder, banite, hand-cknhes, 
I. c glovci Cwithnut fingers/ Knk); bandiliuie, a white pocket handkerchief; while 
<). N. bandiladt, N. bandkla, Sw. I>. bandhUlbt or bandklmSbi, mean, like ooi word 
suuj'ly a towei. LiiK. band-clotb, however, it a handkerchief. Hall 

Handhold, sb. x. That which may be gripped or taken firm hold 
of by the hand, a handle or the hke ; as a projecting part, of adequate 
size, of anything. 2. The grasp taken, or act of gripping. 

O.N. handctrbaild : D. bandbaid ; Sw. D. handhail. bannball. 

1 . • " Can't ye Jtor il ? *' " Ncca, Ah can't gil nac handhold if it" * 

2. ' Ah couldn't ho'd nuh bandho'd, ttnhve as 1 mood.' 


Handle, v. a. To deal with, or treat 

* And sciu him away shimefully handltd* Marie xii. 4. * Uandln,' says Ihrc, ' manu 
tractare, AJem. banioion, A. S. bandJiaH, Angl. bandU: idtjuc vcl phyuce, quo icnsu biindla 
Esepe occurril in Scriptis Isl., vel moraliter, uti duni dicimus bandla wdl irud m, bene cum 
quopiam agcre, cujus coiitrariuni est miabaitdia' So Daii. bandit; — a& at baadU sint 
klader itde: to misuse one's clothes. Sw. bandla is used with prep, med or pA, The 
Clevel. usage ii that of the Bible, or as in the Dan. example, carried out with greater 

* He 's been desper't'ly wir bannled wi' t' fever." 

* A chap's lahk t* be parlously ba/mUd gif be gits intiv t' haands o' thac low-wen 

Hand-running (used adverbially). In succession, one after another. 

* I did it seven times band-rutuung' 

* He stopped away three weeks band-Tunning and niwcr went til hU wotk at all.* 
Comp. bandpat, fluent ; bandsmootb, quite flat ; band'wbiig, a moment, a short while. 


* I may not syt at my note 

A band tang while.* Tounul. Mysi. p. 109. 

Handsel, hansel, sb. i . The first money received by a seller, any 
day, or at commencement of business. 2. The first use of anything, 
from a shop to a new implement, of whatever kind. 

O. N. bandsai, an engagement, promise, or undertaking sanctioned by contact of hands ; 
S. O. bandsai, meiclmonii diveoditi primitiiE : first t&kings for goods sold retail ; Sw. D. band- 
*o/, earnest money ; Dan. bandstl, the first money taken by a seller in the morning ; hence, 
at give ten bandul : to turn over tlie first money to one (Molb.) ; A. S. bandselem, a putting 
into another's posscssioa. * The formation of the word/ says Wedgw. {band, and A. S. syl- 
Ian, leilan ; O. N. stlia, to give, bestow, deliver), ' has been commonly miiundctstood as if it 
signified deUvety of possession, giving a thing into the hand of another. The real import 
is a striking of hands in token of conclusion.' Sec Wedgw. in v., and cf. the following 
extract : — CM tiga ^ir at hruu bandsai ok binda b«f tta fast sina maldaga : and at this 
(meeting) ihcy give handsel, and so bind fait their contract. Flat, i, 109. 

Cf. * Of up-holders an hep* crly by t>c morwc 

Jiuc J>e glototi with good wille- good ale to bonstl.' 

P. PlQugbm. {E. E. T. S.) p. 61. 

Handsel, v. a. i. To make use of anything for the first lime, firom 
a new house to a pocket-knife, &c. 

O. N. banditlia , A. S. band-^yllan, to deliver up. 


Handstaff, sb. The handle or shaft of the &ul. The other parts 
are named the Swipple, that with which the com is stmck ; and the 
Cap, the revolving leather fitting at the upper end of the Hand-6ta£^ to 
which the Swipple is attached. 

Comp. Sw. D. batutval, binnval, barmol, bandoit batmsl. Sec. ; Dan. D. bimdpol, bamid, 
bamui, Sw. pl*;tl$kaft giret our own tennination. 

Hand-torn, sb. A single act of doing, of one's business, occupation, 

work ; almost equivalent to the phrase ' stroke of worL' 

* Ah '1 nivreT deean a hand'lo'n ten Marti'mas ;' spoken by a person incapadttted by 

Handy, adj. x. Dexterous, ingenious, clever with one's bands. 
Thence, a. Suitable, well adapted, convenient 

S. G. bandig, agilis; O.N. bttUugr; Sw. hamlig; Sw. D. hamdig, bandtUg^ bamtuiig, 
bannug, suitable, ^ay to use with the hand : derer or dexterous ; Swus btmmig, bamdi ; 
Dan. bteruSgt hA^endig; Sw. D. b'dndugtr^ dexterous, e;q>ert, in a handicraft, namdiy. 

I. * A desper't baiuiy chap wiv a speead :* or a gun ; or a horse, ftc 

3. ' T' spot *s nat that bad : it *s bandy enough." 

* T' new cho'ch ligs fair an' bandy for t' town.* 

Hangedly, adv. Reluctantly, despondingly, or in a downcast way. 

* He left home this time very bangtdly* Wb. Ql. 

Hanging-mind, sb. (pr. hinging mind). An inclination or dedre for 
this or that line of action or particular doing. 

The Sw. idiom baf^a tfitr nagon approaches the sense of our phrase u well as the cor- 
responding Dan. one. Molb., however, quotes the word bang^ inclination for, or aiming at, 
a thing, as a word only lately introduced ftom the Germ., and not, so fiir, mudi oaea:^ 
Vi arve upaatvivldig an evru, maasku tndog tt bangt til at syndt : beyond doubt we 
inherit a capability, possibly even a propensity, for sinning. Rietz gives bangfbdt^, eager, 
desirous, and collates O. N. bdng^ desire, as well as Germ. bang. 

* Ky, he 's had a binging^mind tir it, ivrer syne his brither gaed futrin*.' 

Hank, sb. i. A rope loop, or latchet, for securing a gate, move- 
able stack-bar, &c. 2. A skein or knot of thread, yam, string, &c. 

O. N. bauni, banki^ funiculus ; S. G. bank, annulus vimineus, quo constringuntnr fiittea, 
sepem continentes ; Sw. D. bank, that with which anything is hung, ligula, babena orbicn- 
lata ; Sw. bank, string, band for tying. We have in these words the exact meanings girea 
to our word above. 

Hank, v. a. i. To fasten or 'hang' a horse: as, by passing his 
bridle, or halter, over a gate, a hook, or what not 2. To hold a horse 
in tight, to check him by drawing bridle. 

From Hank, sb. Comp. O. N. banka, to bind or fasten with a rope. 



I. ' And when they had hankt their horses, they stood all on a bare spott of ground.' 
Fork Castle Dtp. p. 193. 
• And hankt him (the colt) to a stobb.' Ih. p. 197. 

a, * Ha-a-aw, Landlord I Hanck yonr naig a whOe ; 
For I hae ridden full lang twa mile 
Out of my gate, to overtake ye/ JocihSer. Dik. p. g. 
Comp. the use of the vb. in the following extract: — ' Dedcly syimcs gastcly slaa like 
nuoes and womanes saule )>at cs bavnktd* in allc or in any of ihaymc* Rel. Piects, p. 1 1. 

Hanlc, To be in a. To be in a state of perplexity, or trouble. 

Hank, To have one in. To have, or have placed, a person in stich 
circumstances lliat he is in a state of perplexity, trouble, or anxiety ; or 
that he is unable to extricate himself. 

Comp. O. N. * Hann a baunk uppi bakid d Kr ■' he has a hank upon the baiJc of you ; 
obligatione te habct : du er ham forbuuden :* Hald. 

Hank, To have things in a. To have one's circumstances of action, 
or connection with another, much involved or perplexed. 

Hankie, v. a, i. To entangle, or cause 10 twist up together, as silk, 
thread, &c. Hence, 2. To entangle in some pursuit or proceeding ; to 
inveigle or entice. 

A frequentative from vb. hank. 

a. * They banJtUd him on intiv l" matter.* 

Hantle, sb. A considerable quantity or number; a great deal. 

* Spelt also banJiii, which Jam. rightly conjectures to be correct. HamcU, a 


many. Hall. Not from bandful or battdtai, but from the notion of holding together. Germ. 
bmkel weinbtrrm, a branch of vine with a number of bunches 011 it. N. baank, clujler of 
thitigi hanging together.' Wedgw. Aid Sw. D. bda^la, banJta, to be sweet on one, atid so 
itick dose to her ; bAnglOt to be pertinacious in attendance on any one ; hankwr, a suiiot, 
hanger-on in courting. 

Hap, V. a. To cover, by placing or heaping clothes, &c., upon the 
person, straw and earth over potatoes, earth over the dead, and the 

A word of tolerably frequent occurrence iu the Early Northern writers. We meet with 
it twice or oftcner iu Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn., and as often in E. Eng. Allit. Poems. 

Mr. Morris* Gl. note is ' Happyn or tvhappyn' yn doi>ys.' ' Lappyn' or whappyn' yn 
clobys {bappyn togcdyr, S. ; ttrrap together in clothes, P.) Titvolvo' Pr. Pm, Wedgw. 
supposes it * a corruption of wbap from tulappe* 

• " Are you well bnpptdV defeiuled from the cold by clothing.' Wb. Ol. 

* All *i white and happed up.* Ih. 

* All 's dune, now : thou muu bap him oop.' To a sexton after the grave-service was 

* Lord what these wedercs are cold and t am ylle bappyd' 

Touiuei. MyU. p. 98. 



Hap, sb. Chance, fortune, luck. 

O.N. baf>p, succ»t, luck; N. hfppa^ luck, of whatever character; O. S. io/^, chance, 
luck ; Sw. D. bapp, fortunate occurrence, good luck. 

* ^s tum» sho obout oA hir whele. 
pe whilk ^c^ cirrkcs noght cllcs callct 

Bot baf'P* or chauace \>»t todanli falles.* Pr. of Const. 1. tiSa. 
In E. Eng. AUit. Potrnt, wherever the word occurs, it Kcmf to dcoote good luck, or 
protpcrity, or bappinets. 

In Clcvel. the word is usually qualified, as in III h&p (comp. O. N. and Sw. D. 6happ), 
■trange lup ; but we at»o mv by what hap, or the like. Cf. ' good bapp,* Percy's Fol, 
MS. i. 361 : and * ohcr bappu mony mo.' Jh. 410. 

Hap, V. n. To befal, chance, happen. 

' Hap what may ;* or, * bap what bap may.* 

* It happid on a day.' Knigbfs Talt^ p. 10. 
Comp. N. bfpp*t to chance, lo bcfal. 

Happen, v. n., and often used actively, in the sense of, To meet with, 
to incur. A very frequent usage of the word is in the sense, Possibly, 
perhaps ; being either impersonal, or elliptical for * suppose it happen,' 
or a similar form. 

S. G. bappa »g. bampa sig ; Sw. D. babba sig, bappaf, bappa a, bdpa s*J^ bobba uj, to 
fall out unexpectedly, to chance or bcfal ; bappa. to happen, to fall out ; babba, id. 

' •• Do you thiuk it will rain?" " Happen it may." * 

' Ah 'II think on, bappen Ah gans.' 

In the active sense : — 

' Pair gcll I she 's bapp'n'd a misfort'n ;' had, or going to have, an Ulegitimale chQd. 

' Ah seen a hare Hggin, an' Ah bapp'n'd (t') miifort'n Ic knap 't o' t* hecad.' 

Cf. * An vncoth land he bapptiud in.* Percy's Fol. AW. i. 367. 

Happing, sb. i. A covering of any kind, whether in the form of 
clothing for the body, or what is laid over matters which require pro- 
tection, a. A coarse kind of coverlet. See Bed-happing. 

Haps, sb. Overclothes ; rugs, shawls, great coats, &c. ; anything 
which may be used as a defence against the cold, by happing, or 
enveloping the person in it. 

* " Have you plenty o' bapi 7" ** Aye, Ah *% tweea shawls an' m»h thick cloak, fbrby 
t* roog." ' 

Haraas, v. a. (pr. harrish). To weary; distress through the inter- 
vention of annoving or vexatious calls or circimislances. 

* Ah 's barrisbfd ncarlings te decad by *s ragally gannin's on.' 

Harass, sb. Distress, worr>', trouble. 
' It's been a salr barriib tiv* 'im.' 

Harbour, sb. Shelter, lodging, a home. 

O.N. htrbtrgi, a place of reception and rest, an inn, abo a chamber; O, S. bttrbargbi. 



ht t ha r g i , i goest-chtmber, a store-room : Sw. harberg*, id., with ibe fuller meaning attached 
!o the cxpreuiou ' mine inn ;* A. S. btrtberga, a station where an anny rested on its march, 
a harbour; O. Germ, brrihtrga^ bfriprrga^ a halting-place, an inn; M. Germ, berbergg, 
Sw. D. harherge, barltiirf, bitbhar, a store-chamber, a guest-chamber ; Dan. D. berb*rg, in 
Jutland the men's chamber or sleeping-apartment; generally a room off the stable: aUo a 
lesser room or chamber, within or beyond the chief apartment ; O. Dan. berbtrg, a chamber, 
apartment ; Dan. btrherg^ an inn, or place for repose and entertainment ; lodgings, or a 
temporary home in any hojsc. A good old word, and in O. English one of frequent occur- 
fence: in Chauecr repeatedly. 

* For I hnngerd and yhe me fedde. 
1 thrcstcd and at drynlce yhc mc bedde; 
O^herbtr grate nede I had, 
Yhe herbercd me with hert glad/ Pr. ft/ Conic. 1. 615I. 

' I be-seche \>t, lorde, 
& Mary, t>at is myldest modcr so dere. 
Of lum btrber, t)ei hejiy I myjt here masse.* 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. I. 753. 

* Gode tyr, quoth Gawayn. wolde; hou go my cmdc 
To t»e hej lordc of \>\i hous, brrbtr to crave.' lb. 81 1 . 

* " Cicaied out of heck and bnrbour;*' reduced to the want of both food and ihdter.' 

* A grct family* like to eat him (the father) oat of heck and bctrbottr.* 

Hard, adj. Sour; of beer or ale. 
Sw. D. bdrJ, bdl. bal ; as, drUUtat a bdrdt : the drink (ale) is sour. 
Hard, adj. Difficult, not easily influenced. See examples. 

' Hard te to'n ;' not easily induced to deviate from a courie or plan. 

* Hard te finnd ;* difficult to be met with. 

Harden, v. a. To encoiu-age, infuse spirit. 

* He bardfned him on tiv it ;' of a person reluctant or afraid to act, but encouraged by 
AQOther to the venture. 

* Poor lahtle chap I he ominost brak* out when tahm cam* te gan i' aimest ; but he bar* 
dmtd hisscl' oop an nivrer grat nae mair an nowght ;' of a cluld going away to school, 
and resolute not to cry. 

Harden-faced, adj. Lowering, stormy-looking, threatening in appear- 
ance ; of the weather, or the sky. 

Comp. O. N. bardindi, dear times, hard weather, anything tltat renders life or man's Ipt 
heavy or trying ; S. G. and O. N. bardna, to grow hard, severe or sour. 

* Tlie sky looki a barden-factd look.' Wb. GL 

Harding, sb. A coarse linen fabric used for making wrappers, Ac. 

Hards, coarse Rax, the refuse of Hax or hcnip> Grtnes de lin, the bards or tow of flax. 
Cotgi. : Hall. Also bardtn, hemp. Vorks. Dial. 1697 : Hall. A. S. bfordart, beordas, hards, 
the refuse of tow. The derivation obvious : O. N. bitr, biirr; N. borr; Dan. bar; Sw. D. 
bvr; O. Germ, baru, baro ; M. Germ.. Austr.. Bav., bar: Kam, bir, flax. Comp. D. Z-or- 
tavt, the 6brc of flax. Sec Hamp, for a curious old rhymr containing the word. Hard 
battn ill E. Eng. AlUt. Poims, B. 1 209, and K. Alttt. p. loa, it referred to this same word 
by Mr. Morris. 



Hardlings, adv. Hardly, scarcely. 

Wc have Mvcnl adverbs with the termination -Un^, as neftrlinffs, mostUcgf ; and we 
can scarcely help comparing them with the Scandinavian forms in Jangs, as baglttngs^ 
arsltXHgs (S. Jutl.), hackwardti. And I think it may be observed, that white in these 
latter forms motiou in the direction of length Kems to be implied, a similar idea is always 
involved in Clerd. words with the tenniiiation •Unci; an idea of motion, progrcs»too or 

Hard of hearing, adj. More or less afflicted with deafness. 

Hard-BOt, adj. Almost overtasked, tried to the verge of power or 
endurance, scarcely able or capable. 

' Ilard-it/ wiv a family.* Wb. Ol. 

' The wall seems bard-s4t to stand.* Ih. 

* " He 's owci hanl-ut wi' work ;** overtasked.' Ih. 

Cf. Pr. Pm. * Hardeittl (or obstynat) yn wyckydnesse, ^at never wjUe chawnge.* 

Harled, adj. Mottled. 

Hall, gives harlt^ hair or wool. North,; as also hari, to entangle. Hurlyd, in tlie 1in6— 
* Hii hcde is like a stowkc, burlyd as hogges,' Tovm^. MyU. p. 3t3; 
the Edttoi'i gtoBSarial note on which is, * ffurr, staring, rude, unkcmd, brisllie, horrid, like 
a wild boarcs head. Cotgr.,* is doobtlcit neatly allied to barU, hair or wool ; xtid po&sibly 
berlt, in the passage subjoined, may indicate the manner of connection in the ideas of the 
two word* : — 

* )rc mane of hat mayn hors much to hit (his rider's * much bcrd.' and copious 
hair) lykc, 
Wcl crcspcd Sc cemmcd wyth knottcs fill mony, 
Folden in wyth fildore aboute \>e fayre grene. 

Ay a beH* of J»e here an oJ»er of golde :' Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 187 ; 
unless, indeed, berU be taken to be allied to bvrl, vfhirl, and to mean simply a twist. But 
taking it in connection with the ideas of btishinest and cresping, and comparing it with 
the example under HarU in O. Gl. — * Sho 's a fearful hask btuHid an ;* that u. the cow has 
harsh, staring, tuRcd hair, — the view above indicated is at least a probable one. From the 
idea of staring, or luAcd hair, there might be a traruition to that of mottled, as such hair 
on a creatrre'i hide alway> has, at least apparently, a different hue from that on the sleeker 
parts of the body. 

Ham, sb. Coarse linen, of rough texture and not closely woven. 
Probably an oral abbreviation of Harden or Harding. 

Harr, sb. A strong fog, or wet mist, almost verging on a drizzle. 
At times occuring in frosty weather. See Frost-hag, Frost-harr. 
Written • Hare,* ' Har!,' by Brockeit. 

Comp. Ifti. or, pulvis minutissimui, atonma In radiis solaribus. The Hmt is simply the 
assemblage of a vast host of minute particles, and the word may easily have been taken to 
denote the mist by transition from one idea to the other. 

Harrow, To trail a light To have but few of the burdens and 
crosses of life upon one ; to be tolerably free from cares and anxieties. 

• " He tratlt a tight barrow : his hat covers his family ;" of an unmarried man without 
the cares and responsibilities of a family.' Wh. GL 



Harv, hauve. The word of command to a horse, or horses, lo turn 
to ihc left, or towards the driver, who always has the team or Draught 
on his right hand as he walks by its side. Replaces the older word 
Halt, Haight, Heit, or Hyto. 

Haak, adj. Coarse or rough or harsh to the senses of lastc or 
touch : the coarseness or harshness of too great dryness, as well as 
austerity or roughness of taste, being included. 

Pr. Pm. * Hani*, ax baike. Siipticus, poritim.' Jain, gives hanif bars, badty; «nd 
other fonns arc bash and barrLsb, S. G. barsk, austems, tctricas ; Sw. biink, ntik, rancid ; 
Dati. barsk; Genu barscb, hard, rough, austere. 

* lioiA bread :' — tbc comparison lometimes being ' As bask as chopped hay.' Wb. Gl. 

Haugoed, adj. Tainted, beginning to be offensive, as meat or game 
which has been too long kept. Wk. Gl 

Fr. baut-gout. 

Haunt, sb. A custom, habit, or practice. See Haunted* 

* Of clothe-makyiig the hadde such a bautu 

She passed hem of Vpres and of Gaunt.' Prol. to CmU. Tola. 

Haunted, To be, v. p. To grow used to, or become accustomed. 

Th« V. a. is of frequent occurrence ia O. £. 

* Fr. boMtgr, to frequent, hauut, literally to follow a certain course.' GI. to E. Eag, AUU. 

* ):>ay ar happen also >at bauntt mckeiiesse.' lb. C. I. l6. 

* For fwilk dcgiscs and suilk maners 
Ab yhone mai now bauntei and lers, 
And ilk day is conionly sen, 

Byfor Us tymc ne his uoght ben.' Pr. of Come. 1. 1534. 
■ To use and to bamttt chiualric.' Mtrl. p. 326. 

* ft Hrdc es yddlchipp Jmt ooer mckyllc « baunted*.' Mali Meid. p. 33. 

' " He got baifftteJ to it by degrees ;" gradually habituated to it/ iVh. GI. 

HauBO, sb. The throat, or neck. 
O. N. btU$: O. Sw., Dan., A. S., Gemi.. M. Q.. Dut. bats, the neck. 

Hauve, v. n. To stare or gape with stupid wonderment. 

Most likely a mere aspirated offshoot of Bwf. See Auviah, half-witted; and comp. 
00/; a simpleton, a blockhead, — * forracriy more correctly written 01/, oufb. When an 
infant was foiuid to be an idiot, it was supposed to be an imp left by the fairies tii the room 
of the proper child carried away to their own country. 

*' These when a child haps to be got. 
Which after proves an idiot. 
When folks perceive it ihrivcth not. 

The fault therein to smother, 
Some silly, doating, brainless calf — 
Say that the fairies left this nulf 

And took away the other." * Wedgw. 



*Mcm dtnkt sicb danaUtr {bHpentritteb, tolpentrotaeh, olpHritiMeb, ttlbmbrutieh, tTt.) 
thun linkacben tinfaUigeH nunsehen, dm du dbe ttwu arngtAoM bab*m, wot mmti maiA 
blou ELBitcu btisst : dveu* wicbtt :* by the words specified is meant an awkward, addle- 
headed simpleton, supposed to hare been bewitched by the elves, otherwise expraied bj 
dvisb, auTiah. 

* " What are you baanting at 7^ staring stujndly and amazedly at?* Wb, Qi. 

Haavey-gauvey, sb. A rude or stupid lout, an awkward clown« 
slow-witted and slow-handed. 

Hauvish, hauving, adj. Simple-witted, half-stupid. 

Haver, sb. (pr. hawer). Oats. 

O.N. bqfr (pi. bqfrar), bafri; N. bavre, bagrt, barrt; O.Sw. bagri {bafra in ftoc. 
sing.); Sw. D. bagrd, bagr'6; Sw. bafre; Dan. bavre; O. Genu, babaro, bdbtr, AoAro; 
Genn. bafir^ baber; O. Sax. bavoro; Dut. baver; Wall, bafar. 

Haver-meal, sb. Oatmeal. 

Hav-buok, sb. An ignorant country clovm, an uninformed loot. 

Hay-bauks, sb. Loose sticks or poles, of oak commonly, laid side 
by side, with spaces between, above the stalls or standings in the cow- 
or ox-house (Owb-*ub), on which is laid the hay for the present use of 

the beasts below. 

Hays, sb. Enclosure fences, often doing duty as boundarieSt in 
which sense the word exists in several local names. 

O. N. bagi; O. Sw. bagb; N. hagje, baga: Sw. D. bag, bage, baga^ bave; Dan. boM; 
M. Germ, b^u, btge; A. S. bag; Germ, bag; M. Fris. bag, bag*. But our word is pro- 
bably more directly due to the Norman form, bata, or baia. * When the Danish and 
Saxo-Norman monarchs organised hunts on a large scale, the system of netting was foDiid 
inefficient, and a combination of materials, tn which nets were subservient to hazels and 
underwood, was formed, whereby a larger niuiber of beasts of a dangerons character could 
be entrapped. These hedges, which the Saxons were probably taught by the Normans to 
construct, received the Norman appeUation of Haia* A. Sax. Hottu, p. 365. See Do Cange 
in V. Haia, Spelman's Gloss. 

Hazel, V. a. (pr. hezzle). To beat, chastise, especially with a sticL 

Ihre gives the word ioss/a, which signifies to mark out, or enclose a space for a duel, with 
hazel rods, and quotes, — * En er mmn hnmu in i>ann s/oiS, «r voUrin var basltdSr^ ^d vom 
Jwr set/or up besti stengr allt til titmerkja \>ar er $4 stti6r var, er orrostan siyldi vera ;* when 
the men came to that place where the lists were baulled, there were set up there hazel rods 
in order to mark out where the combat was to be. This is another deriv. use of the vb. 
hasiel ; and possibly even, obvious as the derivation of our word seems, there may be in it 
a reference to the good hard blows which would be interchanged in the VoU basltit^. 

Hasseling, sb. (pr. hezzling). A beating, a caning. 

Hazled, adj. (pr. hazzeld). Speckled red and white, or rather vrith 
the hairs of these colours intermixed, so that it is hard to say in some 



cases which predominates. According to the preponderance of red or 
white the beast is dark-hazled or Ught-hs^ed. Othenvise, roan 
or roaned. 

Hasy, sb. i. A contention, quarrel or scolding-match. 2. The 
abusive language made use of on such occasions. 

Hall, gives bastf to breathe short, Line; with which comp. Sw. btssja, to breathe labo- 
riously, to pant. From scolding to panting is not a diilicult or unwonted step. 

Head, sb. 1. The upper part of a Dale where it just begins to form 
among the hills. 2. The higher portion of the reclaimed part of a pro- 
jecting spur of the moorland heights where it begins to verge on the 
unreclaimed part, or moor. 

O.N. hojud: O. Sw. bovo)*^ huvu\>, bovod^ bo/d. Ihre gives hufwud, 1. Qiiod in qua- 
cunque re priinarlum est : a. Promontoriuni. Sw. bufvud; Dan. bovtd, 8cc. Sw. D. givci 
/on-biiuv, the coninicnccment of a Pore* or Foss; an application of the word exactly 
analogous to that in our Bole-head. Also boinie^ the commencement of a fence where 
it starts out from connection or union with another, whereia the idea is very much the 

I. 'Danby-^Au/;' * Fryup-A«irf ,-* * OtaisdalD-iioi/,' &c. 

a. * Ainthorpc-.^i^;* * Wedlandi-^roc/.' The latter name, in a deed bearing date 1146^ 
is written Wbayttlandi btvid. 

Head-gear» sb. i. Head-dress and what appertains to it. 3. The 
inner equipment of the head, good sense, ready wit, information, &c. 

3. ' He's a knowfu' chap, yon. Ah wad bhk wccl t' ha' 's stock o' beadg*ar.' 

Head-rigg, sb. The headland of an arable field, or that pari at 
cither end on which the horses in the plough are turned, and which is 
not touched by the plough until all the rest of the field is turned over. 
See Bigg. 

Head-stall, sb. The halter, or head-gear, of a horse, by which it is 
secured in its stall, or led out to water, &c. ; made of hemp. The 
Collar, on the other hand, is made of leather. 

The latter component of the word is from O.N. itaUr, a basis, pedcsul; Sw. nail: 
O.G. fiali: Germ. stelU; A. S. sttaJ, a stall, room, place. Sec Corap. Gcmi. kermtal, the 
place which holds kernels, the core, and Eng. D. Jinger-stall^ which U analogous to our 

Head-tire. sb. Head-dress generally, with its belongings and deco- 
rations. Sec Tire. 

Heap, sb. X. A quarter of a peck in measure. 2. Measure, in the 
sense of the quantity measured, generally; yet only in the mode of 
sapng given in the example. 

Brock, mentions b*np, a wicker basket. It would seem most likely that the lume 
onginated in a sj>ecial quantity or measure ; whether a quarter of a pcdc, or more, or less, 



one can only guus. Dan. bob, boug, the correlative of our Heap, in the tame manner 
takes the sense of a certain or deiinite quantity, only not in respect o( that which u meted 
out with a measure: it is * a collection of six theaves or 3 hjerves set up together on the 
ridge.' See Stook, Trave. So alto S. G. bop, portio agri separata ; Germ, bubt^ mco- 
sura arri. 

' " They gi' short heeaps;** an expression for bad measiuc of lU sorts.* Wb* Qi, 

Heared (pr. heerd). Fret, of Hear. 

Heart-bruBt«Q, adj. (pr. heart-brussen). Heart-broken, overwheimcd 
with grief or concern. 

Heart-eased, adj. Having experienced great relief under distress or 

Hearten, v. a. To encourage, inspire with hope or confidence. 

Heartening, sb. Encouragement, ihe confidence imparted by hope 
or strong expectation. 

' " The doctor gave hint good beartening ,-" great hopes of recovery.' Wb. Ql. 
* " Bad hmrtttuMg ;" poor prospect of amendment held out.' /&. 
* ** No btarttning at all ;" no hopes whatever.' lb. 

Heart-grown, adj. i. Very fond of or strongly attached to a per- 
son or thing. 2. With the expectation or desire strongly set upon 
anything future. 

Comp. Sw. bjirtuHgt ; Svr. D. bjirU-hum, a term of endearment to one's child, nrcel- 
heart, wife ; Dan, D. bjerttliUe, id. 

a, * '• They were no wav* btart-gixntm m the matter;*' not over sanguine of suc- 
cess.' Wb. GL 

Heart-sick, adj. (pr. heart-seeak). Sad at heart, desponding, out of 
heart, wearied w-ith ' hope deferred.* 

Heart-warm, adj. Of a kindly disposition; feeling, and ready to 
shew, kindness. 

■ SearMifarm, gothcrly folk.' See Ootlierlr. 

Heart-whole, adj. (pr. heart -w oil), i. Right-hearted, true, honest 
2. Not hurl by Cupid's shafts; not in love, 
I. ' A decent, btarMoboig kind of a man.' Wb. Gl. 

Heave, v. a. i. To pour com from the scuttle, or other bam utensil, 
so as to expose it to a current of wind, by way of partially winnow- 
ing ii. 

Heave and throw. To retch and end by vomiting. 

Heave the hand. To give alms, to bestow charity : usually applied 
in an ironical sense, to a person, that is, who only gives in dribblets. 

' " Ay, ay," it 1% said, " he has bitntd bis band: he ii a generous John." ' Wb. Gl. 



To retch, to suffer the first symptoms of approach- 

Heave-up, v. n, 
ing vomiting. 

Hobble, sb. The wooden hand-rail of a plank-bridge. 

Hall, explain* thii word by ' a narrow, short plank bridge,' with a reference to Hallamsh, 
Gl. p. 113. [11 Clevel. tlie word bears the nieaiiiiig given above. It is possibly a corru[v 
tion of a Scand. word formed from O.N. bami itid vob^, a staff", pole. Comp. Dan. D. 
hdndvol, passing 6rst into bandti or banntl, and then into haid. Molb. D. Lex. Suppose 
the w changed in prov. Pr. inio its cognate b, and bebbU rcsuhs as easily as haicl. 

Heck, sb. i, A half-door or hatch-door. When a door is made to 
open in two parts, the upper half which fastens with a latch, is the 
Heck. The lower part fastens with a bolt or bolts, and is sometimes 
called Half-hock. 2. The inner door between the entry and the 
Hotise-place or kitchen. 

A. S. bigcOt a hatch. This word and the word Heck, a rack, are. there is little doubt, 
offshoots of the same root, if not actually the same word. Bat 1 have thought it better, 
inasmuch as local usage unites ideas with thnn which are not very plainly connected, and ai 
thej' appear to descend to us from two dilTcrcnl sources, to give them as separate words, 
with each its specific origin. 

t, ' Good wyfT, open the hek. Seys thou not what I bryng? 

Uxor. I may thole the dray the snek. A, com in, my swctyng.' 

Toumet Myit. p. ro6. 
I. * Stcck t' btcit, bairn ;* latch or fasten the inner door. 

Heck, sb. A rack, to hold fodder for horse or cattle. See Staad- 
heck, Water-heck. 

O. N. hagi; O. Sw. bag; A. S. b<igt bege or htgge ; Dan. b<jeh or baieke. The original 
meaning in most of these words is a fence or hedge made with boughs and sprays cut from 
ttees, to serve as a reUiuiiig boundary to piiture^gruunda. Then the words bnge, bagi. 
Came to mean the pasture-ground itself. The traruition of idea from these two meanings 
to our word Heck, and the cxactiv synotiynious Dan. bak or bailkJn^ tlie wooden fence ot 
enck>ntre which keeps in the provender of the cattle, is natural and easy. Hall, speaks 
of bttk-dotiT being ' an inner door not closely panneled but only partly so, and the rest 
latticed.* If this were so generally, or had ever been so, it would tend to connect that 
word very closely with the word now under notice, 

* " Cleared out of beck and harbour i" reduced to want of both food and shctler.' Wb. Gl. 

* To eat one out of bech and harbour ;* of a poor man's family with good appetites, 
* Thare prorand, sir, forthi, I lay bchynd tharc ars. 

And tyes thcni fast by the nelccs, 

With nuny stanys in thare bekes.' Townei. Myst, p. 9. 

Heckling, sb. The receiving of a reprunand, a scolding. Sec 

Hedge-dike, sb. A fence consisting of a bank with a hedge on it, 

Hedge-dike-side, sb. The Ixink of the Hedge-dike which lies 
towards the water-channel side. 



Heeat. A mode of pronouncing Hot. From this, by a somewhat 

stronger aspiration of Uie A, the sound of ^^ being simply sharp or 
distinct, and not at all prolonged, the Pr. yat follows, as in yat yime 
(for upu or ugn), hot oven. 

Heed, V. a. To be anxious or concerned, to mind (in that sense). 
Chiefly occurring in the expression never heed=:doa't concern your- 
self, never mind. 

Heeze, v. n. To breathe badly, making a wheezing or hoarse sotind 
in doing so. See Hoose. 

Comp. Sw, D. hai^a or hasja, to breathe badly or with dlfficnhy ; Mu. to wheeie. 
to whiz; N. bteut^ to pant, be short-windetl ; Mt, hoarK ; Sw. b«9, id. : O.S-w. hestr; 
O.N. bdi: A. S. has: Gcmi. hiiiir, &c. Cf. E. wbteu. For a converse mode of dealing 
with the initial u »ound, compare Clevel. wh,o©ao = ooze, w^oll = whole. "WhoU = oats, 
&c. Comp. alio Sw. D. ^ttoio. to breathe with difficulty ; as also, gvaaa^ and O. N. ^*«M. 


Hecze, sb. A catarrhal disease incident 
breathe hard or wheeze much, cough, &c. 

Comp. O. N. b<t5i\ Sw. D. bna^ hoarseness. 

to pigs, in which they 

Heezy, adj. Audibly labouring under the effects of cold, hoar&e; 
or, with animals, wheezing, breathing badly. Otherwise, Heosy. 

Heft, sb. I. A handle, as of a knife, &c. 2. A pretext or excuse : 
thence, pretence, dissimulation, deceit. See Whiteheft. 

A. S. ba/t. a ha/Y, handle; Germ, ht/l, id.: S. Jutl. b^, id., also a knife-handle ; Dan. 
ba/te^ btftt, hilt of a sword, handle. Sw. and Sw. D. hafia is to catch hold, hold fast, 
couple together ; O. Sw. h<tpta, hccfta, to hold fast, to retain, whence h<tpta, Intpti, ba/)f, 
b^/H, a prison ; O. Oerm. htfijan^ to bind, to make fart ; O N, hf/H, a uking, the act of 
taking or holding captive, captivity. In all thete words the idea of boititmf^ — the vocables 
ihemsclvei being frequentativet of hajva or ha/wa, to have — is fundamcnul : whence the 
easy transition to oar first meaning ; and thence, just as in E. bandit, to the second. 

Heft, V. a. I. To put a handle to, or fit with a handle, a. In the 
passive, to be fitted with or become accustomed to. 3. To be, or gel 
into trouble, difficulty, 'a fix ;' perhaps as the consequence of a bad 
bargain. Sec Heft, sb. 

3. 'She's (a nun's wife) nobbut a bad 'n. Ah doo'ts bell find hissel' sail htfitd 
WIT her.' 

With this comp. the instances given by rhre,— Kf/to far skuld, are alieno tencri ; and, 
nud ijukdom btba/tad, htfted wi' 'it ailment; and. *h« hafdt fsd lo^i^ dfint strangnt 
\>«ofmaH grba/ttu, u wa* genrnmed Barabbas :' he but theu truly a ctrong (notorious, 
QoUblc) thief Imprisoned who was called Barabbas. 


Heigh-go-mad. An expression indicating indulgence in riotous or 
mad frolic on occasion of any festivity or merry-mafing, Wk. Gl. ; or a 
state of great excitement, from anger or other cause. 

* They went beyond all bounds ; they played the rery bty-gotnad.* Wh, OL 
Hall, defines it rather as an adj. : * in great spirits ; highly enraged.* 

Cf. * he made me dance, despite my head, 

among the thomes the btjhto-btt;' 
corrected by Percy to bey-go^at^ LoostandSum. Songs^ p. ao. 

Heigh-how, v. n. To yawn, as when weary. 

Hein, hine, adv. Hence, away: often used imperatively; be off I Svf.badan; Sw.D. bonne; Dun. bedm; Dan. D. frmw; A. S. Amuum; 
Alem. bina ; Dut. bm, benm ; hence. Comp. the use of the Dan. D. btnnt, which takes 
the force of a vb. and is inflected as one. Thus ; drtngm bar btnntt m*d um : the lad hat 
made off — literally off-ed — with the scissors. 

* Welle is me that I shalle dre 

Tylle I have sene hym with myn ee, 
Aad no longer byne.' Toum^. Myst. p. 156. 

The word very often occurs in the form bttbtn : thus, — 

* Naked we come hider, and bare 

And pore, swa sal we betbm fare.' Pr. o/Cohmc. L 508. 

* Fra betbin: lb. 1 6007. 

* On wy))eT half water com doun )>e schore, 
No gladder gome bt)^*n in to Orece 

pen I, quen ho on brymme wore.' 

E. Eng, AUU^ Poimtf A. L 230. 
• " Bmt away r Be off.' Wb, GL 

Held, sb. Inclination, proclivity. See Hale. 
Holder, adv. Rather, preferably. 

O. N. beOdr, potins ; S. G. bixUa, bidder. Covap. Sw. djett; Sw. D. bdlaU ; O. Sw. al- 
ias*; N. beUest^ beUt, ellest; all superl., as if from a lost comp. answering to beUdr or 

* Ah wad belder gan an' feght an suy an' be ta'en by t* poUis.' 

Helm, sb. A shed in the fields for the shelter of cattle when turned 
out; a hovel or hut 

O. N. bjalmr, I. A covering, envelope : 2. A hebnet : 3. Any raidted or quast-raalted 
orer-coTer ; as, $dlar bjalmr, the sun's hf Im, i. e. the heavens or sky ; O. S. bualmir, bud- 
mer, b<dm, a hebnet ; A. S., O. Qenn., O. Sax., Fris., Dut., N. Sax. Mm, a helmet ; Dan. 
bj^m, a helmet, a moveable roof on itoups or postt, to keep com, &c. dry ; Sw. D. bjdm, 
an envelope, the seed-husk of oats, a detached shelter or roof under which com or hay may 
be kept dry. In the last two cases a very near approximation to oar meaning prcieats 



Helter, sb. A halter. 

* j h^ter: Pr. Fuuh. ccxcix. 

Hemmel, sb. A hand-rail, such as is usually fitted on one side or 
both of a planked or wooden bridge. 

Dan. hamnul; Sw. D. hamntd, a piece of wood £istcned by mtaxa of a bolt traDsrenelj 
across the waggon pole, to the «&ds of which ace attached the swingle-trees by which the 
horses drag the waggon (Molb.) | O. N. bamla, a pole or small beam ; N. bammeif id. 

Hempy, adj. Mischievous, of a character likely to bring the pos- 
sessor under the penalties of the law. 

**'A htmpy dog;" a youth dbp<»ed to practices which may end in the hang^nan's 
hemp/ Wb. Gl. 

HenbaulcB, sb. A hen-roost. 

Comp. Sw. D. hana^^ht the uppermost crou-beam whidi holds together the spars of 
the framework of a roof; deriving the name ft-om the circumstance that the fowls com- 
monly fly up and roost upon it at ol^t (Rietz) : also bana^xUkt; N. Sax. han^foVten. 

Henbird, sb. The domestic fowl. 

* Where t' partridges rase, Ah heered a cheeping lik' a young bmbird;' a cry like that of 
a young chicken : — which it was, in &ct, the hen partridge having by some chance sat on 
and hatched the egg of a common fowl. 

Henpen, sb. The manure made by fowls, as removed from the 

Hen-soratB, hen-sorattiiigs, sb. Small streaky clouds of the a'rrus 
form, known by other names» as Pilly-tails, but deriving this name 
from some resemblance to the marks in dust or light soil left by a 
scratching fowl. 

Heron-sew, hem-sew, sb. The common heron {Ardea cinerea). 
Incorrectly written herring-sew or -sue, and that spelling ignorantly 
supported on the utterly mistaken ground that the bird 'pursues the 
herrings,' which as a wader it cannot do. 

* Fr. biroHctaUf a young heron, gives E. btmubaw* Wedgw. 

Hesp, sb. A clasp or fastening, especially to doors or windows : the 
button which turns on a central pivot and so clasps or fastens a window, 
&c., is specially indicated. 

A. S. itsps, a latch, clasp, bolt or lock of a door ; Sw. baspa or baspe^ a latch or hasp ; 
Dan. hasp or baspe^ a latch or bolt on a door ; O. N. betpa ; S. Jutl. bespt, id. A further 
meaning in most of these latter words is a reel to wind yam, &c., upon. 

Hessel, hezs'Un'. Mode of Pr. Qf Hasel, Haseling. 


Hig, sb. Offence taken, usually implying petulance rather than 
serious indignation; the feeling of petulant or t^df-passionate dissatis- 
faction, and its manifestation. See Pet 

Cr. Oi. gires big^ i, A passion, a violent commotion of the mind: 2. A tempoTaty 
hurricane ; meanings which serrc to connect the word more directly with Sw. D. biga^ to 
coret greatly or intensely, to strive to obtain vehemently; N. bika; Dan. bige; Dut. 
^jgm : A. S. bigan, contendere. Quaere if Dan. D. b^t a person whom no one can endure, 
connected ? 

• They took the big at it/ Wb. Ql. 

HiCphty, highty-horfle, sb. A childish appellation for a horse. 

* Co^. explains tstrt en us gogues^ to be frolic, lusty, r11 a-boitt in a merry mood, 11 
«tf a dm/alf he is set on cock-horse, he Is all a-boigbt.* Wedgw. 

High-up, adj. Belonging to the nobility and gentry of the country ; 
of rank or position. See Qiiality. 

* " Who 's your new landlord ?" " Wheeah, he 's some desput bigb-up diap, a lord, or 
mebbe a duke, or such as that." ' 

Highway-maater, sb. The surveyor of highways. 

Hind, sb. An agricultural servant, hired by the year or term, haWng 
a house rent-free in part remuneration and expected to find other labour 
besides his own — his wife's, or grown-up daughter's, possibly — at cer- 
tain seasons of the year. In some instances, if not dl, the Hind has 
some of the responsibility of the BaiUG^ but works with his own hands, 
which the Bailifr does not, or at least need not. 

Hing, V. n. To hang. Simply a mode, and an ancient one, of Pr. 
Conversely, a is sometimes found in the place of 1, as stang= sting. 

* He says, what es man in shap hot a tre 
Turned up ))at es donn. als men may se. 
Of whilk ]>e rotes )>at of it springes, 
£r )>e hares >at on >e heved bynges.' Pr. of Conse. L 67a. 

Hing-by, sb. A hanger on, a toady or sycophant. 

Hing for rain, To. A phrase applied to the general appearance of 
the clouds and atmosphere when rain is evidently approaching. 

• Ah aimed it wad be wet : it "s bin bingingfixr raan ivver sen sunriic.* 

Hinging-mind, sb. An inclination, a strong disposition to do this 
or that 

Hipe, v. a. I. To push or strike with the horns as cattle do. 2. To 
censure, assail with insinuations or accusations ; to attack in reputation 
or character. 

Both Brock, and Leed$ Gl. make bipe, ' to rip or gore with the homi ;' Wb. 01., simply 
to * butt or strike with the horn,* which is probably the more correct explanation of the 




two. RieU gives hypo, to strike, inflict a Wow. and byp, a hcayy blow or stroke. Bypa 
also, and Dan. hyppe a& well, sigaify to pat the earth up against growing potatoes — • earth 
them up' — or other cropi that require such aid or protection. [t is curious if the 
Northumbr. dialects have preserved this word (otherwise lost), in its sense of striking, in 
commoD with the Sw. dialects. Riets quotes no correlatiTe word besides Dan. hyppt just 

2. * Som gai taUrd lis utird folcs. 

Some gase wrynchand to and fra. 

And some gas bypand aU a ka.* Pr. ofCansc. 1 1537. 

1. • They are always biping yan at anither/ HTj. GI. 

Hipe, hype, v. n. To make mouths, as in 'grinning through a 
horsc-coUar ;' to make ridiculous gestures as well as faces. 

Probably nearly connected with Sw. D. bipa, lo gape, to make open mouths in wonder 
or anuizetnetit ; biip, to draw one's breath lurd in astontshmeut over anything. See also 
O. N. geip, absurdity, spoken or acted, which would appear through geipr, hians. apcitus. 
10 connect itself wiih Sw. D. bipa and our hipe. 

Hiper, hyper* sb, A mimic, or one qualified to contend in grimacing 
or making faces, Ac. 

' A rare byper.' HT». Gi. 

Hippen-ho'd, hipping-hold, sb. A place M'here gossip is wont to 
be held, a loitcring-place, a comer where folks arc apt lo lounge and 


I connect this with O. N. g^pa, effutire, to chatter, to talk fast and vainly ; g^ip, spoken 
ranitics, or nonsense, chatter. See Hipe ; also comp. N. biptn, eager or greedy, curious, 
the Dan. being nyi-gj4rrig, literally ntwi-crawng — a highly appropriate qualification of ft 
gos>ip, or gouiping-pbcc 

Hippings, sb. Napkins (for infants). 

Jam. gives this word as * IUpptn, a kind of towel nscd for wrapping about the bipx of an 
infant.* whidi would be a much more satisfactory explanation if folks in N. Eng, and Scotl. 
were more in the habit of using ihe word bip rather tliau buh or buckU. StiU Hall, gives 
* bippany. a wrapper for the hips of an infant. Eatt." 

Hippie, sb. A small hay-cock, or rather a small heap of half-made 
liay, the drying process being not as yet quite completed. 

Sw. D. bypOt a small heap of hay or ck>ver; and as a rb. the same word means to set 
clover io such heaps. It is a dcriralivc or dimiirative from bop, a heap. Oritimi suggesu 
the former existence of the strong verb biupan^ ^m^P* bupum, oongerere, tumexc. Riets, 
p. 361. 

Hiring-ponny» sb. A piece of money, usually a half-crown, given 
as earnest-money, on concluding a hiring-engagement. by the master to 
his future serxant. and which establishes the bargain. See Arlea. Post- 
ing-penny, Qod's-penny, &c. 

Hirings, sb. A statute fair, at which agricultural servants of both 



sexes are engaged for the term, or the year. A fruitful source of rustic 


Hirple, v. n. i. To shrug or stick up the back as an animal does 
in inclement weather, when standing under a hedge in an open field, in 
the vain hope of finding shelter. 2. To be dull and inactive from the 
effects of severe cold, or illness. Hence the meaning to creep, to go 
slowly as if lame. Written also Hurple, Herple, Hurkle, Hurtle. 

Oae can hardly help suspecting a confuMon of two words here, one ia p and one in A, 
ahhough it is certaiu that in louie cases, u where articulation is imperfect (as \x\ young 
children) or defectire (as in some adults), t, k. and p are in a certain tense interchangeabte : 
and a like interchange may ari&e out of careless or provincial peculiarities of pronunciation. 
Wcdgw. refers burkle, as well as hurcb (to cuddle), to bug or buggle, K, equivalents to Dut. 
buck, in buck-scboudereit, to shrug the shoulders, bwitert, to crouch, Sw. buia $ig, utta bnltOt 
Dan. silft pan bug; a&siiming ' the introduction of an r (always useful in the expression of 
shivering).' In this connection conip. Sw. D. birra, to shiver or shudder, whether with cold 
or sudden fright, to which the Dan. D. bum corresponds ; biming, shivering or shuddering, 
and birrvg, which tmplici tottering, stumbling, as well as bewildered or frightened, and 
so, liable to shiver or shudder. Leeds Gl, give* ' burkle. to contract the body and become 
motionless; burple, to shrug up the neck and creep along the streets with a shivering sen- 
sation of cold, as an Jtl-clad person may do on a winter's morning ; as, ** goas burpiing 
about fit to give a body t* dithers to lukc at htm." ' 

Hirsel, hirale, v. n. (pr. hossle). To move about restlessly, to 

Jam. gives a different explanation of this word. Kuddlman's is * to move or slide down, 
or forward, with a rustling noise, as of things rolled on ice, or on rough ground.' Sibbald's, 
more approved by Jam., ' to move oneself in a sitting or lying posture; to move without 
the common use of the limbs.' • It seems properly,' adds Jam., to denote that motion 
which one makes backwards and forwards on lus hams. Thus we say that one bintiU 
doum a bill when, instead of attempting to walk or run down, he moves downward sitting.' 
In Clevel. the word 11 applied to cattle quite as frequently ai to human beings, and cx(«ressc« 
a general sense of uneasy restlessness. Hall, gives birsel, to move about, to fidget. North.; 
and buTiU, to shrug the shoulders. Curnb. It scarcely scenu to me that either Ruddiman's 
A. S. byribjti, munnurare, brUtlan, crepeic, or Janiieson's ' Tcut. ntnelen, Bclg. aarulen, 
retrogredi, quasi culuni versus ire, from aen, podex,' have any real bearing on the word. 
Dcfinitiunt are sometimes framed, at least turned, to meet a derivation, a shght suspicion 
of which nuy arise on reading both those given above. To me the word wears the appear- 
ance of a frequentative, with an analogy \q jostit (from j(yu$t. to push: Wcdgw.); and I 
would much more willingly refer it to dialect-corruption of a word like thmU than to either 
of the sources suggested in Jam. 

Hisa, V. n. To express discontent venomously ; to be cantankerous. 
See SiBS. 

* T' au'd chap iiised and gruifed mair an a lahtle at t* parish tak'ing 't pay off;' reducing 
or withdrawing his allowance from the pnor-rate. 

His-sel', his-sen, pr. Himself. 

' his halfe brother dwelt there, was feirce and fell, 
noe belter but a shepard to the Bishoppe binfull' 

Percy's Fol. MS. i fiia 



Hitch, V. n. To move a short distance in any direction ; to hop. 

' Hitch, motion by a jerk. Swiss gthotztJt seya, hughiiig till one shikes : Bxv. buOchemt 
to r(Kk, to hitch oneself viong like chiJdren oil their rumps ; Du. bvturt, hutstUH^ tu thake, 
to jumble; Fr. boebfr^ to ihakc; Swiss botubert^ to hiccup; io$cbtn, to knock; botttrtn, 
botz*n. bofzem, to shikc. jog, jolt.' Wedgw. 

Hitch, Jamie ; hitch, Jamie, stride and loup. The boyish play 
or exercise of ' Hop, step and jump.* 

Hither-go-there (used substantively). A digression, wandering 
from the subject in hand. 

* He's 2 dree au'd chap to talk wir ; his dtscoone *s amaist nobbat bitbtr-gxt-thfTH* 

Hoast, sb. A cough. See Heeze, Hoose. 

Htiiti. tauis (Hald.); at hvUa, to cough: Dan. botu: A. S. bweott; Dnt. boait, ■ cough. 
Pr. Pm. boit, boTit. 

Hoaving, hoavish, adj. 
Awflsh, Oaving, &c. 

Stupid, silly, clownish. See Hauying, 

Hob. The appellation of a spirit, or being of elf-nature, who must 
once have occupied a prominent place in the belief or popular faith of 
the people of the district. 

Probably, like the tiisscs of popular faith in Denmark, there were many Hobi, each 
with a * local habitation and a' local * name* Thus there is a Hob Hole at Rumwick, a 
Hob Hole near Kempswiihen, a Hob's Cave at Mulgravc, Hobl'rush Rook on the Fam- 
dale Moors, and so on. Obtruih Rook, as well as Hob Hole and the Cave at Mutgrare, 
it distinctly said to have been * haunted by the goblin/ who being * a familiar and Cronble- 
some visitor to one of the farmers, and causing him much vexation and loss, he resolved 
to quit his bouse in Famdalc and seek some other home. Very early in tlie morning, as 
he was trudging on his way with all his household goods and gods in a cart, he was accosted 
by a neighbour with '' I Ke you are flitting." — The reply caine from Hob out of the clium, 
" Ay, we's ftitling."*— On which the farmer, concluding that the change would not rid him 
of his visitor, turns his horse's head homewards. The story is in substance the same a* 
that told on the Scottish border and in Scandinavia.' Phillips' yorhbirt, p. 310. 1 give 
also Professor Woraae's version of the legend as current in Denmark : — * Once when I was 
in North England the converutiou turned ou the mischievous tricks of the Nisse, and I 
went on to relate our Northern legend of a Bonder who was teased and worried in all kinds 
of ways by a Nisse. At last he could stand it no longer, and he deteimined to quit his 
farm and go and take another somewhere else. When he had brought almost all his goods 
away to his new farm, and was driving along with the last load, he chanced 10 turn round, 
and what should he see as he did so? Who but the Nisse himself, with his red cap on, sit- 
ting quietly on the top of the load 1 Says the goblin to him quite confidentially, ** Aye, 
we '5 flitting" (Nu jlylt* m). One of the persons present then stated that in his youth he 
had repeatedly heard the legend, almost word for word, told in Lancaslu're.' Mindtr om 
(/# /)aM^, &C. p. Ijj. Hob of the Cave at Ronswick was famous for curing children of 
the Kink-oonfh, when thus invoked by those who took them to his abode : 
' Hob-hole Hob! Mah bairn's getten t' kin'-cough: 
Tak'*i off! Tak' 't off!' 



Hob at Halt Hail, in GUudale, was, as the legend bears, a rarm-spirit ' of all work/ thrash- 
ing, winnowing, atunping the bigg, leading. &c. Like the reit of the tribe who crer 
came under mortal eye, he was without clothes— nak't — and having had a HardiBg- 
Bznook made and placed for him. af^er a few moments of— it would scent, iU-plea»d— 
inspection, he was heard to say, — 

* Gin Hob mun hae nowght but a hardia' hamp, 
He *II came nae mair nowther to berry nor stamp.' 
I look upon the usual derivation of Hob as mistakeD. if not absurd. * ffob^ hoh~cluncb, 
a country clown. Hal. A bob or clown, picdgris. Sherwood. Hob-goblin, a clownish 
gobim, a goblin who does laborious work, where the first nibble is commonly taken as the 
diort fur Hallicrt or Robert.* No doubt Hobbi*, Hob, is the short for Halbcrt ; but has it 
actually and popularly been the short for Robert? It seems much more likely thai just as 
ObtrOH comes through the intenncdiale form Aubtroti, from Albtron (Grimm'i D. M. 
p. 4ai), so Hob^'Ob comet throu^ mb (comp. Clevel. Awf). from alb^tl/. Sec Hob- 

Hobble, V. n. i. To move wth difficulty from having ihe feet or 
legs entangled or tied, or from lameness. 2. To move as a hare or 
rabbit does, when undisturbed, with desultory hopping movements, and 
almost as if with its hindlegs tied together. 

See Hampered, Hopple, and comp. Sw. D. bopfi*, a hare. * The idea of iDioffidcnt, 
impeded action,' says Wedgw., ' is commonly expressed by the fgurc of imperfect or im- 
peded speech Wc have Sc. babble, babbtr, to stutter, to speak or act confusedly; 

to babble a lesson, to say it imperfectly ; Du. bobbelen, to jolt, to rock, to slammer; Sc. 
bobbU, to cobble shoes, to mend llicm in a bungling manner; PL D. bumpeln, to limp, to 
bungle : Sw. bappla, 10 stammer ; Eng. boppU, to move weakly and unsteadily. Then, in 
a factitive sense, to bobbie or boppU a borsc, to hamper its movaiicnti by tying its tegs 
together.* Still, note E, bammd, bambU, Sw. D. bammla, to lame by ham-stringing, or 
some like cruel process ; therKc simply to render lame, or able to move only in a hobbling 
kind of manner. 

Hobble, sb. A condition of trouble, perplexity or distress, from 
which extrication may not be very easy or pracucable. 
Comp. Hampered, and sec vb. Hobble. 

Hobtrush, a word occiuring in the designations Hobtrush or Ob- 
trush Rook (a tumulus on the Farndale Moors), and Hobtrush Hob, a 
being once held to frequent a certain cave in the Mulgrave Woods, and 
wont to be addressed, and to reply, as follows: — 

' '* Hob-tnish Hob ! Where is thou?" 
" Ah's lying on mah left-fuit shoe; 
An' Ah '11 be wiv thee — Noo !" ' 

' Hobthrust,' says Brock., ' is a local spirit, famous fur whimsical pranks. In some farm- 
houses a coek and bacon are broiled on Fassen's Eve, and if any person neglect to eat 
heartily of this food, Hobtl.rust is sure to amuse himself at night by cranmiing him up to the 
mouth with bigg-cbaff. According to Grose he is supposed to haunt woods only : H^b 0' t 
iftnt.' Certainly, it it not inipotsibte that Hob-thruBh, as well as Hob-thnut, may be a 
corruption of this assumed Hob 0' /' bwr>t — for I suspect cousinship between it and the 
various derivations, glanced at below, which used to be suggested for Howdie — but I scarcely 



icc it likely. Hall, quote* the following : — ^ If be be no hob'tbruth nor no Robin Good- 
fellow, I could findc with til my heart to tip a lUlybub with hini.' Two Lane. Lovtrt, 
1640; from which it appears that two hundred years ago the form Hobibrush prevailed 
u it, or Obtrusb, itill docs here. Grimm, who »ecms to have been acquaiaicd with the 
form Hobtbursi, or Grose's form with the marks of elision omitted, hazards a surmise — 
one, however, which might have been advanced more decidedly had he known the formf 
Hobtbrusb, Hobtrusb, Obtruib — that it may be connected with O. N. J>«rs, a being not 
essentially distinct from the Scarid. giant. This is, at least, more prabible than Qrose't 
etymology. Hobtrusb is. doubtless, the more special Yorkshire form of Hobtbrusb. Comp. 
our Alnthrup, Aint*rup for Ainthorpe. trone for throziB, Sec. I conceive the Hob 
to be equivalent lo Gothic alb, awf, O. N. olfr^ Eng. Af ( sec Hob) ; and, as to the entire 
word HobthruBh or Hobtnush, there is a suggestive similarity in form and »ound 
between it and bipeniruiscb, tlpen/n/tucb, alberdrutxcb, and the tike ; and certainly there 
is no stanling incongruity in the sense thus suggested; for it is tlbiscbt E. finuA, Clevel. 
awriah, with the limitation in our case to its primary meaning — of or bclmiging to m 
elf, or tlic elves. Perhaps, thus, Obtnuh Book — as meaning, i. e.. elvish or elf) piled- 
up heap — finds more in the way of elucidation than by supposing Grimm's t'^rs, half-bred 
giant, or ogre. 

Ho'd, V, a. I. To retain, keep, or keep back ; of a cow which refuses 
to yield her milk; or in reference to her connection \vith the boll. 3. To 
contest or resist strongly so as to hold the competitor or co-slruggler lo 
a continuance of strong effort. 3. To wager. 

I . ' T' au'd roan coo bo'ds her milk. Wc 'II her to quit 'r ;' part with her. 

a. * She 's been le t' bull, bnd Ah quesshon ef she bo'ds.' Sometimet, * bo'dt t' bull,* 

3. • Ah 'i bo'd thee a aown on 'I.' Sec UphoM, and comp. 'Wad. 

Ho'dj sb. I. Grasp, possession, a. Tenure, holding. 

I. • " HeTl ho'd his bo'd;" keep what he has got.' WJ. 01. 

3. ' *' Be has hii land under a good bo'd;" a good tenure, or, in other wordt, be hu 
good landlord.' lb. 

He'd fair, v. a. To remain or continue fair weather. 

' Better weather now : but Ah queuhun in it 'U bo'd /air while nceght.* 

He'd oflT, V. n. To keep off, not to befal; of something probably 
impending, as a fall of rain, a change of weather, a fit of illness or pain. 

He'd on, V. a. To hold fast, hold tight, without relaxing either ten- 
sion or firmness of grasp. 

Ho'd slack, v. a. i. To relax the pressure or tension of one's grasp 
especially the latter, as in pulling or holding on to a rope. 2. To relax 
for a time in attention to business or closeness of application. 

«. *" We're ba'ddtag Jack a bit;" gossiping awhile, holding talk when there is DotUog 
cbe to do.' Wb. Qt. 

Ho'd talk, V. n. To chat, converse readily, gossip. 
' A good hand at bo'ddiitg talk: \Vb. QL 


Ho'd-ialb, used as a sb. Chat, gossip, commonplace lalk- 

• We 'le just baTuig a bit o' ho'd-talk,' Wb. Gl. 

Ho'd up, V. n. To remain up and about, antithetical to giving way 
to weakness or indisposition, and lying down, or going lo bed. 

* Match 'd t' ho*d vp;* tcarct-Iy able, with all cfTort, to bear up against weakness or 

Hofa, sb. (pr. heeaf). i. A residence or abode; a person's home 
Tor the time being. And thence, 2. A haunt, the place where a person 
or creature may usually be met with. Written ' howff ' by Sir W, Scott 
in Guy Mannering and Heart of Mid~Loikian. 

Cf. O. N., S. G.. A. S. hof^ a dwelling, den, &c. Comp. Low. G. huj, hoiir, a fan»> 
ftead ; Dan.. Sw., Gemi. bo/; Sw. D. &ow. The O. N. word seems first to have denoted 
the holy boQse or tenipic, aud theQ to have been traiufened tu the tcsideoce of the local 
piaputc ; a/ier which it came to denote simply a rcsidetice or abode, a house, a farmstead; 
md sunilarly, in ihe other tongues or dialects noted, there is a gradation of sense between 
the court, of a prince or nobleman namely, and a house or residence in the country, 

I. ' " A man's own beta/:" own home.' IVb. GL 

3. ' Nat at yamm? then mebbe be'U be at Willy N.'s. That's a noted btta/o' hisa.' 

Hofe, V. a. and n. 1. To abide, lodge, or live. 2. To caase to live 

or abide ; in a place, house, home, &c. 

1. ' '• Where do you fcrrn/at?" whcic do you lodge or live?' Wb. Gl. 

' Deeavid ha' left t' au'd »pot. an' hes ixtafd wiv yoong John Gaibutt at l' Grains sea 
Marti'mas ;' of a farm-servant who has taken service in a new place. 

1. 'Ay: Guinea-fowU is dcsper't' bad to heeaf i' in reference to their unwillingncsi lo 
fofsake the old home aud adopt a new one, if the owner dunces to * flit.' 

Hoffla, V. n. To shuifie along with slow and impeded gait, whether 
from lameness or infirmity. Probably coincident with Hobble or 

Hofi^, sb. Hoofs or hooves; not infrequently applied, especially by 
a cleanly housewife on tlie entrance of muddy boots into her cleao 
room, to human feet. 

• " Clarted bofft;'" feel dirty with wallcing.* H^. GL 

Hog, sb. A male of the pig kind. 

* Bret, hoeb, bouc'h. swine, from houc'ha, to grunt. So Lap. snorbeui^ to gnint ; uutr^ 
a pig ; Fin. naskia, lo make a noise like pigs in cau'ng (G. ubmatzen) ; ntubi, a call for 
pigt, a pig.* Wedgw. U is, perhaps, not irrelevant to remark in reference lo the ' call 
for pigs' just noted, tliat the invariable call or summons in Clevel. lo the pigs (while as yet 
fluflcred to ramble about in the day-tinie) m come to their food at nightfall is ' Jack, Jack/ 
nuay times repealed in a high-pitched and sustained note. 

M m 



Hog, sb. A sheep of a year old. 

• A onc-yeir old %htep. Norm. Fr. bogett.' Brock. * From nx months old till being 
6nt ihom : lome uy ftom a lamb ; others, a aheep of a year old.' Hall. * Qu. A. S. bogan, 
to take care of; because, on accx)uni of their tender age, greater care it required to rear 
ihcm.' O. Gl. Corap. Wcdgw. * Hog, Hoggel, HoggrtI, Hoggtl, Hoggmirr. A young 
kheep or tlie second year. Devomh. bog-coif, a yearling colt. Dut. brjkktling, a heifer, 
a beast of one year old. From being fed in the bok, or pen. Hottde-bolt, a dog-kenncl : 
Sebaaptn-bok, a sheep<ote.' The sheep called bogt arc, however, not fed iii pens, neither 
is there any special care lavished upon them. I suspect that the last of the forms quoted 
by Wedgw. — boggaaer — affords a clue to the derivation of the word. A. S. b^gutaU 
implies a bachelor, a virgin, novice, ccelcbt, tyro; O. Germ, baga^lalt, bagusfalt, id.; Out. 
bageitijlt; Sw. D. and N. bogstall, a widower. Bosw. collates also 0. N. baguadr, tem- 
pcratus, mltbougb the word would seem to be due to a different origitul. But ui all 
the other words the idea seems to be that of continence, whether from being yet single, 
or having become a widower. So, it Ib at least conceivable, that Hog simply implies that 
the animal lo called is yet virgin. It may be a matter for enquiry, is Dot the sense of con- 
tinence, or restraint, involved in the prefix of the words quoted above ; A. S. hmg0, a fence ; 
M. Qerm. £ac, begt; N. baga; Sw. D. froj', &c.7 Also, may there not be a coonection 
between this word and Ihre's bogsi, which he seeks to derive from a corruption of 
oiculum f 

Hoidle, V. n. To play instead of working ; lo lose time, or waste 
lime carelessly or wantonly. Possibly a corruption of ' idle.' 

Hoit, V. n. To play the fool, and with a sort of implication of osten- 
tatiously. To engage in some evident absurdity. 

• Germ. Heyda ! btyia ! cxdamaiions of high spirits, active enjoyment. Hence E. i«y- 
day, the vigour and high spirits of youth ... In the same way Sw. boj/at to shout, explains 
E. boil, to indulge in riotous and noisy mirth : to bitt up and doum^ to run idle about the 
country. — Hall.' Wedgw. The Sw. D. bojta, byyf^ b<ja, boa, signifies to shout to cattle in 
order to collect them; to cry shrilly, as in a forest, bv *av of signal, or for help, and 
the like. 

Hoit, sb. A simpleton, a fool. Z^fds GL says the word is more fre- 
quently applied to females and implies awkwardness as well as silliness. 
Scarcely so in Cleveland. 

Hold, V. a. To occupy, find occupation for, lay an abiding claim or 
detainer on. 

• A job at 'II bold hiro mair an yah year, or tweea owther.' 

• He 'II nivTTer cast it. "T 'II bo'd him fur as Ung as he lives.' 

Hold, V. n. (pr. hd'd). To last, to continue : in reference to the 

• Ay, it 's faired oop noo, but Ah question if it *l bo'd.' 

Holding-ewes, holding-stock, {pr. ho'dding-yows, stock). Ewes 
or stock intended to be kept on through ilic winter by the farmer or 
owner, as part of the permanent slock of the farm. 




Holl, V. a. (chiefly used in pass, pcpl.) i. To make hollow; to 
cause to pine by stan'ation. 2. To make lean or emaciated ; thence 
hoUed, as in the example^ puny, without growth or the power of it. 

O.N. itd/a, to make hollow, hoUuw out; 0. Sw. hoia; Dao. h%dti Sw. haXa; G«nn. 

». • » A lahtJe holVd thing ;** a pony cliild.' Wh. 01. 

Holl, adj. I. Hollow. 2. Deep, in the same sense in which the 
* depth of \vinter' is spoken of, and in that sense used to qualify 
the word ' time.' 

O.N. botr, hollowed, nnpty; N. bol; Sw. D. M/, hollowed out, concave, dcqi; A.S. 
hoi; Q. Genn. boi; Germ. bobl. Comp. Sw. D. bdl-skog, a large, deep forest. 
I. ' Dere brother, I witlo (ayre 

On fcld ihcr o»ir bcstc* ar, 

To look if thay be bolgb or fuile.* Tourrul. Myst. p. 15. 
a, • - The b<Al time of night ;" the dead hour of the night.' Wh. Ol 

HoU, sb. 1 . A deep narrow depression in the surface of the land or 
place, of no great longitudinal extent. See Howl or Houd. 2. The 
depth of winter ; sometimes appHed also to what is called the ' dead time 
of night.' 

O. N. bola ; O. Sw. hoi ; Dan. hut ; Sw. M/. Dan. irvi, m one of iti »ensu, takes much 
the ume meaning as our Holl or Houl, namely a hollow on the earth's surface ; and I 
have a note of O. N. boil, in connection with the word matt, night, but the reference 
omitted, which would answer exactly to our Holl of the night. Under * Ifotvl, a hollow 
or low place,* Brock, quotes the saying. — 'Wherever there's a hill, there's sure to be a 
howl;' and then he adds ' HowUkite, a vutgar name for the belly;' which is scarcely true, 
for O. N. and O. Sw. bol is specially applied to ' renter, vel pars corporis cava :' the O. N. 
distinguishing between the upper and lower cavities, or those of the breast and the bowels. 

T. In local names, frequent: e.g., Hoidfyke, otherwise spelt JitMttUyktf Uoiiiiyk*; Homl* 
dike; both in Danby parish. 

3. ' " The boll of winter ;" the depth of winter.' Wb. Oi. 

HoUin, sb. The holly {Hex aquifolium). In the pi., Hollina, 

A. S. btdign ; O. E. boiyn, bollen ; W. edyn. 

' In his on honde he hade a boiyn bobbe, 
^at is grattcst in grcne. when greue? ar bare.' 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. I. ao6. 

Holm, sb. Low-lying land by the side oF a stream, which in time of 
flood may become more or less insular, and which at an earlier time 
may have been completely so, former channels or hollows having been 
filled up by alluvial matters. 

O. N. hiUmi, btilmr. a snuU island ; N. io/m, bolme, id. ; also a spot distinguished from 
the surrounding land, as a bit of grass among com, or vice versa ; a little unmown meadow ; 
Sw.D, b6lm€i Dan. D. holm, id.: also, in S. JutU any rather more elevated plot in a 

U m 2 


meadow ; A. S. and N. S. ^m, a gmall island, txpeazWy in a river ; also & waaSi dentJon* 
or quad flat hill ; O. Sw. Mmber^ bolmt, a snuU island, a place or ^ot faiced off from the 
adjacent lands. We hare sereral local names now ending in bolim^ but utterly without ooo- 
nection with the present word : e. g^ Moorsbolm, the Domesday orthography of which U 
Mortbusum, which is simply the dat. pi of Aforr&iis ; Ltaibolm, which the Whitby Glossarist 
refers to igai, little, and boim — assuming mistakenly, that the latter means brook — bnt whidt 
in Domesday stands as Lacium^ Lelum. Again, Nnoboim near Whitby is Nnuhom in the 
same record. It ts sometimes difficult to say what the Domesday speUiog really points to, 
and perhaps Laelum, Lelvm is a case in point I do not, howerer, think that hiim is dia- 
gaised under the final syllable, whether that be lum or srm. The word Holia or Hcdin* 
is common enough as de5ignating some particular piece of land near the Bedk, oa more 
&rms than one in the district. See note to Holm in Pr. Pm. 

Holy-bizen, sb. (pr. holy- or hooaJy-bahz'n). A tawdrily- or abeurdlyr 
dressed figure, only fit to be a spectacle to wondering beholders. A 
reference, probably^ to the tawdry, tasteless bedizenment of images of 
saints, &c., still extant in Popish countries and districts. See Bisen. 

Holy-danoe, sb. The extravagances and evidences of excitement 
manifested, perhaps aimed at. by one or more religious sects at their 
public services, have caused this name to be given to their proceedings. 

Holy-stone, sb. (pr. hoo&ly-steean). A stone with a natural perfora- 
tion in it, supposed to have peculiar virtues in propitiating luck, and 
efficacy as against witch-power and mischief. Suspended by a string 
from the bed-tester, or attached to the key of the house-door for the 
safety of the inmates ; hung above the Standing of the cow, or over 
the stall of a horse, especially one that is found to sweat much at night, 
for the several security of those animals, — it was, even is yet, imagined 
to set the witch's malice at nought. 

Comp. the following. War. og Wird. p. 357 : — * Upon the border-lands between East 
Gothland and Nerike, the people still continue the practice of hanging round a child's neck 
small stones of smooth trap which are marked either by water-worn indentations or bcdes 
through. These are call«l Alt-stofus, because they are held to be remedial against the 
cVild's ailment so called (a kind of intermittent), which is supposed to be caused by 
the Elves. In this very ancient popular custom, as also in the Scanian practice of hanging 
upon the necks of children the so-called Oommonastmar (Gommon's-stones ; from Oomo- 
den, or Kommodtn, a local name for Thor), which correspond exactly with the Oobonda- 
stenar or Oo/ar-sttnar of Wiirend, we find not only an analogous usage, but also a simple 
but clear illustration of the practice of wearing mere stones as amulets upon the breast or 
hung from the neck. For these Gobonden's or Gofar's stones are simply small white stones 
which, when the lightning has struck any spot, are sometimes found upon the land there : 
they are perfectly smooth, and about the size of the yolk of an egg. They are beneficial in 
many ways: — thus, Laid in the syle, or milk-strainer, they are a certain prerentatire 
against the milk being spoilt or in any way damaged by the witch (Trollbackak).'' Thor, 
alias Gofar, Gohoudeii. Gomoden or Kornmoden, in the old mythology was the dreaded 
enemy of all the Troll-kind — the progenitors as well as predecessors of the more modem 
witch ; and when he — the Thunderer — used his heavenly artillery they fled in utter dismay. 
Hence the efficacy of these stones : the witch recoils in fear and impotence before Thor's 




Home-como, homc-oonung, sb. 1 . The arrival of a person at his 
home after an absence, whether for the day's work or longer. 2. The 
time of such arrival. 2. The reception or ireatment at such arrival. 

Comp. O. N. iMtm-iomat O. Sw. bemkoma, return home, or Bome-oomfl ; Din. ^m- 
Aoftrmm. having retunied home ; Sw. b*mkonut, homecoming. 

* Hwcii he hvoti ule ; haunt ajaiu his bam-cumt »ar care t cic.* Htdt Aftid. p. 31. 

a. ' He'll be here about bomt-rome.* 

3. ' I shzll have a botmy bome^Qming about it with my wife, depend upon it* Wb. Ol. 

Honey. A term of endearment, more fondling; than * dear.' Often 
used as a prefix, as in Honey-bairn. Often used also by the aged in 
addressing those they feci both respect and regard for : a kindly clergy- 
man or lady-visitor often gels the appellative Honey, and even Bairn. 

' ffarewell my bony, farwell my swceic.* Percy'* Folio MS. i. p. 151. 

Honey-fall, sb. A wind-fall of a more than ordinarily pleasant kind; 
a piece of great and very acceptable good luck. 

' " They have had a brave boney-/aiI lately ;" a great deal of property bcqucatbed.' 

Hood-end, sb. The flat surface, or hob, at either end of the fire- 
grate, on which the ketde, &c., is customarily set. 

Cr. Gi. givci * hood, the pUcc t>ehind the fire : hood-tnd, conicn near the fire, either of 
slone or iron.' I surmise thai in older days the sort of enclosure made near the 5rc 
involved a kind of arched covering, which originated the name Hood. See Neukln. 
Jam. quotes ' " O. E. Hood, the back of the fire. North." Gtok. O. E. huddt must cer* 
taioly be viewed as originally the same, though tucd in an oblique sensei at denoting what 
covers the fire durine; night.' 

Hoose, V. n. To wheeze or breathe ^vith difficulty and noise. See 
Heene, which is coincident. 

Cf. Pr. Pm. ' Hoou, or cowghe (hoit, or boost).* 

Hop. A word of command, formerly in use by the drivers of oxen, 
and answering to the old word Bee, or the more modem Gee, as used 
in driving horses ; i. e. directing them to turn to the right or from tlie 
driver. Sometimes Hop-off. 

Molb. gives bop, an exclamation employed either to cause any one to move briskly, or to 
ttimubte a horse ; and byp^ the word of command employed to cause a horse to go forward. 
In his Dial. Lexicon, however, bop dig a given as the word employed (in Bierrc) when the 
horse is desired to back. ' It is usuul to cry to a stumbling man or beast, Hop! Hop I — 
Kuttiicr,' quoted by Wedgw. Hop I is thus widely used in directing by voice the move- 
ments of a draught beast, and as bop in di0erem parts of Denmark has a diffcxent intention, 
%0 there nuiy have been an arbitrary use »( it in Clevel., meaning, Move to the right, as in 
Denm. sometimes forward, socnetimes backward. 



Hopper, sb. The basket suspended by means of a strap passing 
over one shoulder of the sower, and containing the seed-corn it is his 
business to sow. 

* Hopptr, ■ wed bukeL " A seiklqie or a boprrt :" MS. Egcrton, 8J9.' HaO. Puhapt 
a kimplc adaptation from hopper, tbe teed-fcceiving and ddivchng portion of the null (7) 
/>. Pm. gnre* * Hopyr of a myne,' and * Hopwr or a seedicpc.* 

' He (Pen ^ Ploohmau) heng an Hoper on his Bac* In stode of a scrippe, 
A Btuichd of Bred coco* be briuget> >er-Iiiiic.' P. Plou^bm, {E,E. T.S.) p. 77. 

Hoppet, sb. I. A small open basket. 2. The gaol or prison. 

Wb. Gl. nukes hopper and hoppit synonymous ; but. I think, tncocrectly. Cr. GI. circs 
boppit, * a little basket ;' Leeds Gi. 2i ' i mull osier basket, with a bow haodle ;' HalL 
bofpet. ' a hand basket — Var. dial.* and also. * the dish used by mioers to measure their ore 
in :' besides boppit, * a unalJ field, generally one near a bouse, of a fqoare (Qna~~Eam* 

Hopping-tree, sb. The pole of a coup-cart. See Coup-Gart. 

Comp. Din. D. boppe : at boppt en vogn : to back a waggon. 
tre' it oimtioited in Will* and Ihv. Surt, Soc* i. I04. 

Sec Hop. * A boppyng 

Hopple, V. a. To tie the leg^ of a horse or other animal together in 
such a way as not to prevent all motion from place Lo place in grazing, 
but still so as to render straying to a distance exceedingly difficuU and 
slow. Brock, gives * baffle' with this signification; and ' bobble' is the 
equivalent word in oihei districts. See Hoffle, Hobble, Hamper, &c. 

Horse-block, horse -moont, horsing- stones, horse -steps, sb. 
The steps, usually of stone, with a small platform above them, for con- 
venience in mounting one's horse : especially to a female. 

These arc of frequent occurrence in tbe Dales, at the top of the steep horse-tracks leading 
up the hill-sides or Banks to the roads acroM the moor* as well » at the churchyard 

gates, &C. 

Horse-couper, sb. A horse-dealer ; one who buys, sells or exchanges 
horses. See Coup. 
Comp. bvrw^iururt from O. Fr. eouratiert roHraciirr, a broker, talesman. See Wedgw, 

Horse-godmother, sb. A great, ungainly female. 

Horse-gogs. sb. A fair-sized but highly astringent blue plum which 
grows abundantly in the district, and sometimes even in the hedge-rows. 

Comp. gnnie-gogt = gi>osel>crnes. 

Horse-knops, sb. The plant black knapweed {Ceti/aurca nigra). 
Also called Hard-heads. See Knop. 

Comp. itnappar. the Sw. name of the plant. 



Horse-trod, sb. A track or path used as a * bridle-road.' See Trod, 

Host-houBO, sb. (pr. wost-hus). The inn at which the fanner or 
countrjTuan puts up in the market- (or other) town he visits. 

Hostle, V. n. (pr. woss'l). To put up at an inn. 

Ho't. Pr. of Hurt. 

Hotoh, sb, A bungle, an ill-managed affair. 

Probably coDvertible with biteb, and in somewhat the lame sense as when wc say * there 
is a hitch ill the aiTair.' Sw. D. h^iJca is to fumble, to l>e irresolute, to hc&itate, and may be 
connected; as iIm) Swiss hoodichtn^ botschtn, 10 crawl like 1 toad, shufBe along, do any- 
thing in a dawdling, untidy way. 

Hot-pots, sb. (pr. heeal- or yat-pots). Pots of hot spiced ale brought 
out by tlie friends of a newly-wedded couple to be partaken of by the 
bridal party as ihey return from church. See Bride-door, Bride- 
wain, &c. 

Hotter, V. a. and n. i. To shake, or even jolt, as persons or things 
in a springless cart driving over rough roads are shaken up and down. 
Thence, 2. To move witli an uneven pace, limpingly or lamely, in what 
is called in some places *a dot and go one' style; and 3. To throw 
together confusedly or in a jumble, as things conveyed in such a cart 
would be. In this sense, used chiefly in the passive. 

Wcdgw. connects this word with buddlt. He says. ' the primitive image is probably the 
bubbling movement of boiling water; Sc. hotter, soiter, for the sound of boiling or sinimer- 
icg; /o botifT, to simmer, shirrr, shudder, to walk unsteadily, jolt. It't all in a hotter, all 
ill movement ; hatter, a multitude of small animals in motion ; bottle, anything withoat 
a Gnu base, as a young child begiiuiing to walk.' I conceive that tbu original idea of 
to bouer is involved in the meanings to ibivtr, to tbudder; whence the meanings of Uacon 
Grizzlebcard's * HutttuittutttuV Dasent's iVwj* Talts, p. 46, and * He was to be sure to 
lie itill, and not to shiver and coll out butttu, or any such stutf.' (p. 47.) In Sw. D. we find 
huttra, buddrOt bdddra, hodra, hddra, hodda, to tremble or sliiver with cold, to have one's 
teeth chatter ; Swiss hottern, to nhakc, to tremble ; Dan. D. huddre, to shiver froni the 
effects of cold or fever. Cf. also O. N. boisa^ quatire ; hots, mollis quassatio. 

1. • Wf went hollering in the cart all the way 011.' IVh. Ql. 

2. * Hottering on, nae better an a lamiter.* 

.1. ' *• All hotter'd up ;" jumbled together, confused, crowded.' Wt, 01. 
With the last example comp. Jamicson's instance : — 

' 'Twas a rauir-hen an' mony a pout 
Was rinnin', bofteria* roond about ;' 
where the idea is not of being jumbled or flung together in a confused heap, so much as of 
voluntary crowding. 

Hottery, adj. Uneven to walk or ride upon; as a bad pavement, 
a rough and ill-kept road. 



Houe, sb. I. A sepulcliral lumulus, or barrow, a. A natural hill. 

O.N. baugr; O, Sw, baugr, bogbtr; S. Q. bvg : O^n.boj; S. ju\l. h9g {pr, by ; they 
much as the Fr. u); N. Jull. byr ; a tumulus or small hill niiscd by hand, in contndii- 
tiiictjoii to a natural hill or cniinence. Motbcch's definition is, en forbmtning paa jurdtru 
ovtr/tadt : a hill or heap rai««d on the surface of the earth. He notes alto the phrase* at 
kasU. or opkasft tn b^t: to throw up a houe. En jordboi is used as antithetical to tn 
tandbaik* ; baktt elier banie bruget itedvanlig om itorrn og natvrligt h»U. Man tigtr 
aldrig, tn ophastet baklce : the word bakkt or banit is usualljr applied to larger hills of 
natural origin. No one erer uys a thrown-up bakii. The special application of O.N. 
baugr, O. Sw. bogbttt Dan. 6«f. Sw. bvg. Sec. is to a sepulchral tumulus; sometimes so 
specified, as in Dan. £rovh9i, Sw. atttbog^ O. Sw. atar-bogbtr : whence the names, Dan. ^'- 
^k, Sw. bog-folk, N. Jut), byv/olk. Sec, for the dwarf tribe, O. N. dvergar. who were held 
to have their dwellings in these old sepulchres. In Clevel. the word, with about two excep- 
tions, denotes the gravchiUs on the moors, many of which I have opened, aud all of which, 
as ! believe, belong to an exceedingly remote epoch. 

J. Black-^ouvx, Herd-^Nf, Sec, to any number. 

a. The Houe, near Castleton. Parker's Hour*, near Cruiikley GilL 

Houl, howl, sb. A depression in the surface of the ground, of no 
great lateral extent or length ; scarcely amounting lo a valley, and not 
rugged or precipitous like a Gill. See HolL 

Hound, V. a. To set on ; to make an opportunity for a second 
person and induce him to use it 

I take this word and the next from the \il>. GL, a valuable and trustworthy collection 
as regards the words themselves, their (oftentimes phonographic) forms, and thetr appli- 
cation. The de6nition there given is — ' Pursued, in the sense o( one person introduced to 
another by the stratagem of a third party, as a man to a match he is desirous of making is 
said to have been bounded to the woman.' It is difficult to see the application of the word 
* pursued* in this: the idea otherwise is clear. 

Hounding, sb. An advantage obtained for another person by re- 
conuneiidation, or by creating an opportunity for him. Wh. GI. 

See Hound. The extract from Wh. Gl. thereunder given is thus conliuucd : — • also, 
a sidcaway recommendation in any one's behalf is called a boumiuig for another's benefit.* 

House-fast, adj. Confined to the house, the result of personal indis- 
position, lameness, incapability of locomotion, &c. Comp. House-kept, 
and see Bed-fast. 

House-folk, sb. The people belonging to a house. See Folk. 

Comp. O. N. htii'foik, I. domestic servants ; a. lodgers. 

House-kept, adj. Confined to the house, the result of having to 
lend closely on a sick person, or the like. 

Housen, sb. pi. Houses, house-property. 

Several plurals in m are retained in Clevd. Comp. Ken or Eyen, OwAOn (oxen). 
Hoaon. &c. Cf. tustm (uhes). in Chaucer; fiitn, oien, P, Plaugbm. 

* And af^er that (a tbouader) com a water so sharply, that drof down the hunnyngM and a 
grete parte of the pepte.' M*H. p. 153. 



HoUBe-plaoe, sb. The principal living-room in a house. 

HoiLsm'-8tii£[^ sb. Householti furniture, inclusive of all kinds. 

Hout, intcrj. Strongly expressive of incredulity or dissent : not so ! 
nothing of tiie son ! impossible ! 

S. G. ^/, apagc: particula, qui cane* imprimis faccascre jubcniui (Ihrc) ; S, but, cry to 
sileuce a dog; Welsh bu/l, off with it I away I • Huia ut in,' sayi Ihrc, ' is to expel any 
one with indignation and cont'Cnipt, as if he were a ^og; Welsh bwttio; Finn, butitan' 
Wedgw. gives Fin. butaa, to shout, to call; N. buisa^ to frighten or drive out with noise 
and outcry. Add Sw. D. busta^ to shout or shriek; also to set on or incite, as a dog on 
any one. 

Hover, V. n. i. To hang over or be suspended: thence, 2. To 
wait or remain stationary : and 3. To be in a stale of suspended action, 
of either bodily or mental kind. 4. Sometimes used as v. a., to slay or 
suspend an action. See Over. 

This woid in the form bout, or bov€ is not tnfrequeot in O, E. In Clevel, ii takes the 
form Ower ; and one of the sayings most frequeiitly quoted as specimens of our dialect to 
puzzle or astonish the South-country hearer will be found below. Hall, quotes h<ni« in the 
senses, i. to stop or hover: i. to float on the water, as a ship, &c.; and the derivation 
to be from Welsh bojSan, bofo, to fluctuate, hover, suspend or hang over. 

* 8c be (the raven) fongej to ^ fiyst, & fannc) on ^e wynde}. 
Ifov*i hyje vpon hyjl to herken ty\>yngc}.' 

E. Eng. AlUt, PotPts, B. I. 458. 

* On ark on an eucntyde boue^ the dowve.* /&. 1. ^5. 

* J?e bume bode on bonk, hat on t>lonk boutd.' 

Sir Gaw. and Gr. Kn. 1. 785. 

* Yet bcvtd ther an hundred 
In howves of selk, 
Scrgcantz it biscmcd 

That scTvedcn at the barre.* P. Plongbm. \. 418. 
a. * " I ratlier bovtnd a bit ;** waited awhile.' Wb. Gl 

' " Titter oop t' sprunt niun ou««r a bit ;" the one that is first (sootiest) tip the hOf mutt 
wait a bit.' Ih. 

• My lord, this care tastes lang, 

And willc, to Moyscs have his bone ; 
Let hym go» els wyrk we wrang, 

it may not help to 6otvr ne hone.' Towntl. Myit. p. 64. 

3. * ** Hovering for rain ;** cloudy, threatening to come wet.' Wb. Gl. 

4. * " Howr your hand ;" stop, hnid, e. g. in the ad of poaring water,' Ih, 

Howdy, sb. A midwife. 

O. fi.Jiid, that which is bom, aUo the act of parturition, is almost certainly the origin 
of this word. Bat comp. S, G. Jordgumma, Sw. jordt-gvmma, Sw. D. jarid)mor, Dan. 
jord*moder : the latter alio occurring with the orthography gjordemod<r. ' By some,* says 
Ihre, ' it has been supposed that the reference is to the custom of depositing the ncw-bom 
balw on the ground, whence it was to be raised by the father, if he thought it worthy of 
being reared, and given into the care of the female attendant. Others have referred the 

N n 

374 fiuusjjtr or tmm 

so die ivm^-BL 

dutatr baa esipc m. ■■< <fac ifac 

vorii jftjciAi a p^a^ ^ccnei of t£be loocai jiT».grty cbkbci at Asrrxtkm: BoJk, in 
'>9M haJmmmmt^f fav. tte aane fiv ifac caal a cUd ■ iiimiimii hoa vilfa; Aw 

Hoiric, T. a. To <% oat, to scoop, a> vo^ vidi (figging toob in a 
bole, or in makii^ a fa^. 

Jan. weB rcanrlu da: ' £. £f does mx pcoperlv coclvtt t&e idea t i^ t mtd br jFTiimI. 
For ii:c btser B^ttiaef to take cot the veoiit&t, leanof t&e ovtsdc vhale nn^ the aper- 
tMc Is net, B ar&^ATf' cujs, diE wq ttjciw mm>. bot cocnipQT. a{iproscBO tt seme 
to hsek. L'r^er fca or 'AmO, a hotkw stiaw or raed. Mob. {Dm^ DimL Lm.) qooto 
hoOr, a ipoct, a hofUnr reed or caoe. a pipe ; aihS addh. Sv. Ml, ' m gcaecc noCal Itgiwm 
matu^ — cadEX. feAo. canre.' Ihne. be nstlier san. dezins it from ki§ m , to ntake bol- 
Inr, ia Ske maoaer as deO &«ib dS^v. Camp, also JbOc. h— JJafh; a wooden co*«r 
OT pro«ectioB orcr the mosth of a wcS: when tbe idn is tful of diat wliidi is made bol- 
low — had tbe baide bowlcad out — so as to beame a soitafaie CD>rcr far w ai wihin g the. 

Sawtf, sb. A street game played by boys in a tovn, one of them 
hiding behind a wall or house-end and crying ' Howly' to the seekers. 

It has been forested, tbot^h not rerr probabtj. dut OU — ' tfae cocmnooest Christiaii 
name in Norway ' — scaj be the fomidanoo of thb mr. Lseds €3. gins BUtfy as the oame 
of the kan;c game ; ' the tcarcb-ci^Dal cmploTed in the game u " HidUy !" and Dcrt ** Hidef' 
as common/ • Wboop !' is the Sontb-cooiitrT signal. 

Howse, V. a. To bale or dip oat water, or other liquid. See Oaae 
or OwM. 

Howvomiwer, hows'iwer, conj. Howsoever, or however. 

Hubble-Bhew, htibble-ehoo, sb. The tumultuous movements of 
a somewhat excited crowd ; a state of commotion, or disturbance. 

Jam. refers this word to • Teat bobbtUn, ioglomerare ; bobbdtn-iobb^tm, tDmahoare. The 
last tyllable ma/ be Teat, tcbcwe, tpcctaculuoi, or imm scbouwen^ ridcie : q. a crowd 
aMembled to see something that excites attcntioa.' Is it not at least open to soimise that 
9w. D. bo-hal, bowl, bovoll ; N. bdball, bohbtdl^ bobboU^ bivoU^ midsummer, the time when 
the aun (Baal, Balder) is highest, may hare tmne connection with it? Ihre, who gircs 
ttte itftm bogbaU from one Sw. district, and bogbaU from another, takes the WOTd to hare 
Of iginally denoted dim bogt Balder, the high Balder ; or, as it were, the high and powerful 
sun ft special season. It is matter of history that this seasoD wu from extremdy remote 
timet celebrated by the piling and burning of mighty £res on the hiUs in different districts, 
at which almost the entire populatioD were assembled, with feasting, dancing and drinking, 
cmitiiiued throogliout the night. Herein we certainly bare the main elements of what is 
thus expressed by Jam.: — * It' (the word Hubbelscbow) * suggests the idea of a multitude 
running and crowding together in a tumultuous manner (without necessarily implying that 
there is any Ivoil;.' For the last syllable compare wappinscbaw or wappensebaw. 

Huokle, h\>. The hip. See Huke-bone. 

Huff. V. n. To become swollen and puffy, as the flesh where a blow 
has been received. 

Mi. Wcdgw. gives * Hu^, Hoovt. To puff or Wow, as v^J, or Q. baufben, to breathe 
or blow, from a repic&cnUtion of the Miund. To buff up, to puff up. iwcU with wind. 
•* In many bird* ihe diaphragm may be easily bufftd up with air." Grew in Todd. " Ex- 
crcjcencrs, called cniphyscmata, like unto bhddrr» puffed up and hoorcd with wind," Hol- 
land — Pliny in R.' The examples are unexceptionable, but Sw. D. b>ivna, bnvna, bAvna, 
N. bowna or bovne, to puff up or become swollen ; bdven, bav9n, bdvfn, swollen, hulTcd ; 
£pm/m, the condition of being swollen ; Dan. boven, swollen : bovatbtd, condition of bein^ 
swollen; bavtlst, id.; also rising or tumour. — arc all distinctly rcferriblc to b'lva, btvja, 
bav€, to heave, raise, cause to be risen ; and it if scarcely doubtful that Ckvel. Huff if s 
very close relative. 

* Her eye bufffd oop in a minute ;' after a blow received. 

Cf. with the extract from Wcdgw. the following : — 

' Th<^ buft & pufr with many heaves, 
till that ih<^ both were tyred.' £,ooi« and Hum. Sotigt, p. iS- 

Huff, sb. The feeling of dissatisfaction or displeasure excited by 
a slight or petty indignity ; offence taken on some such ground. 

Probably a simple metaphor from hutt, to swell or be swollen. Corap. the exactly 
analogous applications of Lat. tumto, to swell with anger, to be pufied up with vanity or 
pride. &c. Mr. Wcdgw.. however, derives it from ' the puffing and blowing oi an angiy 

' " They look the iw^at it ;" they were offended by it." Wb. Gl. 
In the following extract rrom Chaucer : — 

' " Now. sirs," then q?i this Oswoldc the Rcvc, 
" 1 pray you allc, that ye nought you grcvc, 
That I aiuwere. and somedcll sttt bis bovfi. 

For lefull it is force with force to shoufe :" ' Rtvi's Proiogu*, p. 30, 
it would seem, from the gaieral sense, that the phrase in italics may probably mean cxdte 
his ire, rather than only be quits with him, as suggested in the Glossary. In that case our 
Huff might have a different origin from that abore suggested. Comp. the phrases 'Set 
one's cap,' ' Cock cMic's bonnet' or ' beaver,' &c. 

Huffle, huffll, huwil, sb. A finger-stall, a cot; a protection for 
a hurt or sore finger. 

O. N bu/a, cap, ho»d. Comp. also Sw. D. buv, a covering ; a small circular roof; O. S, 
brntTt thatch, roof; O. E. bow, boove, and * Hotee, bowuit Pr. Pm., a hood, from which 
this is a dimiuutive. 

Hug, V. a. To carry, the hands, anns, or back being specially em- 
ployed in the act. The idea of effort is oftenumcs implied, but cer- 
tainly not quite necessarily, or \vitIiout exception. 

Comp. Germ, froc^, to take upon one's back. The «amc vb., as a v. n., is to squat or 
crouch, which probably brings it into connection with Sw. D. buka, to squat, or sit with 
curved back and knees; Dan. &idd* paa bvg. O. N. iii>a, N. buha. bulcjt, Dan. bugt^ which, 
besides the preceding meaning of sitting with bent back and knees, has alto that of walkmg 
with a bowed bsck and head poked forward ; in other words, the very form in which one 
huffs a heavy burden on his b.-ick. We have thus, it would seen), a connection reopened 

N n 3 


27 6 


between boekm aud hugt, through the interveutJon of Cicvel. Hug. Wh. Gl. gives Hug, 
to carry m if toiling with ;i cunibram load, and, at an example, ' " Ah *« brusten wi* hug- 
ging on 't;" bursting or out of breath in contending with the load." But the word is often 
applied also in the case of loads which do not require fuch contending with. People hug 
small parcels as well as heavy burdms. 

Huke, sb. The hip. See Hnokle. 

Conip. hnick, the hip-bone of a cow ; buck, in beef, the part between the shin and the 
round (Hall.) ; hug-botu. buckit-botu, &c. See Hiike-bone. 

Huke-bone, sb. The hip-bone. 

Comp. bug'bone^ differently shortened Into bubbon aud buggani buck, btiekie, ai/eb-bom0 
or tdgebotu ; all of which are probably connected, and of equally uncertain deriration : unless 
Sw. D. bukk. a small but highish projecting point of land or promontory, jutting into the 
sea; Dan., Fri*., N. Sax. bui, a corner or projecting angle; Dutch boek^ id.; alio s small 
promontory, supply a suggcstiou, as 1 conceive they do. 

Huke, To OTOok. To sii down ; to bend the Huke so as, or in 
order, lo sit down. 

* I hare never cniilt'd my bukt the whole of the day,' in Wh, Gl.^ is explained by the 
compilcT by ' I have never crooked my bip to sit dovm.' However, one never * crooks one's 
hip' for that or any other purpose. The word is only another or prov form of bough or 
boch. ' Hock, the joint of a horse's leg from the knee to the fetlock ; hoogb, the back of 
the knee; A. S. bob* the heel, ham (calx, poplct, suffrago)' (Wcdgw.) : thus the meaning 
of each word in the phrase becomes at uuce apparent. Comp. ' I hae often wondered tlut 
any aoc that ever bent a knee for the right purpose should ever datir to crooi a hough lo 
fyke aud Aing at piper's wind aud liddler's squealing.* Htart of Mid-hotbian. 

* She said there was a tough itncw in an old wife's bcntgb.' Vork Casth Dep. p. 30a. 

Huker, v, a. To barter, huckster. 

* G. boif, biiifry a higgler, huckster : " a rcUiler, regrater, one who sells goods, especially 
victuals bi small quantities, a petty dealer. Dut, Imtcker, bucker, caupo, propola." Kit 
Bav. bugier. bugkler, bugkntr. Swab, buktr, bukler, a petty dealer, huckster. It is cisen- 
lially the same word with G. wucber, Dut. woecktr, oeckrr, hoteker, Sw. bocktr, O. N. »lr, 
interest, usury, properly increase, fiom the ume totircc as augwr$^ Qrjth. aucan, A.S. 
tattm, to increase. The O. H. G. wuQ<brr is applied to the increase of plants ; erd*-%*ntochtr, 
the fruit* of the earth.' Wedgw. Cf. o4*r#S. oktr*, Ancr. Riwlt. p. jafi. Sec Peddle. 

* He buk^ed thetn (rabbit-skins, eggs. See, picked up or collected by the Badcor at 
home) at Sunderland Market.' 

* She hath hoklcn hukJtiryt, Al hire Uf lyme.* P.'PIoughm. p. 90. 

Hull. sb. The shell or outer coverings as in the case of [>eas, beans, 
hazel-nuts or filberts, &c. 

Enligt den mytbtika nafurSskdtimngtn badt mtntusko^astrut ■ kropptn tn biott tUlfSUig 
upptnbartlit-form. I dodtn a/llnddgs m*tiiu.\kan d*fta tUlJiiiliga bolje : according to the 
(before-mentioned) mytliical view of nature, the body simply i^cr^'ed the human being at 
an accidenljl means or faihion of external manifestation. At death this accident or exter- 
nal case {b<*Jj*) was stripped off. Here we have Sw. boIJe used in almost exactly the same 
sense as out HtilL Note O. N. bytja, S, Q. boija^ velare, opcrire : O. Sw. bylja, Sw. D. 



baitt. Dad. haUt N, Ma. O. G. Man, Mjan, buljem, A. S. Mom, M. G. buljan^ all meaning 
to corcr, envelope, conceal, hide; and also A. S. but, bvia, hull, shell ; Pr.Pm. * byllyn, 
op*rio, ttgo, rtio. Sec. ;' ' Hoole, orpciyn. or bcnvf, or o^r coddyd fnite.' 
• Vez-hvJU ;• • Nut-W/J.' &c. 

HuUi V. a. To strip the outer covering, shell or pod off anything 
which has such an integument ; as peas, beans, &c. 

Hummel, v. a. To deiach or break off the awns, or portions of awn, 
that still adhere to the grains of barley after it is thrashed. See Hum- 

Hummeld, hummel'd, adj. Without horns, applied to a cow espe- 
cially ; more rarely to hornless sheep. 

I am dispelled to rerer this word, as well as humnLel. Hiimmeller, to O. N. bamia, 
to matilatc, curtail by cutting, lop; O. Geim. bamaion ; A. S. lamtlan, \o hamstring; 
E. bammit, ban^U; Sw. D. bammia, l. originally to hamstring, though that sense is obso* 
lete now : 2. To lop or pollard a tree, whence bammlaj, polled or pollarded ; and also, 
3. To strike, drub, thnuh. Another form it btimndn, to strike, flog, whence bdmmdp 
blows, stripes, a thrashing ; O. Sw. bambta, to render any one helpless by lopping off his 
limbs. In this last word we have a kind of combination of ideas not unlike what is ex- 
pressed by htunmeld as appUed to an animal whose mearu of defence are in its horns. 
The cxpTestion, to btimmel barley, also takes significance from a like explaoation. 

Hummeller, sb. The instrument in use for remonng the awns, or 
pieces of awn, still adherent to the grains of barley after Ltirasliing. 

Hunger, v. a. and n. i. To suffer from hunger, to be famished or 
starved. 2. To cause to suffer from hunger, to starve; by williholding 
the necessary food. 

t. * Ah's about bwtgertd to deid.' 

Cf. * And mj?i5y bt gtftzst$ feottftrag daga andfiowirtig nabta, aJUr l^n gebyncgtrdi* 
Nortb. Goip. Matt, iv, 2. 

a. * 'Twur a cruel act, bungtrin thae poor bainu, u she did, fra yah week's end tiv 

Hurplo, V. n. See Hirple. 

Hussocks, sb. Large tufts of coarse grass (see BxiUfaoes) growing 
in bogg)' places in low pastures, or Carre, often nearly or quite two feel 
high and twelve or fifteen inches in diameter in the dry, piilar-like growth 
of root and stem above which the herbage flourishes. 

Pr. Pm. ' IJtustJt. Ulpbus.' ' In Norfolk, coarse grass, which grows in rank tufts on 
boggy ground, is icniied hassock.* lb. note. Tituoeis in Essex. 

Hutter, V. n. To stammer, stutter, have a difficulty in getting one's 
words out, so as to speak more or less unintelligibly. 

See Hotter. ' Dut. boddebelt, boddeibtk {btt pour boticb* — Diet, du bu Lang.), a «Uin* 
meter.* Wedgw. Note also Swiss budtm^ to speak quick and confusedly. 


1, prep. In. 

O. N., Sw., Dan. t, in. 

* He '» 1 1' hoot.* • / f thick onX' 

Ice-shoggles, ioe-BhoglinB, sb. Icicles. 

N. Fris. is^okktl, jdkd at jdgel;; Dan. D. tgd or €gU; Sw. D. ou-AW; 
A.S. iut-giek; Dot. ijt-^gel, hiM. * To jog, tbag or dng it to more shaqdy to and fro, 
Bav. gigkdn to shiver, to move rajndly to and fro.' Wedgw. Comp. CleveL shoffglet to 
»hake, with the present word. Mr. Wedgw. derives the idea of a pointed object from rapid 
angular motion; Germ, zuhuuh^ * whence znchtn to jag, dent, slash, and, as a noirn, any 
pomtnl or tapering object ; nt-iakktHy an icicle.* Comp., however, Sw. D. 'oms-uUnf, the 
quick of the horn of an ox, goat, &c., where fU«/, meaning simply a pnck, point or pointed 
object, may be collated with the terminal part of Sw. D. it-UtlMf ii^gg9» The word is 
written ie^^aelti* in Ltedt Gl, 

loklefl, sb. Icicles. 

Dan. D. egel, egU, an icicle, appears to be used absolutely as oar ioUr it (Molb. D. D. 
Lex.) ; and Bosw. gives gie$l as signifying an icicle without the prefix it*t. It may be 
observed, moreover, that in Cr. Gi. Uie word ickle stands for a staiaeHt* — the usage of the 
Sw. D. ikkd reproduced. 

If in ease. A redundant expression for ' in case/ or ' if/ simply, 
nk, ilka, pron. Each, every. 

A. S. aie; Dut. de; Pr. Pm. Hkt, or eche. 

* I saw him ilk other day.' Wb. OL 

* F.OT ilka thyng )nt God has wroght.' Pr. o/Oonte. 53. 

* Hk man that here lyves, mare and lesse.' lb. 89. 

HI, adj. Bad, evil, evil-intentioned. 

O. N. illr; Sw. D. UUr; O. Sw. UtUr (neut. ilt) ; Dan. ild; N. ill. Comp. the Gennauic 
forms :—0. H. G. vbU, upU; M. G. and G. ubel; A.S. ubbU, ubil; 0,E. x^, ««2^; 
E. m/. 

* Thou art an ylle quelp, for angres.* Towrul. Myst, p. 95. 

' He 's nobbut an »// *un ;' of a bad disposition. 

* An HI deed as iwer Ah kennM.' 
Comp. UU^dy, Towrul. Mytt. p. 320. 

Hl-olep'd, adj. Ill-conditioned, surly of address. See Clep. 

Comp. ill'^oktn, in the sense addicted to the use of abusive or ill-tempered speech ; and 
also, iU-coHtrivtd, bad-tempered, perverse, selfwilled. Hall. 

ni-fiure, v. n. To fare badly, meet with ill-luck or ill-success. 

* Odds bobbs I what 's here te deea I mah best an' ill-fared man 1 
Ah 's seear there 's bin foul pleea. Speak fer and clear yer sen.' 

Soamhy Sword Dante RmialiOM. 


Comp. Sw. D. iJl'/iUt, luckleu, unfortuaate, our word hiving raudi the same Pr., so that, 
in the above Thyme, the word, at written on phonographic principles by an uulettered tran- 
•cribcr, U spelt Ul-JU. 

Xll-gaited, adj. With awkward action of the legs, possibly arising 
from malformation or from injur>' leaving permanent lameness. 

niiiy, V. a. To defame ; to seek to lower one's reputation or take 
away his character. 

Comp. O. Sw. itla^ UiJia, to vilify, dander, defame. 

Hl-put-on, ill-putten-on, adj. Badly dressed, shabby. 

ni-t^nted, adj. Badly looked after, or nursed ; neglected, ill-cared 
for. See Tent. 

Hl-thriven, adj. i. Without the appearance of healthy groMih ; puny, 
jXJor-Iooking. 2. With the healthy part of one's disposition undeveloped ; 
ill-condilioned, cross-grained. 

ni-throdden. See Hi-thriven, Throdden. 

Sw. Ul-trivnt (imp. tll-trivd4M), to thrive badly. 

ni-throven. See Hi-thriven. 

Imp, sb. A ring or circlet of the same material, fabric and diamcicr 
as the beehive, but of varying height, intended for insertion beneath the 
hive so as to enable the bees to add to their combs. If of three folds 
or plies in height, it is a three-wreathed imp ; if four, a fotir- 
wreathed imp, and so on. 

A. S. imfan, imf.ian (p. p. itnpod^ gt-impod), to imp, engraft, plant ; Welsh imp, a twig, 
shoot or jcion ; ban. ympe, id. ; Sw. ymp, a graA, a twig ; Germ, impftn ; Dan. ym/e, 
Sw. ympa^ to graft. Ihrc explains the latlcr word by inocvlart. ifuertre: ihc simple mean- 
ing of oar word if just an insertion or thing inKned ; and Vtall. gives ' imp, to add : to 
eke out: also, an addition, insertion; one length of twisted hair in a fishing lint. North. 
In hawking, to insert a new feather in the place of a broken one.' Ihre's remark is, 
* a posteriori parte voins impod, Dan! podt funuarunt, quod iiiserere uotat. Bclg. impottn.' 
Mr. Wcdgw., on the contrary, looks on pode as the original, and impan, impod the 
derivative: — * Ttic origin is Dux., pote, D:in. pod*, P\. D. paot, a slioot, slip; whence PI. D. 
paten, inpatnt, Du. poofen, inpooten, to plant, to set ; Dan. pode, Limousin tmptouta, Bret. 
embouda, O. H. G. impiton, impfen, A. S. tmpan, G. impftn, to graft. The total sqaeczing 
out of the long rowel is remarkable.' Ihre's surmise can scarcely be right. Kok looks 
upon S. \jx\\. ^>de, 1. to graft: a. to plant, as allied to putte, and due to an O. N, source, 
pcrhap« pota, to prick ; while Welsh imp, a scion, impio, to graft, seem to ptnut to inde- 
pendence of the word pode or poi«. Any way, however, imp, in the sense of scion, is 
simply an insertion. 



Ineor, sb. The kidney. 

O.N. nyrot S. G. njvra^ Sw. njttrt. Din. nyrt, Qcrm. m'crra. Cr. GL gives the form 
mter, quoting also SufT. aud Nonhumb *ar, and Sc. tars, while LoHsd. Ol. gives nun**. 

Ing, sb. I. Pasture or meadow lands, low and moist, a. A dis- 
tinctive name for some field or other in a farm, which field originally 
was a low-lying, wet or marshy meadow, although now it may have been 
long drained and become arable. 

O.N. tngi^ fingi; Daii. tng ; Sw. 6m.g ; O. Qenn. anger. Dan. eng i» u*ed in a sense 
antithetical to ager, or arable land ; and the prominent idea is that of \amAyv\g land too 
moist for ordinary tillage. 

Ingato, sb. i. The means of entrance, to a house or building, en- 
closure or other place, a. The entrance-way, path, &c., itself. 3. The 
act of entrance. 

* The lady Dredc is portcre . . . and so spercs >c jatit . . . |>at nocM evylle hafe tmoc 
mg<Ue to he hertc.' Rtl. Pietrs, p. 53. 

Ingle, sb. Fire, flame. Sometimes used with the definite article, and 
then equivalent to ' the fire,' ' the fireside.' 

Gael, aingeal, (ire, light, sunshine. 

* A bi>dy's ain tngU; z person's own fireside. 

Ingle-nook, ingle-nooking, sb. (pr. neuk or neukin'). The inner 
comer or recess by the fire-side. Sec Weulc. Neukin. 

Inkle, V. a. i. To form notions, guesses or projects. And thence, 
2. To form wishes or inclinations, for this or that gratification, to wit. 
See Inkling. 

I. • He '$ iftUing o' nowght at 's good. 

a. * He inMln after this an' that, and can take nane iv 'em when it cooms till;* of an 
invalid who fancies things, but can't take them when brought to him. 

Inkle, sb. A narrow linen fabric, or kind of tape, formerly used for 
shoe-ties, apron-strings, and the like. 

Mr. Wedgwood's derivation is ingenioii* : — • InkU, tape, linen ihretd. Fr. ligtutd, Ugnol, 
strong thread used by sboemakers and saddlers : lignivoi. shoemaker's thread. From the 
first of these forms arc E. limgtl, Unglt, Ungan. The second form, tignivol, may probably 
explain O. E. Uniol/. Lynyolf or innioi/. Ihrede to sow with schonc or botys. In4vla» 
licinium, — Pr. Pm. The Xoa of the initial /. of which we hare here an caamplc, would 
conrert lingU into ingle or inkU. From Lat. limtm, flax. Fr. lingt. Sc. ling, a line; 
Fr. Ungt, linen, cloth of flax.* Add O. N. /sw. Oerm. /wi, and compare Clevel. Iiin, Au« 
and liln, linen. 

InkleweaverB, sb. Weavers of the fabric called Inkle, who, on 
account of the narrowness of the web they produced, were able to sit 
very close, thus giving origin lo the proverbial expression 'as kind' 
(sec Kind), or, 'as thick as inkleweavcrs.' 


Inkling, sb. i. A notion of, or guess at something, formed from 
some hint or faint whisper of intelligence; a hint or suspicion. 2. An 
inclination, desire or tendency; as, to some line of action, or in- 

* Parallel with E. bum, O. N. has umat to reioimd, ymia, to whisper or rumour : btum 
ymti d tbvi, he gave a hint, an inkling of it. Dan. ymtt, to whisper, talk softly, secretly of. 
Sw. hafoa bum om n&got, to have an inJUing or hint of something. For the change from 
ymti, to biru, compare emmet^ ant. InMing is from a frequentative form of the same root, 
O. N. uml, Dan. ymrnd, murmur, ympU, to whisper, to rumour — whence £. inklings by a 
change analogoiu to that which holds between G. sump/ and E. ank ; G. ttirrump/m and 
E. sbrink* Wedgw. Another instance of the change of the m into n is seen in Sw. omta, 
ymka^ to be compassionate, the latter being the customary spoken form of the former, which 
is the true or accurate form. 

InmeatB, sb. The edible viscera of any animal, four-footed or 

Comp. Sw. innanmU; aUabanda sm&tt sttkt innamaU of gdss: rarious small cooked 
of geese. 

Inoo, adv. Presently, just now. See Enow. 

Comp. Dan. i c/ nu ; i et nu var ban fortmmdtn : he had presentlj, in a twinkling, dts- 

InaenBe, v. a. To give any one full or sufficient information or in- 
struction upon any subject or point ; to make to understand. 

A good old Shaksperian word, and in frequent use with us stilt 

* I was not fairly insmsid into it.' Wb. Gl. 

* Ah couldn't insmst him intir it, dee what Ah wad.* 

InsoB, sb. Additions to make up full weight as well as full tale ; the 
articles or portions * given in.' 

No doubt from the expression 'a dozen and one in* and the like; the one in coming to 
give a substantival force to the particle in. 

Insides, sb. Entrails, the viscera generally. 

*A desper't' pain i ma' vmdn;' (the t ma* being pr. immil, the final a as in aside, 
again, &c.) 

Intak', sb. A piece of land taken from the common, and enclosed 
for the purposes of cultivation : applied in the case of small plots taken 
up at will, and without any reference to, or power derived from, any 
general enclosure act. 

O. Sw. intaka; Sw. D. intag, intaka; Sw. intaga, otkifi mark torn itibagnas till odUng: 
common or undivided land which is enclosed for the purposes of cultivation. The Dan. 
word is indtttgt. 

Intili prep. Into. See Til. 

o o 


IntiT, prep. Into. See Tiv. 

Inward-flta, sb. An infants' disorder, a mild convulsion-fit. 

Inwards, sb. (pr. innards). One's entrails, bowels, in^de generally. 

Note * Suae Jonas waes in dzs huales tiwtaS.' North. Oo^. Matt. zii. 40. 
' Seo fxmne hx(^ on tnno'Stf ;' * a virgin shall have in wombe.' A. S. Go^., and Wyti. 
TVoru/. Matt. i. 33. 

* De of hyra mddor innoiSum cumab x* * the whiche ben*thus bora of the modru wombe.' 
lb. Matt. xix. 13. 

Possibly these words suggest a different orthography for JawtxdM, 

Iv, prep. The form the prep, i usually takes before a vowel. See 

* Tolf iv all ;' * Iv oor hoos*.* 

iTin, sb. The common ivy {Hedera helix). 
Comp. the fonn Hollin or Hollen, holly. 

Jack, sb. A quarter of a pint measure, or the quantity contained 
by it. 

Cmnp. bhick'jack, a large leather can, into which the beer was drawn in <^ times. 

Jack t Jack I The call of summons to the pigs of a hxm to come 
home and be fed and housed for the night: a call which is willingly 
responded to by the herd. 

All the animals on a Dales-farm are used to a summons from the human roice. and gire 
immediate obedience. The cows, as milking-time approaches, may often be seen waiting 
for the call; or, if not, the moment it sounds they turn and move towards the gate whence 
it proceeds. In winter weather, when it becomes necessary to give the sheep, which are 
still abroad, a small ration of hay, a high-pitched and prolonged, and, as given by some, 
very musical cry, is used to summon them to the fodder-bearer's (vesence, and is at once 
acknowledged and replied to by them. See Ob-eel, Sty! 

Jaded, adj. Placed in circumstances of almost inextricable diffictilty, 
straitened on all sides: a transitional sense, probably, from that of 
wearied to exhaustion, and so, incapable of further exertion. 

Jannook, adj. i. Even, level, a. Fair, even, equitable. 

O.K.jq/k; O. Sw. J<xmH, jemn, iampiur; Sw.jiimm; Dzn. jtvn or javn; Sw. D.jamm, 
j'dnmtr^ jdvn; M. G. ibn%: O. Germ, eban^ tpan; O. Sax. tbhan; A.S. tfm, etvM, Sec. 
The presence of the p in the O. Sw. ffirm leads the way for the entrance, by substitution, of 
a * ; and accordingly, in Ihre wc 6nd the form jamka, to render even or level ; in Sw., 


Jamkat and in Sw. D.^janka^janka^jank, id, ; and this is nearly coincident in form with our 

I. ' T' cloth deean't Mf^jannoek. Draw yon end youc-hand way.' 
a. • " That now is not jannock;'* unfair, uncandid.' Wh. Gl. 

JauL See Joul. 

Jaup, V. a. and n. i. To agitate water or other fluid sharply in a 
vessel, so as to cause it to dash against the sides ; to cause impact of 
one substance or surface on another. 2. To move or dash against the 
side as the shaken water in the vessel does. 

Hald, gives gidtfra, with the example, birgidlfrar at landi : hie terram alHdit zquor ; and 
gidl/r^ allisio maris ad littora, with the additional forms gialpa and gialp, in which words 
we have, very nearly indeed, both the sound and the sense of jaup. and no doubt also its 
origin. Jowp is simply another form. 

Jauping, adj. Wide; spacious, gaping. Spelt also jawping and 

Equivalent to, not rather to say, identical with gaping. Comp, the fonn yaun with 
A. S. ganian, cinan, geonartt Dut. gbUnen, Germ, gieiun, 

Jawer, sb. Idle talk, prating, flippancy. 

Comp. Oab, G-abber, and see the renurk on Jauping; note also, Dan. D. bia^ or 
habirre, to chatter fast, and without forethought, to let the tongue run ; the person who hat 
a disposition this way being called a biabbtr. Collate %. jabber. 

* " Give us none o* your yovwr;" hold your tongue.' Wb. Gl. 

Jealous, adj. Apprehensive, ready to anticipate something, whatever 
it be, more or less impleasant in its nature. 

'"Think you that wall will fall?" "Aye, Ah's very jealous oa't." ' 
' Ah 's jealous he 's efter nae guid.* 

Jenny-howlet, sb. (pr. jinny-hullot). The tawny owl (Syrnium 


Jenny-spinner, sb. The long-legged insect called the crane-fly. 
Otherwise Tommy Ijong-legs. The name seems to belong to the 
genus Tipula at large. 

Jill, sb. A half-pint measure, or the quantity meastu'ed by it. Spelt 

Jill, V. n. To drink intemperately, but in small quantities at any 
one place. 

* ** He gaasjitling about ;" drinking hit half-pints at different places.' Wb. Gl. 



Jimp, adj. I. Sliglu, elegant in figure; applied especially to a lady's 
waist. Thence, a. Neal or elegant generally. 3. Small, scanty, deficient 
in measure. 

Jam. looks upon Sc. gytnp orjymp, a witty jest, or taunt; a quirk, a subtiltjr, as orip- 
natin^ in S. G. ^mf, O.N. ikymp, ludibrium, sport. Germ, ubtmpf, liclg. ubimp, a cavil, 
a jest, and with nioch probability. In like nuoner he considers Sc.gymp or Jimp, with the 
same ineauiu|^i as our Jimp, ai undoubtedly due to O. N. and S. G. fJtam, tkamt, short, 
scanty, slamma, sliarnia, to shortm, curtail. Conip. Ct. jimp, to indent. 

Jin. A common, rather fondling, abbreviation of Jane. 

• Oor Jin ;' the daughter bearing the name Jane. 

Jobber, sb. A small spade or iron tool for cutting up thistles from 

their roots. 

• Bylim or jobbyn as bryddys. jobbyn with the byl Rotiro.' Pr. Pm. Cotnp. A^wf- 
jobbtTt the nut-hatch {SUta Europten), a bird which dig» iuto nuts and the like with 
repeated blows of the bill; not simply peeks, but blows given with the whole force of the 
body. Mr. Wedgw. quotes, as allied. Bohcni. dubati^ Vo), dziobal, to peck, dziob, Gael. 
^oA. the beak of a bird. 

Joblijock, sb. Anything tending to interfere with domestic comfort 
or peace; e.g. a smoking chimney, a scolding wife, &c. 

This is a famihar name for the cock-turkey in some dislrictt, and there is probably a 
connection of idea in the Clcvel. apptiatioii of the word. 

Jodder, v. n. (pr. jother). To be tremulous, like jelly when shaken. 

No doubt nearly related to Jog or 70c*, Jot or jotter, Jolh or Jowi, Jolt, all of which, 
through jog or jock, may be connected with Sw. D.Jul-ka, to move up and down; Dan. D. 
jukt, Jykt/e^ to ride about ou a itumbliag horse, one that communicates an up-and-down 
kind of motion to its rider ; O. N. jacka and Sw. ptcha, to be in 1 state of shaking modon. 
See Wedgw. in v. Jolt, from which our word is an easy frequentative. By the luppressioo 
of the /, as in ftu'd, cau% bau*d, f&u*t, &c., Jo't ensues, and thence jotter, Jotheri 

Joddor, sb. A state of trembling or quivering, like that of jelly. 

• " Well, how did you like your ride on the railway, Mrs. B. ?" (a very 8toat, tuUiealthily 
fat woman.) " Whcca, sac badly. Ah 'II tiivvcr gan in yaii o' thae nasty vaiu nae mair. 
Ah trimnil'd and ditbcr'd while Ah wur all iv kjotinr." ' 

Joddorum, sb. A tremulous mass, like a jelly. 

Joggly, adj. I. Unsteady, or easily put in motion; of an object 
which does not stand firmly or evenly. 2. Rough; of a road, causing 
things carried over it to move unsteadily. 

Jollment, sb. A large jug or pitcher-full. Wh, GL 

I have not met with this word elsewhere. The compiler gives it thus: — 'AJomm ot 
juilHUM/, a large piicher-fuU : a rare jorum of broth.' I do not think it necessarily cxchida 


the idea of the contiioing vessel, but the contrary, as in the case of JomxQ. I ccmnect It 
with the prefix in jolly-boat. * The original meaning is probably as in Fr. jail*, jalt^t 
a bowl, DuLjolUhn, a trough.' Wedgw. See his Diet, also in v. GaUoit. 

JoUoiis, adj. In good case, well-fed, jolly-looking. 

I do not feel quite positive that the coonectioa here is not with Jowl, the fleshy 
appendages of the jaw and throat in a fat person. I incline to think it is, rather than that 
the word is merely synonymous with jolly = fat. showing tokens of good Uving. In the 
latter case it wonld connect with N. and Sw. D. jula* to live jolUly, as folks do at Yule, 
J>iX,jotUn, id. 

• A flushy-foced, Jo/^HJ sort o' body.* Wb. Ol. 

Joo&n. Pr. of John. 

Jorum, sb. i. Any large pitcher-like vessel; or the contents of the 
same. 3. A large or considerable concourse or assemblage of people. 

yutbrum^ in the Leeds Gl. — • a honnyjutbrum thcr* is ;* ' zjvtbrum o* folks' — is probably 
a purposed corruption of the word Jorum, unless, indeed, it be essentially the same word 
as our Jodderum, with the implied sense of a concourse shaken together and still shaking, 
as it were, with pressure and swaying motion. 

Joul, jowl, V. a. I. To jolt or shake roughly, as a heavy springless 
cart passing over very rough roads does those who ride in it. 3. To 
bring into rough contact, as when a person knocks the heads of two 
boys together. 3. To strike with a hockey-stick, viz. the wooden ball 
or Knorr. See JowIb, Shinney or Shlimop. Sometimes pr. jauL 
See Jodder. 

I. ' Ah 's zhoot jauled te deid wi' riding i' t' cart.' 
7. * Ah lijoul thah heead an' t' wall tegither.' 

* H<ijaul*d their heeads yan agin tither.' 

Jowl, sb. I. The jaw. 2. The fleshy appendages which, in a fat 
person, hang down from the jaws, forming, as it were, part of the flesh 
of the throat. 

A. S. ceolas, the jaws ; geagl, a jaw ; geqfias, geabloi, the jawi. Mr. Wedgwood's re- 
mark is that k.joufl may be as much indebted to Fr. as to A.S. for its origin; quoting, in 
support, O. Fr. gole, golle, geule, Fr, gueule, the mouth, throat, gullet ' Specially applied 
to the head of a 6sh, as a joll or geouUs of sturgeon. ** The cboufU or crop adhering to 
the lower side of the bill." — Vulg. Errors.* Wedgw. 

Jowls, sb, A game played by boys, much the same as hockey, and 
taking its name no doubt from the mode of playing, which consists in 
striking a wooden ball, or Knorr, from the ground in any given 
direction with a suflSciently heavy stick, duly curved at the staking 

Jowp, V. a. and n. See Jaup. 


Judy-cow, sb. A name for the lady-bird (Coccinella seplem-ptmcUUd). 
See Ciow-lady, Iiady-oow, Iisdy-olook. 

This Dame can scarcely fail to be a comipti<HL I soqiect Fr. vatAt a DitUt bkt a Dun, u 
a possible origin. The name God't<ow is conunoQ in rariooi forms in Gernuay, and it i* 
at least possible that the Fr. form may hare found an entrance here, and then been putly 
translated and the rest comipted. Cf. HsagoedL 

JuntouB, adj. Given to take ofifence, ill-tempered, sullen. 

Allied, as it would leem, with O. £. Mcbunt, to tarn ande with a qnidc motion, to cwcrre, 
to flinch. 

* pe wjtH wat) war of >e wyMe (the fox), and wariy abides, 
& biayde) oat )>e bry^ brood, and at \>e best castej : 
& he icbutu for ^ scharp, and schulde baf arered, 
A rach rapes hym to, ryjt er he my|t,* Sir Oau. tmd Gr. Km. 1. 1900 : 

die fox started aside, swerred, from his swift coarse as the sword flashed near him 
(&ncy throwing a sword, or a hanting-knife either, at a hunted fox, nowadays I) and 
would have turned back on hit tracks but was cang^t by a dog. And the moral action of 
taking offence may be fltly likened to this same [^yncal action expressed by the w«d 
ibmUt from which to jantooB would not be a wide or a di£ScaIt leap. JanL gires 
jotpidUtjvndu, a posh with the elbow, with the example, ' If a man's gaun down the brae, 
ilk ane gi'es him a JimdU ;' and he considers it allied to O. N. skwtda, festinus eo pneccps ; 
Sw. iJrfnda, to batten, to push forward ; which brings us to A. S. seymdtm^ of like significa- 
tioQ, and the probable original of tebtmit with its m<n-e arbitrary sense of to move qniddy, 
bat to one side. 

* ** AJimtM* sort of a body ;" a pcnon not very approachable or appeaseablc' Wh. Gi, 

KaSSy, See Cha£Ey, Caufl; &c. 

Kale, sb. (pr. keeal). Broth, gniel, porridge ; applied to liquid food, 
whether prepared for human eaters, or for any among the domestic 
animals : the purpose for which it is destined, or its nature, being 
usually designated by the prefix; as Flour-keeal, Wotmeai-keeal, 
' Eeeal' or ' Keeal for t' oauyes,' Sec. ; the latter being made with 
a mixture of flour and linseed-meal, for use when there is a scarcity 
of milk. 

O.N. kdl; S.G. Mi; Dan. iaal; Sw. Ml; A.S. caul; O.G. kol; Gexm.ioW; &c. 
The primary meaning of all these words has been cabbag* in general ; but in S. G., Sw., 
Dan., and Dial., it came to include other sorts of garden herbs, and then, as Sir Jas. Sinclair, 
quoted in Jam., says, ' As many herbs were put into the Scotch kind of broth, hence ktai 
came to signify broth.' Molb., howerer, limits it to all the edible kinds of the gennt Braa- 
acot and the Woth made by dressing them ; ntpptm torn dtrafiogt*. 



Kale-pot» sb. (pr. keeal-pot). A pottage-pot ; meaning especially a 
large semi-globular or full-bottomed iron pot on three spiky legs, used 
for cooking the Kale in. 

An old custom, obsolete rather by failure of the cotulitions than othcrwitc, hsk been to 
hold a feinate servant who hid remained seven yean in her place entitled to cUtm the 
Kale-pot as her own. 

Kame, sb. (pr. keeam). A comb. 
O. N. hambr, S. G., Sw. and Dan. kam, a comb. 

Kame, v. a. (pr. keeam). To comb. 

Kane, cane, v. n. (pr. keean). To sustain the formation of a scimi 
or 'head,* as liquor in a state of fermentation, ale turning sour or 
become mothery, milk when turning sour, &c. See Keeanfi. 

EaneB. See Keeana. 

K&ve, V. a. and n. (pr. keeiv). i. To rake, or separate by raktng, 

the short straws and detached ears from the thrashed corn on the barn- 
floor, a. To move restlessly, to paw, as a horse does; to be imeasy 
under constraint, to plunge. 

O. N. kd, fznum cxplicarc rastro, and kd/a^ to turn orcr, or upside down ; kd/a i htyi : 
fcimm rohitare ; N. J^ova, fiaava, to use a rake, turn over, of hay. &c. ; move things fidgct- 
ingly. Besides, Jam. quotes Tttit. kaven, cvcnttlarc paleat. which he refers, but mistakenly, 
to kaf, kavt, chaff. The N. word lakes the further meaning, to be cunibCTed with toil or 
care, to itrive or moil ; whence our second sense. Spelt itaw, htve, in Hall. Sw. D. htva, 
Dan. D. Jrauu, imply restless and continued action with the hands or feet, or both : as in the 
actions of supporting oneself in the water, gathering small objects together, maintaining 
one's scat on horseback, striving to extricate oncielfa ace. 

Kavings, sb. (pr. keeavings). The short straws and other refuse 
matters separated from the thrashed com by the process of keeaving. 

Eead. keead. Pr. of Ked or Kade, the sheep spider-fly {Melophagus 

Eeok, keoken, v. n. i. To emit the sound consequent on choking, 
which is neither a cough nor simply interrupted respiration, but partakes 
of both. 2. To decline with loathing, aversion, or disgust, as offered 
food. Thence, 3. To be fastidious. 

Comp. Germ, keichtn. katchen, to gasp, breathe asthma ttcaliy. cough : keucb-buitm^ the 
whooping-cough; Dut. kichtn, to pant, cough, sob; Sw. kikno^ kiliboita, 8cc. Wedgw. ad- 
duces Lap. knkot, kaklot, to nauseate, ' properly, donbtless, to retch ;' and refers kteker, 
iqucamUh, to this original. See Kooken-beuted^ and compare O. Dan. kUyten^ squeam- 
ish, with our present word. 



Keoken-hearted, adj. Squeamish ; loathing the sight of food ; 
ihcnce, over-nice. 

Jam. ipcUs thU word kigben-btarud, ticktn-bearted, and defines it ' f»int-heart«i, chickni- 
heartcd.* See, however, Keok or kockan ; and note csi»ccially O. Dan. ktfiken, sqtieamiah. 
itice, hard to please or satisfy. In tlie sense sjutanUsb, the word is »tilt in uw in ihe Sj«1l. 
and JutL dialects, as applied to cattle. 

Keckle, v. n. To laugh boisterously or loudly. 

* Teut. kikgren, cachimuri. immoderate ridcre ; Kilian.' Jam. Comp. Germ. iacbtrH, 
kicJtmty to litter, Lat. cacbinmtri, u alio E. cacHi, caciling, applied to discordant laughter. 

Kedge, v. n. To be set on edge ; of the teeth. 

Comp. V. a. edge, similarly applied. Our word may be connected with Snffolk ktdge, 
brisk, elate, full of life and spirits; Sc. caigy, kedgy; Fr,Pm. fygge: S. G. Jtac*; O.N. 
kjakr. Sec. ; but rather with our keggftdi oaggy. 

Kedge^ v. a. To fill, stuff fuU ; especially in respect of eating. 
See Kedge-belly. 

' Hasn't thou getten thyself hedged yet ? ' Wh, OI. 

Kedge, sb. A voracious or gluttonous person ; one who stuffs him- 
self with food. See Kedge-belly. 

Kedge-belly, sb. A voracious or gluttonous feeder, who stuffs him- 
self full to repletion. 

Comp. N. Itaggfe, a keg or small caik, a dofc-pocked heap or mau, is of hiy in a mow ; 
figuratively, a big belly, a thick-set perton. 

Eedging, sb. That which goes to fill, the stomach especially ; food 


• They love good kedging.' Wb, Ql, 

KeeanSj sb. (Pr. of Eanes or Canes). The white scum which forms 
on the surface of ale when it becomes what is called ' mothery ;' or on 
that of milk when turning sour, Ac. 

Possibly dne to Gael, ceaii, head, the meuphor being identical with that which exprcties 
the froth upon porter or ale by the word * head.' 

Keeaviag-rake, sb. The rake which is used in the process of 
kaving or keeaving ; a barn-floor rake. See Kave. 

Keeavlng-riddle, sb. The riddle or large sieve used in completing 
the keeaving process, or separating the fragments of straw and broken 
ears from the newly-thrashcd com. See Kave. 




Xeekf keik, v. a. i . To raise up so as to make more or less erect ; 
lo throw back, of the head and neck ; to lilt or prop up, of a cart, so as 
to be handier for unloading ; to rear, as a horse. 2. To be brisk or 
in great spirits, elated, puffed up» in a slate of exaltation. 

0. N. keihaZt rccurvari ; jfrWir, erectus animo ct corporc. HaM. Egihi. gives gM ktti, 
corpore rq>ando incedebat. of a woman advanced in pregnancy. Note also especially 
N. */*i*, bent back rather than »imply upright or crea ; kJtiJia, to bow or bend back, or to 
one tide. Note besides. Dan. kioA, Sw. kdci, and N. iijtii, in the Knse brisk, energetic, 
brave, resolute. 

1. * Kttak oop yon cart, an* get t* stoofTool.* 

J. ' He did nowght bud winch and kg«ai oop on 's hInMcgl ;* of a ridotu hone. 

Keen, adj. Eager, strongly desirous ; excited, in the pursuit of any- 
thing, to ^vit ; energetic, active. 

S, G, koH. iiyn : O. N. kiin {KoJt, p. 319) ; O. Dan. kfSn ; Jutl. *d«. brave, bold, vigorous, 
energetic; Germ, lubn; A. S. cow, een*. Comp. a«/ gturas Itvbn seyn: to be keen after 
ionicthiiig; kauf-ltiibn, eager to buy; sec Wcdgw. Eh kttnpi k'on, a keen champion 
{RJimkr, 64) ; en belt uxa hon, a hero so keen. Ihre quotes Icon til goda rada : keen after 
good advice. In Jutl. the word is applied to the right hand, dgn kan' band: see Kok. In 
our own old writers the word occurs in much the same applications : — 
■ With ktiu clobbc3 )>ay clat] on |»e wowe^' 

E. Eng. Aitit. Poims, B. 839. 

* Krru kyng. kayier of vrhe.' Th, 1593. 

* He wcx as wroth as wyndc, 

So did all J»at i»er were, 
^e kyng as keng hi kyt>de, 

pen ftod |)at stif nion nere.' Sir Gavi. and Gr. Kn. 319. 

* T* lad 's varra hitn o' gannan tc t' sche«al ; mcbbe he 'U be as k*tn t' coom yamm agin 

* He 's ower kttn o' niakV brass, to mak' *t fairlr.' 

* Aye, he *s a keen Bshcr an' a gnid yan.' 

' He *s getten te t' age to be keen efter t* lasses.' 

Xeggod, adj. Affronted, displeased, disposed to be resentful. 
Comp. Cossy. Hall, gives our word as current in Lancashire. Cf. Sw. D. kagg, tn 
IH-disposed or Ul-tenipcred man ; kagemev, a troublesome or annoying person. 

Keld, sb. A spring or fountain. 
O. N. kelda, S. 0. kalla, O. Sw. kalda, Sw. kiaia, Dan. kOd^. 

Keld, kell, sb. i. The amnion or membrane which envelopes the 
foetus in the womb, and sometimes adheres to it at birth : called a ' caul' 
in the case of a human infant, and Foal-kell or -keld, Calf-kell, Ac, 
according to the variety of animal concerned. 2. The inner mem- 
brane of a sheep's carcase, with the fat it envelopes, forming the tallow- 
chandler's material ; called Sheep-keld. 

Radically the same word with caul, with which comp. Welsh emd, a maw. cair»<4iuw. 
Possibly there may be some connection between Kelt and MO. Mb<i, womb, matrix : 





inhi)>o, pregiunt. S. O. kilt meaiu also §iruif, or ^ the Up,' as an cnvek>ping meuu or 
roeuu of carrtsge. So alto, nau might be cpolcen of as borne r kiltu, as well as. a i^iU of 
baby. Collate D. D. fjald, the ' receiver.' or Barrow, into which the ncwiy-bom child ti 
received. Sw. D. kyl, kojla. a bag, a small sack; *yWa. koU, ihc Kroium ; O.N. kylUr» 
with both senses ; A. S. ry/, tyll, a leather bag. the belly, &c., ought uot to be passed with- 
out notice. 

Kelk, sb. A blow, buffet, or thump. 

PrDbubly from Clickt by iniiupotitioii of the / and the k. 
on the head.' • Click. A blow. EasL' Ha3l. 

Kelk, sb. 


Comp. the expression. * a elUk 
A separate ovum, or particle of roe, in the spawn of a 

Wall, cbauy, gennc de rzuf. See Wedgw. 

A. S. gtolca, geoieca, the yolk of an egg 
under Cokt, and our Qoke. 

Kelps, sb. I. The iron pot-hooks hanging from the GalUbau'k in 
the chimney. See Be'k'on-crooks. 2. The hinged or moveable 
handle of a Kail-pot, or the like : Bow being applied to a Gxed or 
hingeless ciin-ed handle. 

Cf. Sc. elips^ ^hppy^t grappling-irons, an iriitrumcnt for lifting a pot by its cars. Our 
word is O. N. kiipr, aruula. qua manubrium mulctri aiincctiiur. Sw. D. k'^p, kjejp, handle 
of a bucket, and the Sc. word diners only by metalhesii. See Pot-kolp. 

Kelter, sb. i. Condition, case, circumstances: thence, 2. Money, 
or rather, perhaps, in strictness, property. 

Wcdga. deGiies this word as ' readinesi for work;* which is one of our meanings, and 
possibly ttie primary one. He also adopts Skinuer*! suggestion, quoted by Ihre. that the 
I*ror. Sw. tOuthl.) kittra lifC, to gird oncseU op, as in readiucts, or making ready, to work, 
may be ni<ntionrd pertinently to our to be in Kelt«r. Rictr. gives hitra ii{g), to gird 
oneself up. limiting its application, how^evcT, to female garments. If this be the origin of 
the word, the transitions of meaning are frum pcrsorul readiness or preparedness, to readiness 
of thing or instrument, to fitne&i or readiness of equipment, and thence to the equipment or 
StAte of being fumishcJ itself. 

* That drill is out o' *rf/«r.' 

* *■ In good kiiitr;" all right, sonod.* Wb. Ql. 

Kelter, v. a. To care, or pronde for ; to supply. 

Kelterments, sb. Belongings of no great account ; odds and ends 
of property. Wh. Gl. 

Kemp, V. n. To strive in order lo outdo a competitor ; lo * strive 
for the mastery.' 

Sw. kampa, Sw. D. kampa^ Dan. kampt, A. S. campion, M. G. ktmp/en, &c.. to fight, 
contend. The Sw. D. word is nsed in exactly the same sense as our own. 

* They ktmp''d sac at t' shcarin', Ah was furlings tlcyed they *d dre thesscl's a ho't :' 
they strove so hard to outdo each other in reaping, that [ was afraid they would injure 

Comp. * *] wel ha dar hopeto lo beo ktmptn ouet moo )>at ouercom engcl.' Hah Mtid. 



Kemps, sb. Hairs among wool. 

K'impa^tid, in Sw. D., is rje and oau sown, and of coutk growing, together, unJ?r the 
behcf that tJm$ they thrive better, each as it were striving {varamh i kamp) to outgrow the 
other. Perhaps a similar idea may have given origin to our word, the stiff or eUxtic hair 
reiiuing to lie comparatively (znooth ai the wool docs, but sticking up as if in strife or 
defiance; or, the word may be connected with Kamei kemp't^ combed. Cf. Kempt. 

Kempt, p. p. of Kame. Combed. 

Ken, V. a. To know, be acquainted with, to recognise, notice or 
observe with assured conception or certainty. 

O.N. h$nna; S. G. kitntia; Sw. and Sw. D. Jtantut; Dan. kjendt; Fris. kouia; Gcnn. 
ktnnen; A.S. ctnnni &c. 

' A weel leennett man.' 

' Ah kfnntd hint fail fra day to day ;' spoken by a father of a son lately dead of decUxK. 

The vb. seems to have quite lost its one-time sense, to teach, direct, guide, as in the 

* U« hmda me to >e place.' P. Plougbm. (£. E. T. S.) p. 68. 

* Bote htnmt me, quod \^ kniht. and I chol conne eric.' Ih. 75. 

Ken, kern, v. a. and n. To churn. 

O. N. ^'nw ,* S. O. ktma^ kama ; Dan. kjerru ; Jntl. kjwna ; Sw. kiima ; N. and Sw. D. 
hnna ; A. S. eerman ; N. S. kam*n ; Dut. kmun, 8cc. Tlie occunencc of both fdrnis. ken 
(aN, and Sw. D. kinna), and fcom, in our district, is interesting. Strictly speaking, per- 
haps, the word ken is more a variation of Pr. than aught else, and might be written ke'n, 
as bo'd for bird, to'n for fum. &c. 

Ken, sb. A churn. 

Sw. D. id/tna ; N. kjinna. 

Ken-onrdle, kon-cruddle, sb. A chum-sialT. 
Ken-milk, sb. Churn-milk ; that is, buttermilk- 

Sw. iammjoih; Dan. kitrtwmM ; N.S. kam-mdk; Dot. ktrtu-mtik; Sec 

Kenning, sb. Knowledge, recognition. 

O. N. kmning ; O. S. kanning ; Sw. D. kawung. 

Kenspack, kenspeck, kenspeckle, adj. x. Easily recognisable, 
easy to be distinguished. Thence, 2, Easy to be seen, conspicuous. 

S. G. koMnespak, qui alios facile agnoscit ; a tpak, upiens ; Sw. D. kiiftn'ipaJk ; N. kf*HMt- 
spak; Dan. kjtnd*-ipag. Rietz adverts to the mistake made by Cart and Jam. as to the 
derivation of this word, giving their definitions in full, and notices the corresponding asc of 
the word spak — O. Sw. spaktr, O. N. $paler, wise, knowing — in other words belonging to 
the Scand. tongues and dialccti, initanciiig in Sw. D. minnm-apok, good of memory, apt to 
anticipate events or wishes. The word koMn-spak is applied to both men and dogs ; to the 
latter in country dialects only ; as, bongana a s& kdtmspaka : the puppy is so good at recog- 
nising, or koowing. There is, as Wcdgw. remarks, an inversion of rense in the word, but 
there can be do doubt that the latter member is utterly unconnected with Eng. sptck or 

* " As huiipatA ai a cock on a kirk broach ;' on a churcb-^ire.' Wh. Gl. 

P p 3 



Kenspeck, v. a. (chiefly used in p.p.) To mark so as to make easily 
recogriisablc, to make conspicuous. 

Kep, V. a. To catch, as a ball is caught, or anything else that may 
be thrown from one to another; or as any falling liquid may be caught, 
by placing a vessel in a suitable position. 

O. N.. S. G., Sw. D.. N. kippa, to snitth, catch hastily ; Dan. kippt ; A. S. cepm ; Welsh 
cip^ a sudden snatch or pull. The rapid action implied in catching a thrown ball, or other 
object, is the origitul action implied in the verb ; and ihencc the other and slower actions 

* Swyfic swiyncs ful swythe swepen Jter-tylle, 
Kyppt kowpcs in honde, kyngc3 to seme.' 

£. Eng, Allit. Poena, B. 1509. 

Kern, sb. A churn. See Ken. 

Kem, To get the. To sever the last portion of standing corn in 
the har\'eBl-field and bind it in the last sheaf; to finish the actual 
shearing or harvesting labour. Sec Kern-supper. 

Kern-baby, sb. An image, or possibly only a small sheaf of the 
newly cut corn, gaily dressed up and decorated with clothes, ribbons, 
flowers, Ac, and borne home rejoicingly after severing the last portions 
of the harvest. 

Kern-supper^ Kb. A supper given to the work-people by the farmer 
on the completion of Shearing, or severing the com, on a farm. 

• But our most cbaract eristic festive rejoicings,' says Mr. Henderson, Folklore o/N. Eng- 
lami, p. 7, 'accompany the harrcst — the mell-suppcr and the kcni-baby. In the northern 
part of Northooiberland the festival takes place at the close of the reaping, not the 
ingathering. When the sickle is laid Jown and the latt sheaf of golden com set on etid, 
it is said that they have " got the kem :" the rcapcn announce the fact by loud shouting, 
and an image, ciuwned with wheat-cars and dressed in a white frock and coloured ribtxuu, 
is hoisted on a pole and carried by the tallest and strongest man of the party. All circle 
round this kern-baby, or Harvest-queen, and proceed to the bam, where they set the image 
up on high and proceed lo do justice to the hatvest-mppcr.' This harvest-supper Mr. H. 
calls * the Iceni-fcatt* a little further on, and adds that ' the mell-iupper (in Durham county) 
ii cloiely alcia to iLe Northumbrian kern-/*a%t' I have reason to believe that when the 
harvest-festivities were fully carried nut in days now gone by, the Kem-BuppAr and the 
Mell-8upper both formed a part of ihem ; the former being given on completing 
the severing of the com, the latter on 6nisbing the leading or ingathering. At Icaat, such 
is the information I have collected here, and it is confirmed by Eugene Aram's statement, 
quoted by Brand, voL ii. p. J2, that tlie ' kgm or cbum-^vpper was dilTercut Uvm the iiicU- 
mpper, the former being provided when all was shorn, the latter after all was got in. I un 
inclined too to refer the clement k«m in our word lo krm or cb%im, as Aram does, rather 
than to corn, as Mr. Henderson docs. Aram's statement is that from * immcmoriat timet it 
was customary to produce, in a cbvm, a quantity of cream,' which formed part of the memL 
it is added in a note that the custom lurvived about Whitby, Scirborough, and GiUmme. 
Sec. in Aiam's lime; but that iit other places cream has been commuted for ale. Here, a 
large china b^iwl i[i some houses replaced the chum, and new milk, or even furmity, did 
duty for the ctcam. See Kem-bftby, MoU-mpper, &c. 



Kesllp, keslop, sb. The substance used for inducing coagulation of 
the milk in cheese-making, &c. ; ' rennet,' usually the stomach of a calf 
properly prepared. Also spelt Oheelip. 

A. S. ceitlib, eyijib, milk curded, curding; Teut. kais-libbe; Dut. knadth, kaasitbht; 
Switz. kas2ab, liasiebb. The Sw. D. word ts kiise ; O. N. tizsir ; N. kjfrst ■= ' Ibpe, styckt af 
en krdf-magg^ som begagntu for tut Ja mjoiken art iSpna* Rietz. Wcdgw. considers the 
word to be * derived from a Finnish source. Fin. kasa, a heap, whence basa-Jfipa, old 
bread, bread kc[tt for a year. The La;^ prepare much of their food by laying it in a heap 
till it becomes rancid or hair*decayed. . . . From tlicni the practice seems to liave been com- 
municated to their Scandioavtan ncighl>ours, who treat their fish and coarser flesh in this 
matuiei. . . , The use of the word knsir, rennet, shows that the Icelanders recognise the 
identity of the process going on in viands subjected to this process with that which takes 
place in the formation of cheese.' But may not Lat. caseus, taken in connection with the 
prefixes cys or eete, kan, ions, kas, O. N. kceiir, Sw. kdse, Scc, sug^st one commuii uiigia 
for all, quite independent of the Lapp pnctice referred to ? The suffixes, Hb, libbt, M, lab 
are all near couuectioiu of O. N. blaup, S. Q., Sw. and N. loptt Dan. Ipbe, &c., remiet, pre- 
pared calf's slonuch, and of onr Clerel. loppered. 

Kessen. Pr. of oaaten, p. p. of To cast. 

* ** You hae k*utm your great coat." " Aye, Ah hes. An' I feel to hae getlen tue grace 
by it ;" no advantage by doing so.' Wb. Gt. 

With this comp. ' Btboerne futur at uttnfar dem er sntin ka$t*t:' the inhabitants become 
sensible that outside their district (Throndhjcm) the snow is already IrsMi*, Amg, p. 11 7* 

EeB8*, kess'iiinas, sb. Pr. of Christmas. 
Kess'n, v. a. Pr. of Christen. 
Kees'nen', sb. Pr. of Christening. 
Kester. Pr. of Christopher. 

Ket, sb. Carrion ; also^ meat that has become tainted or offensive. 

O. N. kiie, kjdt, k*t; S. G. koU; Sw. hot; Dan. kjmd, flesh, meat. 

Ketlock, sb. The plant charlock {Sinapis arvensis). See Hunch. 

' CarkKk. Charlocke, or ebadlockt, in Gerard.' Note to Pr. Ptn. Carlok^ herbe. 

Eetty, adj. Carnon-like, offensive, putrid. 
Eeyel, sb. A large hammer used in quarry-work. 

The name of this instrument seems to be due to its handle or stafl', which is both large 
and long enough to require to be wielded by both hands; O. N. kejli ; S. G. kaj!^, a pole, 
a stout sla^; words which, as well as the O. Dan. form kavie, were specially applied to the 
handle, or hilt of a sword. Comp. Scot, kavtl, krvil, a rod, a pole, a lung stalf. Jam. 

Kevel, V. a. To work stone in the quarry with the large hammer 
known as lite Kevel. 



Ki'tnlin, sb. A large tub, applied to bread-making among other 

Wedgw. givei this word uodcr the fonns kemlm, hinvUl. In Chiucer. MUUr's TaU, h 
occur& in the forms ktmtlyn,